Advertisement

Infectious Hazards of Bone Allograft Transplantation: Reducing the Risk

  • Ted Eastlund

Abstract

In recent years, due to the remarkable growth in cadaver tissue donation, the supply of donated bone and connective tissue allografts has greatly increased. The widened availability of these tissues has encouraged new clinical uses and has brought attention not only to their effectiveness and advantages over autografts but also to their drawbacks, side effects and complications. Infectious disease transmission is a serious concern for orthopedic surgeons and patients contemplating bone allograft use. Bacterial and viral diseases shown in Table 1 have been transmitted through the use of bone allografts [52, 62, 74]. Although bacteria and fungi can be introduced to the bone allograft during surgical removal from the donor or during bone processing, storage and implantation, this review will emphasize viral and bacterial diseases of donor origin and the important roles of donor screening and tissue processing, disinfection and sterilization for their prevention.

Keywords

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type Bone Graft Ethylene Oxide Tissue Bank 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Abecassis MM, Welk JF, Bale J, et al (1994) Transmission of cytomegalovirus by skin allografts-a review. Tissue Cell Report 2: 14 – 17Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adam M, et al (1993) Rapid freezing of whole blood or buffy coat sample for polymerase chain reaction and cell culture analysis: Application to detection of human immunodeficiency virus in blood donor and recipient repositories. Transfusion 33: 504 – 508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aguiar JW, Chang P, Rosenquist MD, et al (1994) Acquisition of cytomegalovirus infection through cadaver skin allograft in burn patients. Proceedings of the 26th Annual Meeting. American Burn Association, Orlando, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alter HJ, Epstein JS, Swenson SG, et al (1990) Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 p24 antigen in U.S. blood donors—an assessment of the efficacy of testing in donor screening. N Engl J Med 323: 1312 – 1217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    American Association of Tissue Banks (1992) Technical manual for tissue banking- musculoskeletal. McLean, Virginia: American Association of Tissue BanksGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Anonymous (1993) 21 CFR 1270. Human tissue intended for transplantation. Federal Register 58: 65514 – 65521Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Anonymous (editorial). HTLV-I. A screen too many? Lancet 2: 336Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Asselmeier MA, Caspari RB, Bottenfield S (1993) A review of allograft processing and sterilization techniques and their role in transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. Am J Sports Med 21: 170 – 175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Aurori BF, Weierman RJ, Lowell HA, Nadel CI, Parsons JR (1985) Pseudoarthosis after spinal fusion for scoliosis. A comparison of autogeneic and allogeneic bone grafts. Clin Orthop 199: 153 – 158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bankowski MJ, Landay AL, Staes B, et al (1992) Postmortem recovery of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from plasma mononuclear cells. Arch Pathol Lab Med 116: 1124 – 1127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Barnes A (1991) Transfusion-transmitted treponemal infections. In: Smith D, Dodd RY (eds) Transfusion transmitted infections. Chicago: ASCP Press, pp 161–166Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Basset CAL, Packard AG (1959) A clinical assay of cathode ray sterilized cadaver bone grafts. Acta Orthop Scand 28: 198 – 211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Blajchman M, Feinman S, Bull S (1993) Results of a prospective randomized multi-center trial to evaluate the non-A, non-B surrogate tests (ALT and anti-HBc) to prevent post-transfusion hepatitis. Blood 82 [Suppl I]: 204aGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Boiler F, Lopez O, Moosy J (1988) Diagnosis of dementia: Clinico-pathologic correlations. Neurology 38 [Suppl I]: 226Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bond WW, Favero MS, Peterson NJ, Ebert JW (1983) Inactivation of hepatitis B virus by intermediate-to-high level disinfectant chemical. J Clin Micro 18: 535 – 538Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bowen PA, Lobel SA, Caruana RJ, et al (1988) Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by transplantation: clinical aspects and time course analysis of viral antigenemia and antibody production. Ann Intern Med 108: 46 – 48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bright RW, Friedlaender GE, Sell KW (1977) Tissue banking: The United States Navy tissue banks. Military Medicine 142: 503 – 510PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bright RW, Burchardt D (1983) The biomechanical properties of preserved bone grafts. In: Friedlaender GE, Mankin HJ, Sell KW (eds) Bone allografts-biology, banking and clinical applications. