Shunts and Shunt Problems in Childhood

  • J.-F. Hirsch
  • Elizabeth Hoppe-Hirsch
Part of the Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery book series (NEUROSURGERY, volume 16)


Extra cranial shunting procedures (Cone et al. 1949, Matson 1951) were used to treat hydrocephalus before the work of Nulsen and Spitz (1952) and before the introduction of the Holter valve in 1956. However in most cases they were inefficient or even dangerous; they overdrained because they could not close and rapidly blocked due to tissue reaction to the constituent material.


Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Shunt Infection Shunt System Ventricular Catheter Shunt Failure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Adegbite AB, Dhan M (1982) Role of protein content in CSF ascites following ventriculoperitoneal shunting. J Neurosurg 57: 423–425PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adeloya A, Olumida A (1977) Abdominal complications of ventriculoperitoneal shunts in Nigerians. Int Surg 62: 525–527Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Agha FP, Amendola MA, Shirazi KK, Amendola BE, Chandler WF (1983) Abdominal complications of ventriculoperitoneal shunts with emphasis on the role of imaging methods. SGO 156: 473–478PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alvarez-Garijo JA, Mengual MV (1982) Infection rate with and without prophylactic antibiotic therapy after shunt insertion for hydrocephalus. In: Shunts and problems in shunts. Monogr Neurol Sci, vol 8. Karger, Basel, pp 66–68Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Andersson H (1966) Craniosynostosis as a complication after operation for hydrocephalus. Acta Paediat Scand 55: 192–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Azimi F, Dinn WM, Noumann RA (1976) Intestinal perforation: an infrequent complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunts. Radiology 121: 701–702PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Choux M (1982) Shunts and problems in shunts. Introduction. Monogr Neurol Sci, vol 8. Karger, Basel, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cone WV, Lewis RD, Jackson IJ (1949) Shunting of cerebrospinal fluid into the peritoneal cavity. Proc Meet of Americain College of Physicians, MontrealGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Grosfeld JL, Cooney DR, Smith J, Campbell RL (1974) Intraabdominal complications following ventriculoperitoneal shunt procedures. Pediatrics 54: 791–796PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hakim S, Roche FD de la, Burton JD (1973) A critical analysis of valve shunts used in the treatment of hydrocephalus. Dev Med Child Neurol 15: 230–255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Haines SJ, Taylor F (1982) Prophylactic Methicillin for shunt operations: Effects on shunt malfunction and infection. Child’s Brain 9: 10–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hirsch JF, Rénier D, Pierre-Kahn A (1978) Influence of the use of a surgical isolator on the rate of infection in the treatment of hydrocephalus. Child’s Brain 4: 137–150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hirsch JF (1982) Percutaneous ventriculocisternostomies in noncommunicating hydrocephalus. In: Shunts and problems in shunts. Monogr Neurol Sci, vol 8. Karger, Basel, pp 170–178Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hoffman HJ, Bruce E, Humphreys RP (1982) Management of hydrocephalus. Monogr Neural Sci 8: 21–25Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hoppe-Hirsch E, Sainte Rose C, Rénier D, Hirsch JF (1987) Pericerebral collections after shunting. Child’s Nery Syst 3: 97–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jackson IJ, Snodgrass SR (1955) Peritoneal shunts in the treatment of hydrocephalus and increased intracranial pressure. Four year survey of 62 patients. J Neurosurg 12: 216–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jaksche H, Loew F (1986) Burr hole third ventriculocisternostomy. An unpopular but effective procedure for treatment of certain forms of occlusive hydrocephalus. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 79: 48–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    James HE, Walsh JW, Wilson HD, Connor JD (1982) Management of cerebrospinal fluid infections. A clinical experience. Monogr Neurol Sci, vol 8. Karger, Basel, pp 75–77Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Keucher TR, Mealey J (1979) Long term results after ventriculoatrial and ventriculoperitoneal shunting for infantile hydrocephalus. J Neurosurg 50: 179–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lee FA, Gwinn JL (1975) Complications of ventriculoperitoneal shunts. Ann Radiol 18: 471–476PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lortat-Jacob S, Pierre-Kahn A, Rénier D, Hirsch JF, Martelli H, Pellerin D (1984) Complications abdominales des shunts ventriculopéritonéaux chez l’enfant. 