Physiological, Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain

  • Clifford J. Woolf
Part of the Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery book series (NEUROSURGERY, volume 15)


The confusion amongst clinicans and basic scientists as to what precisely pain is, is emblematic of the difficulties that confront all who attempt to elucidate its pathogenesis. A major contributor to this state of affairs would appear to have been Charles Sherrington. At the turn of the century, with great insight, he focussed attention away from pain itself onto the stimulus in the periphery. In attempting to link stimulus and response in a quantifiable way, he argued that while pain may be caused by a diversity of circumstances, it was commonly associated with peripheral injury. For those categories of stimuli that were of sufficient intensity to threaten, or to produce tissue injury, he coined the term “noxious”. Noxious stimuli he argued, are detected by specialized high threshold sense organs, “nociceptors” and these uniquely signal to the central nervous system, the occurence of tissue damage (Sherrington 1906). The appeal of Sherrington’s analysis lies in its simplicity, for it implies that once a noxious stimulus activates a set of nociceptors, a chain of circumstances (sensory processing within the central nervous system) is initiated that concludes with the perception of a sensory state that we call pain. Such a view has for long dominated the study of the neurobiology of pain (Perl 1985, Willis 1985).


Dorsal Root Ganglion Neuropathic Pain Receptive Field Dorsal Horn Noxious Stimulus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ainsworth A, Hall P, Wall PD, Allt G, MacKensie ML, Gibson S, Polak JM (1981) Effects of capsaicin applied locally to adult peripheral nerve. II. Anatomy and enzyme and peptide chemistry of peripheral nerve and spinal cord. Pain 11: 379–388PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aldskogius H, Arvidsson J, Grant G (1985) The reaction of primary sensory neurones to peripheral nerve injury with particular emphasis on trans- ganglionic changes. Brain Res Reviews 10: 27–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Applebaum AE, Beall JE, Foreman RD, Willis WD (1975) Organization and receptive fields of primate spinothalamic tract neurons. J Neurophysiol 38: 572–586PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Asbury HK, Fields HL (1984) Pain due to peripheral nerve damage: A hypothesis. Neurology (Minneap) 34: 1587–1590Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Basbaum AI, Fields HL (1984) Endogenous pain control systems: Brainstem spinal pathways and endorphin circuitry. Ann Rev Neurosci, 7: 309–338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Basbaum AI, Wall PD (1976) Chronic changes in the response of cells in cat dorsal horn, following partial deafferentation. The appearance of responding cells in a previous non-responding region. Brain Res 116: 181–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Beck PW, Handwerker HO (1974) Bradykinin and serotonin effects on various types of cutaneous nerve fibres. Pflügers Arch 347: 209–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bennett GJ, Nishikawa N, Lu G-U, Hoffert MJ, Dubner R (1984) The morphologie of dorsal column postsynaptic spinomedullary neurons in the cat. J Comp Neurol 224: 568–578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Benoist JM, Kayser V, Gaitron M, Guilbaud G (1985) Changes in responses of ventrobasal thalamic neurons during carrageenin-induced inflammation in the rat. Adv in Pain Res and Ther 9: 295–304Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bessou P, Perl ER (1969) Response of cutaneous sensory units with unmyelinated fibers to noxious stimuli. J Neurophysiol 32: 1025–1043PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Blumberg H, Janig W (1981) Neurophysiological analysis of efferent sympathetic and afferent fibers in skin nerves with experimental produced neuromata. In: Siegfried J, Zimmermann M (eds) Phantom and stump pain. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 15–31Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Blumberg H, Janig W (1983) Changes of reflexes in vasoconstrictor neurons supplying the cat hindlimb following chronic nerve lesions: a model for studying mechanisms of reflex sympathetic dystrophy? J Auton Nerv Syst 7: 399–411PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Blumberg H, Janig W (1984) Discharge patterns of afferent fibres from a neuroma. Pain 20 (4): 335–353PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brown AG (1981) Organization in the spinal cord; the anatomy and physiology of identified neurones. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bowery NG (1983) Classification of GABA receptors. In: Erna SJ (ed) The GABA receptors. Humana Press, New Jersey, pp 178–213Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Burgess PR, Perl ER (1973) Cutaneous mechanoreceptors and nociceptors. In: Iggo A (ed) Handbook of sensory physiology, somatosensory system, vol 2. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 29–78Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Campbell JN, la Motte RH (1983) Latency to detection of first pain. Brain Res 266: 203–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cervero F (1982) Afferent activity evoked by natural stimulation of the biliary system in the ferret. Pain 13: 137–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chahl LA, Szolcsanyi J, Lembeck F (1984) Neurogenic inflammation. Akademiai Kiado, BudapestGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chung JM, Surmeier DJ, Lee KH, Sorkin LS, Honda CN, Tsang Y, Willis WD (1986) Classification of primate spinothalamic and somatosensory thalamic neurons based on cluster analysis. J Neurophysiol 56: 308–327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cook AJ, Woolf CJ (1985) Cutaneous receptive field and morphological properties of hamstering flexor alphamotorneurone in the rat. J Physiol 364: 249–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cook AJ, Woolf CJ, Wall PD (1981) Prolonged C-fibre mediated facilitation of the flexion reflex is not due to changes in afferent terminal or motoneurone excitability. Neurosci Lett 70: 91–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cook AJ, Woolf CJ, Wall PD, McMahon SB (1987) Dynamic receptive field plasticity in rat spinal dorsal horn following C-primary afferent input. Nature 325: 151–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Devor M (1983) Nerve pathophysiology and mechanism of pain in causalgia. J Auton Nerv Syst 7: 371–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Devor M, Wall PD (1981) Plasticity in the spinal cord sensory map following peripheral nerve injury in rats. J Neurosci 1: 679–684PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Di Figlia M, Aronin N, Leeman SE (1982) Light microscopic and ultra- structural localization of immunoreactive substance P in the dorsal horn of monkey spinal cord. Neuroscience 7: 1127–1139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dubner R (1985) Specialization in nociceptive pathways: sensory discrimination, sensory modulation and neural connectivity. Adv Pain Res and Ther 9: 11–138Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Egger MD, Feeman NCG, Jacquin M, Proshanski E, Semba K (1986) Dorsal horn cells in the cat responding to stimulation of the plantar cushion. Brain Res 383: 68–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fitzgerald M (1983) Capsaicin and sensory neurones—a review. Pain 15: 109–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Fitzgerald M, Lynn B (1977) The sensitization of high threshold mechano- receptors with myelinated axons by repeated heating. J Physiol 265: 549–563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fitzgerald M, Woolf CJ (1984) Axon transport and sensory C-fibre function. In: Chahl CA, Szolcsanyi J, Lembeck F (eds) Neurogenic inflammation. Akademiai Kiado, Budapest, pp 119–140Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Fitzgerald M, Woolf CJ, Gibson SJ, Mallaburn PS (1984) Alterations in the structure, function and chemistry of C fibers following local application of vinblastine to the sciatic nerve of the rat. J Neurosci 4: 430–441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gamse R, Holzer P, Lembeck F (1980) Decrease of substance P in primary afferent neurones and impairment of neurogenic plasma extravasation by capsaicin. Br J Pharmacol 68: 207–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Georgopoulos AP (1977) Stimulus-response relations in high-threshold mechanothermal fibers innervating primate glabrous skin. Brain Res 128: 547–552PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gobel S (1984) Trans-synaptic effects of peripheral nerve injury. J Neurosci 4: 2281–2290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gybels J, Handwerker HO, van Hees J (1979) A comparison between the discharges of human nociceptive fibers and the subject’s ratings of his sensations. J Physiol 292: 193–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hannington-Kiff, JG (1983) Hyperadrenergic-effected limb causalgia; Relief by pharmacologic norepinephrine blockade. Am Heart J 103: 152–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Iggo A, Ogawa H (1971) Primate cutaneous thermal nociceptors. J Physiol 216: 77P–78PPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Jancso G, Kiraly E, Jancso-Gabor A (1977) Pharmacologically induced selective degeneration of chemosensitive primary sensory neurones. Nature Lond 270: 741–743PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Jessell TM, Jahr CE (1986) Synaptic interactions between dorsal root ganglia and dorsal horn neurones in cell culture: amino acids, nucleotides and peptides as possible fast and slow excitatory transmitters. In: Iversen LL, Goodman E (eds) Fast and slow chemical signalling in the nervous system. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kenins P (1982) Responses of single nerve fibers to capsaicin applied to the skin. Neurosci Lett 29: 311–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Konietzny F, Perl ER, Trevino D, Light A, Hensel H (1981) Sensory experiences in man evoked by intraneural electrical stimulation of intact cutaneous afferent fibers. Exp Brain Res 42: 219–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kumazawa T, Pearl ER (1977) Primate cutaneous sensory units with unmyelinated ( C) afferent fibers. J Neurophysiol 40: 1325–1338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    La Motte RH, Thalhammer JG, Robinson CJ (1983) Peripheral neural correlates of magnitude of cutaneous pain and hyperalgesia: a comparison of neural event in monkey with sensory judgement in human. Neurophysiol 50: 1–26Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Levi-Montalcini R (1982) Developmental neurobiology and the natural history of nerve growth factor. Ann Rev Neurosci 5: 341–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Levine JD, Lau W, Kwiat G, Goetzl EJ (1984) Leukotriene B4 produces hyperalgesia that is dependent on polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Science 225: 743–745PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Levitt M, Levitt JH (1981) The deafferentation syndrome in monkeys: dysesthesias of spinal origin. Pain 10: 129–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Lewis T (1942) Pain. Macmillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Light AR, Perl ER (1979) Spinal termination of functionally identified primary afferent neurons with slowly conducting myelinated fibers. J Comp Neurol 186: 133–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Livingstone K (1938) Phantom limb pain; report of 10 cases in which it was treated by injections of procaine hydrochloride near thoracic sympathetic ganglions. Arch Surg 37: 353–370Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Livingstone K (1948) The vicious circle in causalgia. Ann NY Acad Sci 50: 247–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lombard MC, Larabi Y (1983) Electrophysiological study of cervical dorsal horn cells in partially deafferented rats. In: Bonica JJ, Lindblom U, Iggo A (eds) Advances in pain res and ther, vol 5. Raven Press, New York, pp 147–154Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    MacDermott AB, Mayer ML, Westbrook GL, Smith DJ, Barber JL (1986) NMDA-receptor activation increases cytoplasmic calcium concentrations in cultured spinal cord neurones. Nature 321: 519–521PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Mendell LM, Sassoon EM, Wall PD (1977) Properties of synaptic linkage from distant afferents onto dorsal horn neurons in normal and chronically deafferented cats. J Physiol (Lond) 285: 299–310Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Mense DER, Stahnke M (1983) Responses in muscle afferent fibres of slow conduction velocity to concentrations and ischaemia in the cat. J Physiol 342: 383–397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Meyer RA, Cambell JN (1981) Myelinated nociceptive afferents account for the hyperalgesia that follows a burn to the hand. Science 213: 1527–1529PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Meyer RA, Cambell JN, Raja SN (1985) Peripheral neural mechanism of cutaneous hyperalgesia. Adv Pain Res and Ther 9: 53–72Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Moncada S, Ferreira SH, Vane JR (1975) Inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis as the mechanism of analgesia of aspirin-like drugs in the dog knee joint. Eur J Pharmacol 31: 250–260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Murase K, Randic M (1983) Electrophysiological properties of rat spinal dorsal horn neurons in vitro: calcium dependent action potenitals. J Physiol (Lond) 334: 141–153Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Noordenbos W, Wall PD (1981) Implications of the failure of nerve resection and graft to cure chronic pain produced by nerve lesions. