Congenital abnormalities and variations are frequent in the V. A. They must be particularly well known and recognized if any surgical approach to the V. A. is being considered. Some of these abnormalities have already been presented in the previous chapter (Anatomy):
variations in diameter; hypoplastic, atretic and absent V. A.
variations in origin
variations in the level of the transverse canal entry.
KeywordsInternal Carotid Artery Vertebral Artery Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Vertebral Artery Injury Occipital Artery
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© Springer-Verlag/Wien 1987