65 Observations. Chir Pédiatr 25: 17–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Matson DD (1951) Ventriculo-ureterostomy. J Neurosurg 8: 398–404PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    McCullough DC, Fox JL (1974) Negative intracranial pressure in adults with shunts and its relationship to the production of subdural haematoma. J Neurosurg 40: 327–375Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    McCullough DC, Kane JG, Presler JH, Wells M (1980) Antibiotic prophylaxis in ventricular shunt surgery. I. Reduction of operative infection rate with methicillin. Child’s Brain 7: 182–189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    McCullough DC (1982) Complications with antisiphon devices in hydrocephalics with ventriculoperitoneal shunts. In: Concepts in paediatric neurosurgery II. Karger, Basel, pp 63–74Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    McLaurin RE (1973) Infected cerebrospinal fluid shunts. Surg Neurol 1: 191–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Murtagh FR, Guencen RM, Poole CA (1980) Extracranial complications of cerebrospinal fluid shunt function in childhood hydrocephalus. AJR 135: 763–766PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nulsen FE, Spitz EB (1952) Treatment of hydrocephalus by direct shunt from ventricle to jugular vein. Surg Forum 2: 399–403Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pierre-Kahn A, Labrune B, Levy M, Dufour G, Hirsch JF (1973) Glomérulonéphrites des dérivations ventriculo-atriales. Neurochirurgie 49: 387–397Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Portnoy HD, Schulte RR, Fox JL (1973) Anti-siphon and reversible occlusion valves for shunting in hydrocephalus and preventing post-shunt subdural haematomas. J Neurosurg 38: 729–738PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Pudenz RH, Russel FE, Hurd AM, Sheldon CM (1957) Ventriculo-auriculostomy. A technique for shunting cerebrospinal fluid into the right auricle. Preliminary report. J Neurosurg 14: 171–179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Raimondi AJ, Samuelson G, Yarzgaray L, Norton T (1969) Atresia of the foramina of Lushka and Magendie: The Dandy-Walker cyst. J Neurosurg 31: 202–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Raimondi AJ, Robinson JS, Kuwamura K (1977) Complications of ventriculoperitoneal shunting and a critical comparison of the three-piece and one-piece systems. Child’s Brain 3: 321–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rénier D, Lacombe J, Pierre-Kahn A, Sainte Rose C, Hirsch JF (1984) The factors of acute shunt infection: computer analysis of 1,174 operations. J Neurosurg 61: 1072–1078PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Rougemont J de, Verain A, Barge M et al (1970) Le débit dans les dérivations ventriculo-péritonéales. Sa mesure par le 131 I Na. Minerva Neurochirurgica 16: 307–318Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rubin CT, Ghatac NR, Visudiphan P (1972) Asymptomatic perforated viscus and gram negative ventriculitis as a complication of valve regulated V.P. shunts, reports of two cases. J Neurosurg 37: 616–618PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sainte Rose C, Hooven MD, Hirsch JF (1987) A new approach in the treatment of hydrocephalus. J Neurosurg 66: 213–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sato O, Ohya M, Tsugane R, Tkei K, Suzuki Y (1982) Quantitative measurement of cerebrospinal fluid shunt flow. In: Shunts and problems in shunts. Monogr Neurol Sci, vol 8. Karger, Basel, pp 34–38Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Schulhof LA, Worth RM, Kelsbeck JE (1975) Bowel perforation due to peritoneal shunts, a report of seven cases and review of literature. Surg Neurol 3: 265–269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Scott M, Wycis HT, Murtagh F, Reyes V (1955) Observations on ventricular and lumbar subarachnoïd peritoneal shunts in hydrocephalus in infants. J Neurosurg 12: 165–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sekhar LN, Moossy J, Gothkelch AN (1982) Histological study of the obstructive agents in ventriculoperitoneal shunts. In: Shunts and problems in shunts. Monogr Neurol Sc, vol 8. Karger, Basel, pp 59–62Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sells CJ, Loeser JD (1973) Peritonitis following perforation of the bowel; a rare complication of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. J Neurosurg 38: 371–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Shapiro K, Shulman K (1982) Shunt infections: a protocol for effective treatment. In: Shunts and problems in shunts. Monogr Neurol Sc, vol 8. Karger, Basel, pp 69–71Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Strenger L (1963) Complications of ventriculovenous shunts. J Neurosurg 20: 219–224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Tanner F (1979) La bactériologie du champ opératoire pour les interventions pratiquées en ISOP. Méd Hyg 37: 2073–2074Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Triolo PJ, Schulz EE (1980) Metastatic germinoma via a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. AJR 135: 854–855PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Weidmann J (1975) Ascites from a ventriculoperitoneal shunt; case report. J Neurosurg 43: 233–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Wilson CB, Bertran V (1966) Perforation of the bowel complicating peritoneal shunts for hydrocephalus; report of two cases. Am Surg 32: 601–603PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Yamada H (1982) A flow regulating device to control differential pressure in CSF shunt systems: Technical note. J Neurosurg 57: 570–573PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • J.-F. Hirsch
    • 1
  • Elizabeth Hoppe-Hirsch
    • 1
  1. 1.Service de NeurochirurgieHôpital Necker Enfants MaladesParisFrance

Personalised recommendations