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, pp 241–247Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bright RW, Smarsh JD, Gambill YM (1983) Sterilization of human bone by irradiation. In: Friedlaender GE, Mankin HJ, Sell KW (eds) Osteochondral allografts-biology, banking and clinical applications. Boston: Little Brown and Co, pp 223 – 232Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Brown P, Rowher RG, Gajdusek DC (1984) Sodium hydroxide decontamination of Creutzfeldt- Jakob disease virus. N Engl J Med 310: 727PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Brown P, Cathala F, Castaigne P, Cajdusek DC (1986) Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: Clinical analysis of a consecutive series of 230 neuropathologically verified cases. Ann Neurol 20: 597 – 602PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Brown P, Gibbs CJ, Amyx HL, et al (1982) Chemical disinfection of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease virus. N Engl J Med 306: 1279 – 1282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Brown P (1990) Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Aust NZ J Med 20: 633 – 635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Brown P, Gajdusek DC, Gibbs CJ Asher DM (1985) Potential epidemic of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease from human growth hormone therapy. N Engl J Med 313: 728 – 731PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Buck BE, Resnick L, Shah SM, Malinin TI (1990) Human immunodeficiency virus cultured from bone. Implications for transplantation. Clin Orthop 251: 250 – 253Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Buck BE, Malinin TI, Brown MD (1989) Bone transplantation and human immunodeficiency virus; an estimate of risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Clin Orthop 240: 129 – 136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Buring K, Urist MR (1967) Effects of ionizing radiation on bone induction principle in the matrix of bone implants. Clin Orthop 55: 225 – 234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Burke W, Keogh A, Maloney P, et al (1990) Transmission of sarcoidosis via cardiac transplantation. Lancet 336: 1579PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Busch MP, Taylor PE, Lenes BA, et al (1990) Screening of selected male blood donors for p24 antigen of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. N Engl J Med 323: 1308 – 1312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Busch MP (1994) HIV and blood transfusion: Focus on seroconversion. Vox Sang 67 [Suppl 3]: 13 – 18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Campagnari D, O’Malley J (eds), (1994) Standards of the American Red Cross Tissue Services, 6th edn. Washington, DC: American Red Cross Tissue ServicesGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Campbell DG, Li P, Stephenson AJ, Oakeshott RD (1994) Sterilization of HIV by gamma irradiation. A bone allograft model. Int Orthop 18: 172 – 176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Canalis E, McCarthy TL, Centrella M (1989) Growth factors and the skeletal system. J Endocrinol Invest 12: 577 – 584PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Centers for Disease Control (1981) Human-to-human transmission of rabies via corneal transplantation-Thailand. MMWR 30: 473 – 474Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Centers for Disease Control (1979) Human-to-human transmission of rabies by a corneal transplant-Idaho. MMWR 28: 109 – 111Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Centers for Disease Control (1988) Semen banking, organ and tissue transplantation, and HIV antibody testing. MMWR 37: 57–58, 63Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Centers for Disease Control (1988) Licensure of screening tests for antibody to human T- lymphotropic virus MMWR 37: 736–740, 745 – 747Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Centers for Disease Control (1988) Transmission of HIV through bone transplantation: Case report and public health recommendations. MMWR 37: 587 – 599Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Centers for Disease Control (1989) Update: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in a patient receiving a cadaveric dura mater graft. MMWR 38: 37 – 43Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Centers for Disease Control (1994) Guidelines