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 44: 1068–1073PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Nordin M, Nystrom B, Wallin U, Hagbarth KE (1984) Ectopic sensory discharges and paraesthesiae in patients with disorders of peripheral nerves, dorsal roots and dorsal columns. Pain 20: 231–245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ochoa JL, Torebjork E, Marchetti P, Swok M (1985) Mechanisms of neuropathic pain: cumulative observations, new experiments and further speculation. Adv Pain Res Ther 9: 431–450Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Otsuka M, Konishi S, Yanagisawa M, Tsunoo A, Akagi H (1982) Role of substance P as a sensory transmitter in spinal cord and sympathetic ganglia. CIBA Foundation Symp 91: 13–34Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Perl ER (1985) Unravelling the story of pain. Adv Pain Res and Ther 9: 1–30Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Petsche U, Fleischer E, Lembeck F, Handwerker HO (1977) The effect of capsaicin application to a peripheral nerve on impulse conduction in functionally identified afferent nerve fibres. Brain Res 122: 534–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Raja S, Cambell JN, Meyer RA (1984) Evidence for different mechanism of primary and secondary hyperalgesia following heat injury to the glabrous skin. Brain 107: 1179–1188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Rasminsky M (1984) Ectopic impulse generation in pathological nerve fibres. In: Dyck PJ, Thomas PK, Lambert EH (eds) Peripheral neuropathology, 2nd edn. WB Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Renehan WE, Jacquin MF, Mooney RD, Rhoades RW (1986) Structure- function relationships in rat medullary and cervical dorsal horns. II. Medullary dorsal horn cells. J Neurophysiol 55: 1187–1201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Ritz LA, Greenspan JD (1985) Morphological features of lamina V neurons receiving nociceptive input in cat sacrocaudal spinal cord. J Comp Neurol 238: 440–452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Salt TE, Hill RG (1983) Neurotransmitter candidates of somatosensory primary afferent fibres. Neuroscience 10: 1083–1103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Scadding JW (1981) Development of ongoing activity, mechanosensitivity and adrenaline sensitivity in severed peripheral nerve axons. Exp Neurol 73: 345–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Schaible HG, Schmidt RF (1983) Activatin of groups III and IV sensory units in medial articular nerve by local mechanical stimulation of knee joint. J Neurophysiol 49: 35–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Schaible HG, Schmidt RF (1985) Effects of an experimental arthritis on the sensory properties of fine articular afferent units. J Neurophysiol 54: 1109–1121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Seltzer M, Devor M (1979) Ephaptic transmission in chronically damaged peripheral nerves. Neurology (Minneap) 29: 1061–1064Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Sherrington CS (1981) The integrative action of the nervous system. Yale University Press, New Haven 1906, 2nd ed 1947, Yale paperboundGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Spurling RG (1930) Causalgia of upper extremity, treatment by dorsal sympathetic ganglionectomy. Arch Neur Psychiat 23: 784–788Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Sugiura Y, Lee CL, Perl ER (1986) Central projections of identified, unmyelinated ( C) afferent fibres innervating mammalian skin. Science 234: 336–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Swett J, Woolf CJ (1985) The somatotopic organization of primary afferent terminals in the superficial laminae of the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord. J Comp Neurol 231: 66 - 77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Tasker RR (1984) Deafferentation. In: Wall PD (ed) Textbook of pain. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp 119–132Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Tasker RR, Tsuda T, Hawrylysyn P (1983) Clinical neurophysiological investigation of deafferentation pain. Adv Pain Res and Ther 5: 713–738Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Torebjork HE, Ochoa JL (1983) Selective stimulation of sensory units in man. Adv Pain Res and Ther 5: 99–104Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Torebjork HE, la Motte RH, Robinson CJ (1984) Peripheral neural correlates of magnitude of cutaneous pain and hyperalgesia: Simultaneous recordings in humans of sensory judgements of pain and evoked responses in nociceptors with C-fibres. J Neurophysiol 51: 325–339Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Urban L, Randic M (1984) Slow excitatory transmission in rat dorsal horn: possible mediation by peptides. Brain Res 290: 336–341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Wall PD (1983) Alterations in the central nervous system after deafferentation: Connectivity control. Adv Pain Res and Ther 5: 677–689Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Wall PD, Devor M (1981) The effects of peripheral nerve injury on dorsal root potentials and transmission of afferent signals into the spinal cord. Brain Res 209: 95–111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Wall PD, Devor M (1983) Sensory afferent impulses originate from dorsal root ganglia as well as from the periphery in normal and nerve injured rats. Pain 17: 321–339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Wall