Congenital abnormalities and variations are frequent in the V. A. They must be particularly well known and recognized if any surgical approach to the V. A. is being considered. Some of these abnormalities have already been presented in the previous chapter (Anatomy):
variations in diameter; hypoplastic, atretic and absent V. A.
variations in origin
variations in the level of the transverse canal entry.
KeywordsInternal Carotid Artery Vertebral Artery Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Vertebral Artery Injury Occipital Artery
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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© Springer-Verlag/Wien 1987