for preventing transmission of human immunodeficiency virus through transplantation of human tissue and organs. MMWR 43 (RR-8): 1 – 17Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Chou SW (1986) Acquisition of donor strains of cytomegalovirus by renal transplant recipients. N Engl J Med 314: 1418 – 1423PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Cloward RB (1980) Gas-sterilized cadaver bone grafts for spinal fusion operations. A simplified bone bank. Spine 5: 4 – 10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Conrad EU, Gretch D, Obermeyer K, Moogk M, Sayers M, Wilson J, Strong DM (1995) The transmission of hepatitis C virus through tissue transplantation. J Bone Joint Surg 77-A: 214 – 224Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Conroy B, Tomford W, Mankin H, Hirsch MS, Shooley RT (1992) Radiosensitivity of HIV-1. Potential application to sterilization of bone allografts. AIDS 5: 608 – 609Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Conway B, Tomford WW (1992) Radiosensitivity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Clinical Infectious Diseases 14: 978 – 979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Coombs RW, Collier AC, Allian J-P, et al (1989) Plasma viremia in human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med 321: 1626 – 1631PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Cornell C, Lane JM, Nottebaert M, Klein C, Dowling C, Burnstein AH (1987) Effect of ethylene oxide sterilization upon bone inductive properties of demineralized bone matrix. Trans Orthop Res Soc 11: 74Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Corral DA, Darras FS, Jensen CWB, et al (1993) Parvovirus B19 infection causing pure red cell aplasia in a recipient of pediatric donor kidneys. Transplantation 55: 427 – 430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Daar ES, Moudgli T, Meyer RD, et al (1991) Transient levels of viremia in patients with primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. N Engl J Med 324: 961 – 964PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    deVries PH, Badgley CE, Hartman JT (1958) Radiation sterilization of homogenous bone transplants utilizing radioactive cobalt. J Bone Joint Surg 40: 187 – 203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Dewar RL, Sarmiento ES, Lawton HM, et al (1992) Isolation of HIV-1 from plasma of infected individuals: An analysis of experimental conditions effecting successful virus propagation. J Acq Immune Defic Syndr 4: 822 – 828Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Eastlund T (1995) Infectious disease transmission through cell, tissue and organ transplantation: Reducing the risk through donor selection. Cell Transplantation 4: 455 – 477.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Eastlund T, Prather J, Stecker D, et al (1990) Infectious disease markers in surgical bone donations. Proceedings 14th Annual Meeting, American Association of Tissue Banks. Denver, Colorado.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Eastlund T, Jackson B, Harvilla G, Sannerud K (1989) Inactivation of HIV within cortical bone by ethylene oxide or heat. Proceedings 13th Annual Meeting, American Association Tissue Banks. San Diego, Calif.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Eggen BM, Nordbo SA (1992) Transmission of HCV by organ transplantation (letter). N Engl J Med 326: 411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    European Association of Tissue Banks (1995) General standards for tissue Banking. Vienna: OBIG TransplantGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ferraro SP, Moore-Ferraro SY, Moor TM (1991) Bactericidal gamma irradiation enhances rather than impairs osteoinduction by solid demineralized matrix in the rat. Trans Orthop Res Soc (Banff) 16: 288Google Scholar
  58. Fideler B, Moore TM, Vanqsness CT, Rasheed S, Gendler E (1994) Effect of gamma irradiation on the human immunodeficiency virus. A study in frozen human bone-patellar ligament-bone grafts from infected cadavera. J Bone Joint Surg 76-A: 1032 – 1035Google Scholar
  59. Freiberg A, Saltzman C, Smith W (1992) Replantation of an autoclaved, autogenous humerus in a patient who had chondrosarcoma. J Bone Joint Surg 74-A: 438 – 439Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Gaines H, Albert J, Von Sydow M, et al (1987) HIV antigenemia and virus isolation from plasma during primary HIV infection. Lancet 1: 1317 – 1318PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Glowacki J, Murray JE, Kaban LB, Folkman J, Mulliken JB (1981) Application of the biologic principle of induced osteogenesis for cranial facial defects. Lancet 1: 959–962.