PD, Gutnick M (1974) Ongoing activity in peripheral nerves: the physiology and pharmacology of impulses originating from a neuroma. Exptl Neurol 43: 580–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Wall PD, McMahon SB (1986) The relationship of perceived pain to afferent nerve impulses. TINSGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Wall PD, Devor M, Inbal R et al (1979) Autonomy following peripheral nerve lesions: experimental anaesthesia dolorosa. Pain 7: 103–111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Wall PD, Woolf CJ (1984) Muscle but not cutaneous C-afferent input produced prolonged increases in the excitability of the flexion reflex in the rat. J Physiol 356: 443–458PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Wall PD, Woolf CJ (1986) The brief and the prolonged facilitatory effects of unmyelinated afferent input on the rat spinal cord are independently influenced by peripheral nerve section. Neuroscience 17: 1199–1205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Watkins JC (1986) Selective antagonists define sub-classes of excitatory amino acid receptors. In: Iversen LL, Goodman E (eds) Fast and slow chemical signalling in the nervous system. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Watkins JC, Evans RH (1981) Excitatory amino acid transmitters. Ann Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 21: 165–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Waxman SG (1986) Normal and abnormal axonal projections. In: Asbury AK, McKhann GM, McDonald WI (eds) Nervous system diseases. Heine-mann, London, pp 36–57Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Williams JT, Zieglgansberger W (1982) The acute effects of capsaicin on rat primary afferents and spinal neurons. Brain Res 253: 125–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Wilier JC, Boureau F, Albe-Fessard D (1979) Supraspinal influences on nociceptive flexion reflex and pain sensation in man. Brain Res 179: 61–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Willis WD (1985) The pain system. The neural basis of nociceptive transmission in the mammalian central nervous system. S Karger, BaselGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Woolf CJ (1983) Evidence for a central component of postinjury pain hypersensitivity. Nature 308: 686–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Woolf CJ (1984) Long term alterations in the excitability of the flexion reflex produced by peripheral tissue injury in the chronic decerebrate rat. Pain 18: 325–343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Woolf CJ, Fitzgerald M (1983) The properties of neurones recorded in the superficial dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord. J Comp Neurol 221: 313–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Woolf CJ, Fitzgerald M (1986) The somatotopic organization of cutaneous afferent terminals and dorsal horn neuronal receptive fields in the superficial and deep laminae of the rat lumbar spinal cord. J Comp Neurol 251: 517–531PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Woolf CJ, McMahon SB (1985) Injury-induced plasticity of the flexor reflex in chronic decerebrate rats. Neuroscience 16: 395–404PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Woolf CJ, Swett JE (1984) The cutaneous contribution to the hamstring flexor reflex in the rat: an electrophysiological and anatomical study. Brain Res 303: 299–312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Woolf CJ, Wall PD (1982) Chronic peripheral nerve selection diminishes the primary afferent A-fibre mediated inhibition of rat dorsal horn neurones. Brain Res 242: 77–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Woolf CJ, Wall PD (1986) Morphine sensitive and morphine insensitive actions of C-fibre input on the rat spinal cord. Neuroscience Lett 64: 221–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Woolf CJ, Wall PD (1986) The relative effectiveness of C primary afferent fibres of different origins in evoking a prolonged facilitation on the flexor reflex in the rat. J Neurosci 6: 1433–1442PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Woolf CJ, Wiesenfeld-Hallin Z (1986) Substance P and calcitonin gene related peptide synergistically modulate the gain of the nociceptive flexor reflex in the rat. Neurosci Lett 66: 226–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Wynn Parry CB (1980) Pain in avulsion lesions of the brachial plexus. Pain 9: 41–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Yaksh TL, Jessell TM, Gamse R, Mudge AW, Leeman SE (1980) Intrathecal morphine inhibits substance P release from mammalian spinal cord in vivo. Nature 286: 155–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Clifford J. Woolf
    • 1
  1. 1.Cerebral Functions Research Group, Department of AnatomyUniversity College LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations