Advertisement

Biomechanics and Classification of Traumatic Lesions of the Spine

  • J. P. Chirossel
  • G. Vanneuville
  • J. G. Passagia
  • J. Chazal
  • Ch. Coillard
  • J. J. Favre
  • J. M. Garcier
  • J. Tonetti
  • M. Guillot
Part of the Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery book series (NEUROSURGERY, volume 22)

Abstract

There has been a progressive growth of clinical, anatomical, technical and biomechanical knowledge of the spine which has emerged from both specific and collaborative efforts of many investigators. In the same way many distinguished contributors have at various times elaborated the analysis of vertebral trauma and their names appear in the References to this paper.

Keywords

Lumbar Spine Vertebral Body Intervertebral Disc Spinal Canal Burst Fracture 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Adams MA, Hutton WC (1981) The relevance of torsion to the mechanical derangement of the lumbar spine. Spine 6: 241–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adams MA, Hutton WC (1983) The mechanical function of the lumbar apophyseal joints. Spine 8: 327–330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Argenson C, Boileau P (1993) Classification of thoracolumbar spine fractures. In: Floman Y, Farcy JPC, Argenson C (eds) Thoracolumbar spine fractures. Raven, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Argenson C, Dintimille H (1977) Lésions traumatiques expérimentales du rachis chez le singe. Rev Chir Orthop 63: 430–431PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Arnoldi CC (1972) Intervertebral pressures in patients with lumbar pain. A preliminary communication. Acta Orthop Scand 43: 109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bacon GE, Bacon PJ, Griffiths BK (1979) Neutron diffraction studies of lumbar vertebrae. J Anat 28: 277–283Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bartelink DL (1957) The role of abdominal pressure in relieving the pressure on the lumbar intervertebral discs. J Bone Joint Surg 39B: 718–725Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bartley MH, Arnold JS, Haslam RK, Jee WSS (1966) The relationship of bone strength and bone quantity in health, disease and aging. J Gerontol 21: 517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Basmadjian JV (1974) Muscles alive. Their functions revealed by electromyography, 3rd ed. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 173–339Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Beatson TR (1963) Fractures and dislocation of the cervical spine. J Bone Joint Surg 45B: 21Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bell GH, Dubar O, Beck JS, Gibb A (1967) Variation in strength of vertebrae with age and their relation to osteoporosis. Calcif Tissue Res 1: 75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Benninghoff A (1925) Spaltlinien am Knochen, eine Methode zur Ermittlung der Architektur platter Knochen. Verhandl Anat Gesellsch [Suppl] Anat Anz 60: 189–206Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bergmark A (1989) Stability of the lumbar spine. A study in mechanical engineering. Acta Orthop Scand [Suppl] 60: 230Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bergoin M (1987) Elements de biomécanique du rachis scoliotique. In: Poitout D (ed) Bioméchanique orthopédique. Masson, ParisGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Boehler L (1944) Technique de traitement des fractures de la colonne dorsale et lombaire. Masson, Paris, p 149Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bogduk N, Macintosh J (1984) The applied anatomy of the thoraco-lumbar fascia. Spine 9: 164–170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bortolussi C, Dosdat JC, Robert H (1979) Approche biomécanique du disque intervertebral lombaire sous différents types de charge par mesure de pression intranucléaire. J Fr Biophys Med Nuc 3: 163–167Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bourges M (1980) Approche histologique d’une vertèbre dorsale non décalcifiée, par coupes horizontales de 20 μ. Etude histologique des ligaments inter et supra-épineux au repos et en traction jusqu’à la rupture. Elements de Biomécanique du Rachis, Clermont-Ferrand, Bloc Santé, pp 44–51, pp 168–189Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bradford DL, Spurling RD (1945) The intervertebral disc. Thomas, SpringfieldGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Breig A (1960) Biomechanics of the central nervous system. Some basic normal and pathological phenomena. Almquist and Wisksall, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Breig A (1989) Skull traction and cervical cord injury. