Benign Extramedullary Tumors of the Foramen Magnum

  • B. Guidetti
  • A. Spallone
Part of the Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery book series (NEUROSURGERY, volume 16)


Masses located at the craniovertebral junction comprise a variety of neo-plastic and non-neoplastic processes, which have in common an insidious, often bizarre, clinical course resembling that of degenerative diseases of the nervous system, due to the frequent coexistence of signs of both posterior fossa and long tract involvement.


Vertebral Artery Cerebellopontine Angle Cervical Spondylosis Craniocervical Junction Anterior Spinal Artery 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Abrahamson I, Grossman M (1923) Tumors of the upper cervical cord. J Nery Ment Dis 57: 342–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aring CD (1974) Lesions about the junction of medulla and spinal cord. JAMA 229: 1879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Arseni C, Ionesco S (1960) Contribution a l’étude des tumeurs située au niveau du foramen magnum occipitale. Psychiatr Neurol Neurochir 63: 170–183Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Arseni C, Maretsis M (1974) Tumors of the lower spinal cord associated with increased intracranial pressure and papilledema. J Neurosurg 27: 105Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bartal AD, Heilbrom YD, Schiffer J (1972) Dumbbell anterolateral spino-cranial neurofibroma with a note on thigh muscle atrophy and fasciculation. Neurochirurgia 4: 143–148Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Beatty RA (1970) Cold dysesthesia: a symptom of extramedullary tumors of the spinal cord. J Neurosurg 33: 75–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Blom S, Ekbom KA (1962) Early clinical signs of meningiomas of the foramen magnum. J Neurosurg 19: 661–664PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bogorodinskij DK (1936) Syndrome of craniospinal tumor (in Russian). Tashkent, Govt Publ USSR, pp 104Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brain WR, Northfield D, Wilkinson M (1952) The neurological manifestations of cervical spondylosis. Brain 75: 187–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bucy PC, Gustafson WA (1938) Intradural lipoma of the spinal cord. Zbl Neurochir 3: 341–349Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bull J (1974) Missed foramen-magnum tumours. Lancet 1: 91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cohen L (1975) Tumors in the region of the foramen magnum. In: Vinken PJ, Bruyn GW (eds) Handbook of Clinical Neurology, vol 18. North-Holland Publ Co, Amsterdam Oxford, pp 719–729Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cohen L, McRae D (1962) Tumors in the region of the foramen magnum. J Neurosurg 19: 462–469PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Craig W McK, Brown JR, Osborn JE (1956) Tumor of the foramen magnum. Neurology (Minneap) 6: 73–76Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Crockard HA (1985) The transoral approach to the base of the brain and upper cervical cord. Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England 67: 321–325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Crockard HA, Bradford R (1985) Transoral-transclival removal of a schwan-noma anterior to the craniocervical junction. J Neurosurg 62: 293–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cushing H, Eisenhardt L (1938) Meningiomas: their classification, regional behaviour, life history and surgical end results. Ch C Thomas, Springfield, 785 ppGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Delmas A (1975) Voies et centres nerveux. Masson et Cie, ParisGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Du Boulay GH, McDonald JS (1964) Elusive tumors in the cervical spinal canal. Br J Radiol 37: 465–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Elsberg CA (1925) Tumors of the spinal cord and the symptoms of irritation and compression of the spinal cord and nerve roots. Pathology, symptomatology, diagnosis and treatment. PB Hoeber, Inc, New York, 421 ppGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Elsberg CA, Strauss I (1929) Tumors of the spinal cord which project into the posterior cranial fossa. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 21: 261–273Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ferraro A, Barrera SE (1934) Effects of experimental lesions of posterior columns fibers in Macacus Rhesus monkeys. Brain 57: 307–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fry RE, Fry WS (1980) Extracranial carotid injuries. Surgery 88: 581–587PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gabrielsen TO, Seeger JF (1973) Vertebral angiography in the diagnosis of intraspinal masses in upper cervical region. Neuroradiology 5: 7–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Guidetti B (1958) Mielopatie da spondilosi cervicale. Ed Bologna medica, pp 131Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Guidetti B, Spallone A (1980) Benign extramedullary tumors of the foramen magnum. Surg Neurol 13: 9–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hirano H, Suzuki H, Sakakibara T, Inoue K, Muramatsu T (1983) Foramen magnum and upper cervical cord tumors — diagnostic problems —. Clin Orth Rel Res 176: 171–177Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hirata Y, Matsukado Y, Kaku M (1985) Syringomyelia associated with a foramen magnum meningioma. Surg Neurol 23: 291–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Howe JR, Taren JA (1973) Foramen magnum tumors: Pitfalls in diagnosis. JAMA 225: 1061–1066PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Koempf D, Botzler D (1980) Foramen magnum tumor. Presenting as chronic hemifacial pain. An unusual case. Klin Neurol Med Hochsch 51/7: 438–441Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Krayenbühl H (1973) Special clinical features of tumours of the foramen magnum. Schweiz Arch Neurol Neurochir Psychiatr 112: 205–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Krenkel W, Friedmann G (1967) Diagnose und Therapie der kraniospinalen Tumoren. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 35: 237–262Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lazorthes G (1961) Vascularisation et circulation cérebrales. Masson & Cie, Paris, pp 1–164Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Limas C, Tio FO (1972) Meningeal melanocytoma (“melanotic meningioma”). Its melanocytic origin as revealed by electron microscopy. Cancer 30: 1286–1294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Liveson JA, Ransohoff J, Googold J (1973) Electromyographic studies in a case of foramen magnum meningioma. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 36: 561–564PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lové JG, Adson AW (1941) Tumors of the foramen magnum. Trans Am Neurol Assn 67: 78–81Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    MacCarty CS, Lougheed LE, Brown JR (1959) Unusual benign tumor at the foramen magnum: a report of case. J Neurosurg 16: 463–467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Malis LI (1958) The myelographic examination of the foramen magnum. Radiology 70: 196–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Marc JA, Schechter MM (1975) Radiological diagnosis of mass lesions within and adjacent to foramen magnum. Radiology 114: 351–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Margolis MT (1976) A simple myelographic maneuver for the detection of mass lesions at the foramen magnum. Radiology 119: 482–485PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Metzger J, Helias A, Messimy R, Fohanno D, Aubin ML, De Holanda G (1971) L’apport de la myélobulbographie gazeuse au diagnostic des tumeurs du trou occipital. Neurochirurgie 17: 497–514PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Meyer FB, Ebersold MJ, Reese DF (1984) Benign tumors of the foramen magnum. J Neurosurg 61: 136–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Miller E, Crockard A (1987) Transoral transclival removal of anteriorly placed meningiomas of the foramen magnum. Neurosurg 20: 966–988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Misch W (1935) Meningeal lipomas in the foramen magnum. J Neurol Psychopathol 16: 123–129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Mullan S, Naunton R, Hekmat-Panah J, Vailati G (1966) The use of an anterior approach to ventrally placed tumors in the foramen magnum and vertebral column. J Neurosurg 24: 536–543PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Netter FH (1983) The Ciba collection of medical illustrations: nervous system. Part I: Anatomy and physiology. Brass A (ed), West Caldwell, NJ, pp 236Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Nittner K (1975) Spinal meningiomas, neurinomas and neurofibromas and hourglass tumors. In: Vinken PJ, Bruyn GW (eds) Handbook of clinical neurology, vol 20. North-Holland Publ Co, Amsterdam Oxford, pp 177–322Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Pâsztor E (1985) Transoral approach for epidural craniocervical pathological processes. In: Symon L et al (eds) Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery, vol 12. Springer, Wien New York, pp 126–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Rubinstein JE (1938) Astereognosis associated with tumors in the region of the foramen magnum. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 39: 1016–1032Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Salazkin MA (1953) Classification, clinical and diagnostic features of tumors extending through the foramen magnum (in Russian). Vopr Neirochir 6: 22–28Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Scholten ET, Hekster REM (1977) Visualization of the craniocervical subarachnoid spaces. Neuroradiology 14: 139–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Shishikina AV, Kuvshinova RL (1961) La clinique des tumeurs craniospinales (in Russian). J Neurop Psich 61: 501–504Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Smolik EA, Sachs E (1954) Tumors of the foramen magnum of spinal origin: J Neurosurg 11: 161–172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Spallone A (1982) Giant, completely thrombosed intracranial aneurysm simulating tumor of the foramen magnum. Surg Neurol 18: 372–376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Spallone A, Tanfani G, Vassilouthis J, Dazzi M (1980) Benign extramedullary foramen magnum tumors: diagnosis by Computed Tomography. J Comput Assist Tomogr 4: 225–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Stein BM, Leeds NE, Taveras JM, Pool JL (1963) Meningiomas of the foramen magnum. J Neurosurg 20: 740–751PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Stevenson GC, Stoney RJ, Perkins RK, Adams JE (1966) A transcervical transclival approach to the ventral surface of the brain stem for removal of a clivus chordoma. J Neurosurg 24: 544–551PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Symonds CP, Meadows SP (1937) Compression of the spinal cord in the neighbourhood of the foramen magnum. Brain 60: 52–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Taylor AR, Byrnes DP (1974) Foramen magnum and high cervical cord compression. Brain 97: 473PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Tristan TA, Hodes PJ (1958) Meningiomas of the posterior cranial fossa. Radiology 70: 1–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Vancoillie P, Veiga-Pires JA (1979) Cervical neurofibroma and generalised spinal stenosis in von Recklinghausen disease. Lancet 8: 1246–1247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Weinstein EA, Wechsler IS (1940) Dermoid tumor in the foramen magnum with astereognosis and dissociated sensory loss. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 44: 162–170Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Yasuoka S, Okazaki H, Daube JR, MacCarty CS (1978) Foramen magnum tumors. J Neurosurg 49: 828–838PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Guidetti
    • 1
  • A. Spallone
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Clinical Neurological SciencesUniversity of Rome “La Sapienza”, School of MedicineRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations