Congenital Abnormalities

  • Bernard George
  • Claude Laurian


Congenital abnormalities and variations are frequent in the V. A. They must be particularly well known and recognized if any surgical approach to the V. A. is being considered. Some of these abnormalities have already been presented in the previous chapter (Anatomy):
  • variations in diameter; hypoplastic, atretic and absent V. A.

  • variations in origin

  • variations in the level of the transverse canal entry.


Internal Carotid Artery Vertebral Artery Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Vertebral Artery Injury Occipital Artery 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernard George
    • 1
  • Claude Laurian
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryHôpital LariboisièreParisFrance
  2. 2.Department of Vascular SurgeryHôpital Saint JosephParisFrance

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