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokyoGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Brinckmann P, Frobin W, Hierholzer E, Horst M (1983) Deformation of the vertebra endplate under axial loading of the spine. Spine 8: 851–856PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chabannes J, Veyre A, Plagner, Janny P, Meyniel G (1974) Le transit isotopique peutil apporter un argument dans l’indication opératoire des fractures du rachis. Neurochirurgie 20: 205–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chamberlain WE, Young BR (1939) The diagnosis of intervertebral disc protrusion by intraspinal injection of air: air myelography. JAMA 113: 2022–2024Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chance GO (1948) Note on a type of flexion fracture of the spine. Br J Radiol 21: 452–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chazal J, Tanguy A, Bourges M, Gaurel G, Escande G, Guillot M, Vanneuville G (1985) Biomechanical properties of spinal ligaments and histological study of the supraspinal ligament in traction. J Biomech 18: 167–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Court-Brown CM, Gertzbein SD (1988) Flexion-distraction injuries of the lumbar spine: mechanism of injury and classification. Clin Orthop 227: 52–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    De Seze S, Djian A, Abdelmoula M (1951) Etude radiologique de la dynamique cervicale dans le plan sagittal. Rev Rhum Mai Osteoartic 3: 111–116Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Decker K (1961) La mobilité de la moëlle épinière dans le canal médullaire. Ann Radiol 4:515–529PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Decoulx P, Rieunau G (1958) Les fractures du rachis dorso-lombaire sans troubles neurologiques. Rev Chir Orthop 44: 254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Delmas A, Pineau H (1969) Signification de la quantité de matériau composant les vertèbres. Acta Anat 556: 139–151Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Denis F (1983) The three column spine and its significance in the classification of acute thoracolumbar spinal injuries. Spine 8: 817–831PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Deubelle A (1979) Complication rare des deviations rachidiennes de la neurofibromatose: la compression trachéale directe. These Méd, Clermont-Ferrand, no 44Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Escande G, Verge-Garret J, Guillot M, Chazal J, Tanguy A (1980) Etude architecturale de la corticale vertébrale (explorée par la méthode de Bening-hoff). Elements de Biomécanique du Rachis, Clermont-Ferrand, Bloc Santé, pp 15–28Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Evans FG (1957) Stress and strain in bones. Thomas, SpringfieldGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Farcy JPC, Weidenbaum M, Glassman SD (1990) Sagittal index in management of thoracolumbar burst fractures. Spine 15: 958–965PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Farfan HP, Cossette JW, Welis RV, Robertson GN, Kraus H (1970) The effects of torsion on the lumbar intervertebral joints: the role of torsion in the production of disc degeneration. J Bone Joint Surg 52A: 468–497Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Fiorini GT, Mc Cammond D (1976) Forces on lumbo-vertebral facets. Ann Biomed 4: 354–363Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fischer LP, Gonon GP, Carret JP, et al (1976) Biomécanique articulaire. Assoc Corporative Etudiants Méd, LyonGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fournier J, Guillot M, Escande G (1980) Microdureté de quelques vertèbres rachidiennes. Elements de Biomécaniques du Rachis, Clermont-Ferrand, Bloc Santé, pp 69–81Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fuentes J-M, Bloncourt J, Vlahovitch B, Castan PH (1983) La tear-drop fracture. Contribution à l’etude du mécanisme et des lesions ostéo-discoligamentaires. Neurochirurgie 29: 129–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Fuentes J-M, Bloncourt J, Bourbotte G, Castan PH, Vlahovitch B (1984) La fracture de chance. Neurochirurgie 30: 113–118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Galante JO (1967) Tensile properties of the human lumbar annulus fibrosus. Acta