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Gottesdiener KM (1989) Transplanted infections: Donor-to-host transmission with the allograft. Ann Intern Med 110: 1001 – 1010PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hamilton J, Eastlund T, Steckler D, et al (1990) Low prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus seropositivity in surgical bone donors. A survey of 20 regional surgical bone banks. Proceedings 14th Annual Meeting, American Association of tissue Banks. Denver, ColoradoGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Harell J, McCreedy B, Johnston A (1993) PCR vs p24 antigen testing for detection of HIV-1 in cadaveric blood speciments. Proceedings 17th Annual Meeting, American Association of Tissue Banks. Boston, Mass.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hauschka PV, Mavrakos AE, Iafrati MD, Doleman SE, Klagsbrun M (1986) Growth factors in bone matrix. Isolation of multiple types by affinity chromatography on heparin-seharose. J Biol Chem 261: 12665 – 12674PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hernigou P, Goutallier D (1988) Thirty massive allografts conserved by freezing and sterilized by irradiation. Trans Orthop Res Soc 12: 200Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hiemstra H, Tersmette M, Vos AH, et al (1992) Inactivation of HIV by gamma radiation and its effect on plasma and coagulation factors. Transfusion 31: 32 – 39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ho DD, Moudgil T, Alam M (1989) Quantitation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in blood of infected persons. N Engl J Med 321: 1621 – 1625PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Horsburgh CR Jr, Ou CY, Jason J, et al (1989) Duration of human immunodeficiency virus infection before defection of antibody. Lancet 2: 637 – 640PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Houff SA, Burton RC, Wilson RW, et al (1979) Human-to-human transmission of rabies virus by corneal transplant. N Engl J Med 300: 603 – 604PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Hulth A, Johnell O, Henricson A (1988) The implantation of demineralized fracture matrix yields more new bone formation than does intact matrix. Clin Orthop 234: 235 – 239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    James JP (1953) Tuberculosis transmitted by banked bone. J Bone Joint Surg 35-B: 578Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Janovec M, Dvorak K (1988) Autolyzed antigen-extracted allogeneic bone for bridging segmental diaphyseal bone defects in rabbits. Clin Orthop 229: 249 – 255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kakaiya R, Miller WV, Gudino MD (1991) Tissue transplant transmitted infections. Transfusion 31: 277 – 284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kaplan JE, Osame M, Kubota H, et al (1990) The risk of development of HTLV-I associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis among persons infected with HTLV-I. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 3: 1096 – 1101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kearney JN, Johnson C (1991) Evaluation of NaOH treatment of human dura mater implants to obviate Creutzfeldt-Jakob transmission. Biomaterials 12: 431 – 432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kitchen AD, Mann GF, Harrison JF, Zuckerman AJ (1989) Effect of gamma irradiation on the human immune deficiency virus and human coagulation proteins. Vox Sang 56: 223 – 229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Knaepler H, Garrel T, Seipp H, Aschere R, Gotzen L (1992) Autoklavierung von allogenen Knochentransplantaten als Alternative zur konventionellen Knochenbank. Orthopadische Praxis 28: 18 – 22Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Knapp DR, Jones ET (1988) Use of cortical cancellous allograft for posterior spinal fusion. Clin Orthop 229: 99 – 106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kobayashi H, Tsuzuki M, Koshimizu K, et al (1984) Susceptability of hepatitis B to disinfectants and heat. J Clin Micro 20: 214 – 216Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kohler P, Kreicbergs A, Stromberg L (1986) Structural properties of autoclaved bone. Acta Orthop Scand 57: 141 – 145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Kohler P, Kreicbergs A (1987) Incorporation of autoclaved allogeneic bone supplemented with allogeneic demineralized bone matrix. An experimental study in the rabbit. Clin Orthop 218: 247 – 258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Komender J, et al (1991) Therapeutic effects of transplantation of lyophilized and radiation- sterilized allogeneic bone. Clin Orthop 272: 38 – 49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Kreicbergs A, Kohler P (1989) Bone exposed to heat. In: Aebi M, Regazzoni P (eds) Bone transplantation. Berlin: Springer, pp 154 – 61Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Lane KL, Brown