Protein Transport in Plant Cells
In plant cells several subcellular structures can be recognized. These include the nucleus, the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi system, endosomes (e. g. peroxisomes and glyoxysomes), mitochondria, chloroplasts and thylakoids. They are all surrounded by a single or a double lipid bilayer and constitute in general separate compartments within the cell. In addition the different membranes themselves and the outside of the cell can be viewed as other compartments. Each of these subcellular structures and their enclosing or internal membranes contains many different proteins, yet most of these compartments do not have the machinery to synthesize the proteins they need. Only the nucleus, the mitochondrion and the chloroplast contain DNA and are capable of transcribing this genetic information into RNA, and only the chloroplast and the mitochondrion are capable of translating this RNA into protein. All nuclear transcripts are transported out of the nucleus and exclusively translated in the cytosol.
KeywordsThylakoid Membrane Small Subunit Mature Protein Transit Peptide Envelope Membrane
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