Orthop Scand [Suppl 100]Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Goubel F (1991) Modèles de muscle strié squelettique. Communication: Journée Spécialisée Modèles et Modélisation en biomécanique, Vandœuvreles-Nancy (INRS), 14 MarsGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Guillot M, Pionchon H, Pialat J, Bancel B, Galtier B (1988) Etude de l’innervation des ligaments du rachis lombaire chez l’homme. Rev Rhumat 55: 421–423Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Guillot M, Fournier J, Scheye TH, Escande G, Chazal J, Tanguy A, Vanneu-ville G (1990) Justification mécanique approchée de la géométrie particulière du rachis humain soumis à contrainte verticale. Bull Assoc Anat 74: 7–8Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hakim NS, King AI (1976) Static and dynamic articular facet loads. Proceedings of the twentieth stapp car crash conference: 609–639Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Harris JH Jr (1978) The radiology of acute cervical spine trauma. Williams and Wilkins, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hart FD, Strickland D, Cliffe P (1974) Measurement of spinal mobility. Ann Rheum Dis 33: 136–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hill DK (1968) Tension due to interaction between the sliding filaments in resting striated muscles, the effect of stimulation. J Physiol 199: 637–684PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Holds worth FW (1963) Fractures, dislocations, and fracture-dislocations of the spine. J Bone Joint Surg 45B: 6–20Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Holdsworth FW (1970) Fractures, dislocations, and fracture-dislocations of the spine. J Bone Joint Surg 52A: 1534–1551Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Huxley AF (1974) Review lecture muscular contraction. J Physiol 243: 1–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Janevic J, Ashton-Miller J A, Schultz AB (1991) Large compressive preloads decrease motion segment flexibility. J Orthop Res 9: 228–236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Jefferson G (1920) Fracture of the atlas vertebra report of 4 cases and review of those previously recorded. Br J Surg 7: 407–422Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kapandji IA (1972) Physiologie articulaire: tronc et rachis, Fasc 3. Maloine, Paris, 255 ppGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kelly RP, Whitesides TE (1968) Treatment of lumbodorsal fracture-dislocations. Ann Surg 167: 705–717PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lamy C, Bazergui A, Kraus H, Farfan HF (1975) The strength of the neural arch and the etiology of spondylolysis. Orthop Clin North Am 6: 215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Lazorthes G, Gaubert J (1957) L’innervation des articulations interapophy-saires vertébrales. Bull Assoc Anat 95: 488–494Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lee CH, Kim KS, Lee FR (1982) Triangular cervical vertebral body fractures: diagnostic significance. AJR 138: 1123–1132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Lee CH, Kim KS, Rogers LF (1982) Sagittal fracture of the cervical vertebral body. AJR 139: 55–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Lindahl O (1976) Mechanical properties of dried defatted spongy bone. Acta Orthop Scand 47: 11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Liu YK, Goel VK, Dejong A, Njus G, Nishiyama K, Buckwalter J (1981) Torsional fatigue of the lumbar intervertebral joints. Spine 10: 894–900Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Louis R (1981) Dynamique vertébro-radiculaire et vertébro-médullaire. Anat Clin 3: 1–11Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Louis R (1982) Chirurgie du rachis. Anatomie chirurgicale et voies d’abord. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Louis R (1983) Surgery of the spine. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokyoGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Louis R, Gouttallier D (1977) Fractures instables du rachis. Symp Rev Chir Orthop 63: 415–81Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Louis R, Laffont J, Conty CR, Argeme M (1967) Mobilité de la moëlle épinière. Bull Assoc Anat Reunion (Paris-Orsay) 52: 817–827Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Malinski J (1959) The ontogenic development of nerve terminations in intervertebral disc of man. Histology of intervertebral discs, 11th communication. Acta Anat 38: 96–113Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Markolf KL, Morris JM (1974) The structural components of the intervertebral disc. J Bone Joint Surg 56A: 675–687Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    McAfee PC, Yuan HA, Lasda NA (1982) The unstable burst fracture. Spine 7: 363–373Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Miller JAA, Haderspeck KA, Schultz AB (1983) Posterior element loads in lumbar motion segments. Spine 8: 331–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Moll JMH, Wright V (1971) Normal range of spinal mobility. Ann Rheum Dis 30: 381–386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Nachemson A, Evans J (1968) Some mechanical properties of the third human lumbar interlaminar ligament. J Biomech 1: 211–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Nachemson A, Morris JM (1964) In vivo measurements of intradiscal pressure discometry: a method for determination of pressure in the lower lumbar discs. J Bone Joint Surg 46A: 1077–1092Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Nicoll EA (1949) Fractures of the dorsolumbar spine. J Bone Joint Surg 3 1B: 3, 373–394Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Perey O (1957) Fracture of the vertebral endplate in the lumbar spine. Acta Orthop Scand 25: 1–101Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Pionchon H, Tommasi M, Pialat J, et al (1986) Etude de l’innervation des ligaments rachidiens à l’étage lombaire. Bull Assoc Anat 70: 63–67Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Poirier P, Charpy A (1926) Traité d’anatomie humaine. Tome 1: Arthrologie. Masson, ParisGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Rabischong P, Louis R, Vignaud J (1978) Le disque intervertebral. Anat Clin 1: 55–64Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Rennie W, Mitchell N (1973) Flexion distraction fractures of the thoracolumbar spine. J Bone Joint Surg 55A: 386–390Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Roaf FR (1960) A study of the mechanics of spinal injuries. J Bone Joint Surg 42B: 810–821Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Robert H, Bortolussi C (1984) Evolution “in vitro” de la pression et de la géométrie du disque lombaire en fonction de la stabilité du rachis. J Biophys Med Nucl 8: 243–249Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Rockoff SD, Sweet E, Bleustein J (1969) The relative contribution of trabecular and cortical bone to the strength of human lumbar vertebrae. Calc Tiss Res 3: 163–175Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Rolander S (1966) Motion of the lumbar spine with special reference to the stabilizing effect of posterior fusion. Acta Orthop Scand [Suppl 90]: 144 ppGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Roy-Camille R (1979) Rachis cervical traumatique non neurologique. leres journées d’orthopédie de “la Pitié”. Masson, ParisGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Roy-Camille R, Lelievre JF (1975) Pseudarthrose des corps vertébraux du rachis dorsolombaire. Rev Chir Orthop 61: 249–257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Roy-Camille R, Louis R, Argenson C, Goutallier O (1977) L’instabilité vertébrale expérimentale dans “Symposium sur les fractures instables du rachis”. Rev Chir Orthop 63: 417–475Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Roy-Camille R, Saillant G (1980) Rachis dorsolombaire traumatique non neurologique. 2èmes Journées d’Orthopédie de la Pitié, Masson, ParisGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Schmorl G, Junghans H (1956) Clinique et radiologic de la colonne vertébrale normale et pathologique. Doin, ParisGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Schneider RC, Kahn EA, Arbor A (1956) Chronic neurological sequelae of acute trauma to the spine and spinal cord. J Bone Joint Surg 38A: 985–997Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Seroussi RE, Krag MH, Muller DL, et al (1989) Internal deformations of intact and denucleated human lumbar disc subjected to compression, flexion and extension loads. J Orthop Res 7: 122–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Shah JS, Jayson Ml, Hampson WG (1977) Low tension studies of collagen fibres from ligaments of the human spine. Ann Rheum Dis 36: 139–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Stagnara P, De Mauroy JC, Dran G, Gonon P, Costanzo G, Dimnet J, Pasquet A (1982) Reciprocal