P, Howell DN, et al (1994) Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in a pregnant woman with an implanted dura mater graft. Neurosurgery 34: 737 – 740PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Linden J (ed) (1996) American Association of Tissue Banks. Standards for Tissue Banking. McLean, Virginia: American Association Tissue BanksGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Lord FC, Gebhardt MC, Tomford WW, Mankin HJ (1988) Infection in bone allografts. Incidence, nature and treatment. J Bone Joint Surg 70-A: 369 – 375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Loty B, Courpied JP, Tomeno B, Postel M, Forest M, Abelanet R (1990) Bone allografts sterilized by irradiation. Biological properties, procurement and results of 150 massive allografts. Intern Orthop 14: 237 – 242Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Marmor L (1964) Irradiated bonegrafts. Am J Surg 107: 833 – 836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Masullo C, Pocchiari M, Macchi G, Alema G, Prazza G, Panzera MA (1989) Transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease by dural cadaveric graft. J Neurosurg 71: 954 – 955PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Mauler R, Markle W, Hilfenhaus J (1987) Inactivation of HTLV-III/LAV, hepatitis B and non-A/ non-B viruses by pasturization in human plasma preparations. Dev Biol Standard 67: 337 – 351Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    McCarthy RE, Peck RD, Morrissy RT, Hough AJ (1986) Allograft bone in spinal fusion for paralytic scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg 68-A: 370 – 375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Mellonig JT, Prewett AB, Moyer MP (1992) HIV inactivation in a bone allograft. J Periodontol 63: 979 – 983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Merz H, Rytik G, Muller WEG, Roder W (1991) Bestimmung einer HIV-Infektion in mensch- lichen Knochen. Unfallchirurg 94: 47 – 49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Mohan S, Baylink DJ (1991) Bone growth factors. Clin Orthop 263: 30 – 48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Moore T, Gendler E, Moore-Ferraro S, Ferraro S (1992) Osteoinductive activity improved by 3 million Rads of gamma irradiation. Proceedings 16th Annual Meeting, American Association of Tissue Banks. San Diego, Calif. 39Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Mowe J (1989) Survey of Tissue Banks-1988. American Association of Tissue Banks. McLean, VirginiaGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Munting E, Wilmart J-F, Wijne A, Hennebert P, Delloye C (1988) Effect of sterilization on osteoinduction. Comparison of five methods in demineralized rat bone. Acta Orthop Scand 58: 34Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Muthukumaran N, Reddi AH (1985) Bone matrix-induced local bone formation. Clin Orthop 200: 159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Novick SL, Schrager JA, Nelson JA, Baskin BL (1993) A comparison of two HBsAg and two HIV-1 (p24) antigen EI A test kits with hemolyzed cadaveric blood specimens. Tissue Cell Report 1: 2 – 3Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Nowicki MJ (1992) Re-evaluation of anti-HIV seroprevalence among blood donors with contemporary screening assays. Transfusion 32 [Suppl]: 32Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Nuchprayoon C, Tanprasert S, Chumnijarakij T (1992) Is routine p24 HIV antigen screening justified in Thai blood donors? Lancet 340: 1041PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Nyberg M, Suni J, Haltia M (1990) Isolation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV at autopsy one to six days postmortem). Am J Clin Pathol 94: 422 – 425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Pelker RR, Friedlaender GE, Markham TC, et al (1984) Effects of freezing and freeze-drying on the biomechanical properties of rat bone. J Orthop Res 1: 405 – 411PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Pelker RR, Fridelaender GE, Markham TC (1983) Biomechanical properties of bone allografts. Clin Orthop 174: 54 – 59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Pelker RR, Friedlaender GE (1987) Biomechanical aspects of bone autografts and allografts. Orthop Clin North Am 18: 235 – 239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Pellet S, Strong DM, Temesi A, Matthews JG (1983) Effects of irradiation on frozen corticocancel- lous bone allograft incorporation and immunogenicity. In: Friedlaender GE, Mankin HJ, Sell KW (eds) Osteochondral allografts-biology, banking and clinical applications. