Criteria for the differentiation of high-, moderate-, and low-flow carotid-cavernous sinus fistulas and their treatment with balloon catheters

  • F. Brassel
  • J. Wappenschmidt
  • L. Solymosi


It is well-known that carotid-cavernous sinus fistulas (CCSF) may influence the entire cerebrovascular circulation [1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12]. We therefore wanted to know what information can be derived from angiographic data. The most important factor which influences the hemodynamics and the course of the disease is the size of the fistula. It determines not only the shunt volume, but also the increase in intracavernous sinus pressure, implicating a considerable interference in cerebrovenous drainage. In addition, the size of the fistula’s opening influences the internal carotid artery (ICA) pressure distal to the lesion. Significant changes in the arterial blood supply may result.


Internal Carotid Artery Sigmoid Sinus Basal Vein Straight Sinus Shunt Volume 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Brassel
    • 1
  • J. Wappenschmidt
    • 1
  • L. Solymosi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeuroradiologyUniversity Hospital of NeurosurgeryBonnFederal Republic of Germany

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