angulation of vertebral bodies in a sagittal plane: approach to reference for the evaluation of kyphosis and lordosis. Spine 7: 335–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Stauffer E, Kelly EG (1977) Fracture dislocations of the cervical spine. Instability and recurrent deformity following treatment by anterior interbody fusion. J Bone Joint Surg 59A: 45–48Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Taylor AR (1951) The mechanism of injury. J Bone Joint Surg 33B: 543–547Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Tkaczuk H (1968) Tensile properties of human lumbar longitudinal ligaments. Acta Orthop Scand [Suppl] 115: 69 ppGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Torg JS, Pavlox H, Oneill MJ, Nicols E Jr, Sennett B (1991) The axial load tear drop fracture. A biomechanical clinical and roentgenographic analysis. Am J Sports Med 19: 355–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Vacheron JJ, Poumarat G, Vanneuville G (1993) Forces distribution applied on the spine by a load. Congrès Acaps CaenGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Vanneuville G, Eescande G, Chazal J, Tanguy A, Bourges M, Verge-Garret J, Deubelle A (1980) Eléments de bioméchanique du rachis. 63e Congrès Assoc Anat, Monographie, Clermont-Ferrand, Bloc-SantéGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Vanneuville G, Tanguy A, Scheye TH, Bleu JP, Gaurel G, Blillet P, Guillot M, Fournier J (1986) Les méthodes optiques dans l’étude des déplacements superficiels des vertèbres lombaires sous charge vertical, premiers résultats et aspects méthodologiques. Bull Assoc Anat 70: 51–57Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Vanneuville G, Eescande G, Guillot M (1988) Anatomie fonctionnelle de la paroi antéro-latérale du thorax. Cah Kinésithér 134: 57–65Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Vanneuville G, Poumarat G, Garcier JM, Scheye TH, Campagne D, Coillard Ch (1991) Etude radiographique du rachis lombaire en charge chez l’haltérophile. Bull Assoc Anat 75: 181–186Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Vanneuville G, Garcier JM, Poumarat G, Guillot M, Chazal J (1992) Mechanisms of orientation of the pelvifemoral base during static loading of the lumbar spine in weight-lifters. Surg Radiol Anat 14: 29–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Vanneuville G, Kyndt TH, Massaux M, Poumarat G, Garcier JM, Guillot M (1994) Etude par interférométrie speckle du rachis lombaire humain sous contraintes de cisaillement et de torsion. Utilisation du système d’analyse Steinbichler. Soc Anat ParisGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Vanneuville G, Cluzel P, Perissel B, Garcier JM, Massaux M, Gabrillargues J (1994) Le disque intervertebral. Tentative de modélisation en elements finis. Soc Anat ParisGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Watson-Jones R (1940) Fractures and other bone and joint injuries. Livingstone, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Weaver JK, Chalmers J (1966) Cancellous bone: its strength and changes with aging and an evaluation of some methods for measuring its mineral content. J Bone Joint Surg 48A: 289Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Weiss EB (1975) Stress at the lumbosacral junction. Orthop Clin North Am 66: 83Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Whike B (1972) Articular neurology. A Rev Physiotherapy 58: 94–99Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    White AA, Panjabi MM (1978) Clinical biomechanics of the spine. Lippincott, Philadelphia, 533 ppGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Willen J, Lindahl S, Nordwall A (1985) Unstable thoracolumbar fractures. A comparative clinical study of conservative treatment and Harrington instrumentation. Spine 10: 111–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Yang KH, King AI (1984) Mechanism of facet load transmission as a hypothesis for low-back pain. Spine 9: 557–565PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. P. Chirossel
    • 1
  • G. Vanneuville
    • 2
  • J. G. Passagia
    • 1
  • J. Chazal
    • 2
  • Ch. Coillard
    • 2
  • J. J. Favre
    • 1
  • J. M. Garcier
    • 2
  • J. Tonetti
    • 1
  • M. Guillot
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Neurosurgery and Department of AnatomyJ. Fourier UniversityGrenobleFrance
  2. 2.Department of AnatomyAuvergne UniversityClermont-FerrandFrance

Personalised recommendations