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, pp 353 – 361Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Pepose JS, Buerger DG, Paul DA, Quinn TC, Darragh TM, Donegan E (1992) New developments in serologic screening of corneal donors for HIV-1 and hepatitis B virus infections. Ophthalmology 99: 879 – 888PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Periera B, Milford E, Kirkman R, et al (1993) Low risk of liver disease in after tissue transplantation from donors with HCV. Lancet 341: 903 – 904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Peterson LR, Satten GA, Dodd R, et al (1992) Duration of time from onset of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infectiousness to development of detectable antibody. Transfusion 34: 283 – 289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Piszkiewicz D, Apfelzweig R, Bourret L, et al (1988) Inactivation of HIV in antithrombin-III concentrate by pasteurization (letter). Transfusion 28: 198 – 199PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Prewett AB, O’Leary RK, Damien CJ (1990) Investigation of the effect of low-dose gamma irradiation on the collagenous and non-collagenous proteins of bone matrix. Proceedings 12th Annual Meeting, American Society Bone Mineral Research, August 28 – 30, 1990Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Puolakkainen PA, Ranchalis JE, Strong DM, Twardzik DR (1993) The effect of sterilization on transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) isolated from demineralized human bone. Transfusion 33: 679 – 685PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Prolo DJ, Pedrotti PW, White DM (1980) Ethylene oxide sterilization of bone, dura mater and fascia lata for human transplantation. Neurosurgery 6: 529 – 539PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Prolo DJ, Petrotti PW, Burres K, Oklunds S (1982) Superior osteogenesis in transplanted allogeneic canine skull following chemical sterilization. Clin Orthop 168: 230 – 242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Renik L, Veren K, Salahuddin SZ, Tondreau S, Markham PD (1986) Stability and inactivation of HTLV-III/LAV under clinical and laboratory environments. JAMA 225: 1887 – 1891Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Roder W, Muller H, Muller WEG, Merz H (1992) HIV infection in human bone. J Bone Joint Surg 74-B: 179 – 180Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Rutherford GW, Kateley JR (1988) The effects of irradiation and lyophilization on the mechanical properties of patellar-tendon and bone allografts. Proceeding of the Twelfth Annual Meeting, American Association of Tissue Banks 31Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Salib R, Graber J (1996) Femoral cortical ring plus cancellous dowel: alternative in anteriior lumbar interbody fusion. Tissue Cell Report 3:(in press)Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Scofield C, Eastlund T, Steckler D, et al (1993) Prevalence of infectious disease markers in surgical bone donors. Proceedings 17th Annual Meeting, American Association of Tissue Banks. Boston, Mass.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Scofield C, Eastlund T, Larson N, et al (1993) Retesting of 1,608 living tissue donors for HIV and HCV. An evaluation of results. Proceedings 17th Annual Meeting, American Association of Tissue Banks. Boston, Mass.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Sharkey N, Hollstein S, Martin R (1991) Thermal inactivation of HIV in cadaveric specimens biomechanical effects on bone. Proceeding Orthopaedic Reasearch Society, Banff, Canada 279Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Shelby J, Shanley J (1987) Transfer of murine cytomegalovirus by syngeneic skin grafts. Trans-plantation 44: 318 – 320Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Sherman P, Hollinger P (1988) Bone implant sterilization—ethylene oxide versus cobalt 60 irradiation. Annual Meeting Proceedings, American Association Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Boston, Mass.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Shutkin NM (1954) Homologous-serum hepatitis following the use of refrigerated bone bank bone. J Bone Joint Surg 36-A: 160 – 162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Simonds RJ, Holmberg SD, Hurwitz RL, et al (1992) Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from a seronegative organ snd tissue donor. N Engl J Med 326: 726 – 732PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Sonis ST, Kaban LB, Glowacki J (1983) Clinical trial of demineralized bone powder in treatment of periodontal effectis. J Oral Med 38: 117 – 122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Spire B, Barre-Sinoussi F, Dormont D, Montagnier L, Chermann JC (1985) Inactivation of lymphadenopathy associated virus by heat, gamma rays and ultraviolet light. Lancet 1: 188 – 189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Stramer LS, Heller JS, Coombs RW, et al (1989) Markers of HIV infection prior to IgG antibody seropositivity. JAMA 262: 64 – 69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Stramer LS, Heller JS, Coombs RW, et al (1989) Markers of HIV infection prior to IgG antibody seropositivity. JAMA 262: 64 – 69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Sullivan R, Fassoletis AC, Larkin EP, Read BB, Peeler JT (1971) Inactivation of thirty viruses by gamma irradiation. Appl Microbiol 22: 61 – 65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Tange RA, Troost D, Limburg M (1990) Progressive fatal dementia (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease) in a patient who received homograft tissue for tympanic membrane closure. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 247: 199 – 201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Thadani V, Penar PL, Partington J, Kalb R, Janssen R, Schonberger LB, Rabkin CS, Prichard JW (1988) Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease probably acquired from a cadaveric dura mater graft. J Neurosurg 69: 766 – 769PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Thomas FC, Ouwerkerk T, McKercher P (1992) Inactivation by gamma irradiation of animal viruses in simulated laboratory effluent. Appl Environ Micro 43: 1051 – 1056Google Scholar
  135. Tomford WW, Starkweather RJ, Goldman MH (1981) A study of the clinical incidence of infection in the use of banked allograft bone. J Bone Joint Surg 63-A: 244 – 248Google Scholar
  136. Tomford WW, Thongphasuk J, Mankin HJ, Ferraro MJ (1990) Frozen musculoskeletal allografts. A study of the clinical incidence and causes of infection associated with their use. J Bone Joint Surg 72-A: 1137 – 1143Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Transfeldt E, Lonstein J, Winter R, et al (1985) Wound infections in reconstructive spinal surgery. Orthop Trans 9: 128 – 129Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Triantafyllou N, Sotiorpoulo SE, Triantafyllou J (1973) The mechanical properties of lyophilized and irradiated bone grafts. Acta Orthop Belg 41: 35 – 44Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Turner TC, Bassett CAL, Pate JW, Sawyer PN, Trump JG, Wright JG (1956) Sterilization of preserved bone grafts by high voltage cathode irradiation. J Bone Joint Surg 38: 862 – 884PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Turner TB, Diseker TH (1941) Duration of infectivity of Treponema pallidum in citrated blood stored under conditions obtained in blood banks. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp 68: 269 – 279Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Urist MR, Hernandez A (1974) Excitation transfer in bone. Deleterious effect of cobalt 60 radiation sterilization of bone implants. Arch Surg 109: 486 – 493Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    von Garrell T, Knaepler H (1993) Thermal treatment of bone allografts for distinfection. Proceedings 17th Annual Meeting. American Association of Tissue Banks. Boston, MassGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Weintroub S, Reddi AH (1988) Influence of irradiation on the osteoinductive potential of demineralized bone matrix. Calcif Tissue Int: 255 – 260Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Wells MA, Wittek AE, Epstein JS, et al (1986) Inactivation and partition of human T-cell lymphotropic virus, type III, during ethanol fractionation of plasma. Transfusion 26: 210 – 213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Yamada S, Aiba T, Endo Y, et al (1994) Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease transmitted by a cadaveric dura mater graft. Neurosurgery 34: 740 – 744PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Yerly S, Chamot E, Hirschel B, Perrin LH (1992) Quantitation of human immunodeficiency pro virus and circulating virus: Relationship with immunologic parameters. J Infect Dis 166: 269 – 276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Zaaiger HL, Exel-Oehlers P, Kraaijeveld T, et al (1992) Early detection of HIV-1 by third generation assay. Lancet 340: 770 – 772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Zasacki W (1991) The efficacy of application of lyophilized, radiation-sterilized bone graft in orthopedic surgery. Clin Orthop 272: 82 – 87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Zimmerman R, Bechtold J, Eastlund T, Bianco P (1992) Effect of Pasteurization on the mechanical properties of human cancellous bone. Proceedings of the 2nd North American Congress on Biomechanics. Chicago, 17Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ted Eastlund
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Laboratory Medicine and PathologyUniversity of Minnesota Hospitals and ClinicMinneapolisUSA
  2. 2.North Central Tissue ServicesAmerican Red CrossSt. PaulUSA

Personalised recommendations