Brain Protection

  • F. Cohadon
Part of the Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery book series (NEUROSURGERY, volume 21)


The concept of protection has a long history in medicine. The empirical use of cold for example, to attenuate the reactions to and consequences of injuries, particularly of brain injuries, has been acknowledged from the time of the Greeks (Frost 1981, Hoff 1986). The modern concept of brain protection however emerges in the fifties in the particular field of thoracic surgery. Resection of the aortic arch was attempted using temporary shunts and hypothermia (Cooley 1955) and later, circulatory arrest under extracorporeal circulation (De Bakey 1957) and deep hypothermia (Niazi and Lewis 1958). In these pioneering works as well as in subsequent developments in our own neurosurgical field (Rosomoff 1959, Drake 1964), protection means prevention and mitigation of a foreseeable ischemie insult (Fig. la) highly likely to occur in given circumstances. Brain protection associates on the one hand hemodynamic manipulations to avoid ischemia and, on the other hand, various pharmacological or physical methods aimed at reducing the metabolic demand to limit the consequences of ischemia if eventually it is in part unavoidable. In this first period of its development brain protection is based on hypometabolism, it is essentially an intraoperative procedure and it is inseparable from other anesthetic and resuscitation techniques. In fact it marks the beginning of modern neuroreanimation around hemodynamic and metabolic preoccupations (Campan 1981).


Cerebral Ischemia Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Focal Cerebral Ischemia Cerebral Vasospasm Circulatory Arrest 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Abe K, Kogure K, Yamamoto H, et al (1987) Mechanism of arachidonic acid liberation during ischemia in gerbil cerebral cortex. J Neurochem 48: 503–509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adams HP (1993) Trials of trials in acute ischemic stroke. Stroke 24: 1410–1415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aitkenhead A, (1986) Cerebral protection. Br J Hosp Med 35(5): 290–298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Albers GW, Goldber MP, Choi DW (1989) N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists: ready for clinical trial in brain ischemia? Ann Neurol 25: 398–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Alborch E, Torregrosa G, Terrasa JC, Salom JB, Miranda FJ (1987) Effects of calcium entry blockers on experimental cerebral vasoconstriction. In: Cervos-Navarro J, Ferszt R (eds) Stroke and microcirculation. Raven, New York, pp 437–442.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    An G, Lin TN, Liu JS, et al (1993) Expression of c-fos and c-jun family genes after focal cerebral ischemia. Ann Neurol 33: 457–464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Anderson DK, Saunders RD, Demediuk P, Dugan LL, Braughler JM, Hall ED, Means ED, Horrocks LA (1985) Lipid hydrolysis and peroxidation in injured spinal cord: partial protection with methylprednisolone or vitamin E and selenium. CNS Trauma 12: 257–267.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Araki J, Kato H, Kogure K (1989) Selective neuronal vulnerability following transient cerebral ischemia in the gerbil: distribution and time course. Acta Neurol Scand 80: 548–553.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Aronowski J, Grotta JC, Waxham MN (1992) Ischemia-induced translocation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II: potential role in neuronal degeneration. J Neurochem 58: 1743–1753.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Aronowski J, Waxham MN, Grotta JC (1993) Neuronal protection and preservation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 11 and protein kinase C activity by destrorphan treatment in global ischemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 13: 550–557.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Arrigoni E, Avéret N, Loiseau H, Cohadon F (1987) Relationship between epileptic activity and edema formation in the acute phase of cryogenic lesion. Neurochem Pathol 7: 207–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Arrigoni E, Cohadon F (1991) Calcium-activated neutral protease activities in brain trauma. Neurochem Res 16: 483–487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Asano T, Shigeno T, Johshita H, Usui M, Hanamura T (1987) A novel concept on the pathogenetic mechanism underlying ischaemic brain oedema: relevance of free radicals and eicosanoids. Acta Neurochir (Wien) [Suppl] 41: 85–94.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Asano T, Tanishima T, Sasaki T, Sano K (1980) Possible participation of free radical reactions initiated by clot lysis in the pathogenesis of vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. In: Wilkins RH (ed) Cerebral arterial spasm. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 190–201.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Asplund K (1991) Hemodilution in acute stroke. Cerebrovasc Dis 1: 129–138.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Astrup J (1982) Energy-requiring cell functions in the ischemie brain. J Neurosurg 56: 482–497.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Astrup J, Siesjö BK, Symon L (1981) Thresholds in cerebral ischemia. The ischemie penumbra. Stroke 12(6): 723–725.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Averet N, Coussemacq M, Cohadon F (1990) Thiobarbituric acid reaction material content and enzymatic protection against per-oxidative damage during the course of cryogenic rabbit brain edema. Neurochem Res 15: 791–795.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bachet J, Guilmet D, Goudot B, Termignon JL, Teodori G, Dreyfus G, Brodaty D, Dubois C, Delentdecker P (1991) Cold cerebroplegia: a new technique of cerebral protection during operations on the transverse aortic arch. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 102: 85–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Baethmann A, Kempski O, Schürer L (1993) Mechanisms of secondary brain damage. Current state. Acta Neurochir (Wien) [Suppl] 57.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Baethmann A, Maier-Hauff K, Schürer L, Lange M, Guggenbichler C, Vogt W, Jacob K, Kempski O (1989) Release of glutamate and of free fatty acids in vasogenic brain edema. J Neurosurg 70: 578–591.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Baethmann A, Oettinger W, Rothenfusser W, et al (1980) Brain edema factors: current state with particular reference to plasma constituents and glutamate. Adv Neurol 28: 171–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Balentine JD (1983) Calcium toxicity as a factor in spinal cord injury. Surv Synth Pathol Res 2: 184–193.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Balentine JD, Greene WB (1984) Ultrastructural pathology of nerve fibers in calcium-induced myelopathy. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 43: 500–510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Baron JC (1987) Ischemic stroke studied by 150-labeled compounds: misery perfusion and luxury perfusion. In: Heiss WD, Pawlik G, Herholz K, Wienhard K (eds) Clinical efficacy of positron emission tomography. Nijhoff, Dordrecht, pp 15–23.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Baron JC, Bousser MG, Rey A, Guillard A, Comar D, Castaigne P (1981) Reversal of focal “misery-perfusion syndrome” by extra-intracranial arterial bypass in hemodynamic cerebral ischemia. Stroke 12: 454–459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bartkowski HM, Brakel A, Mondora RA, Kutan R (1988) Therapeutic value of a constant intravenous infusion of nimodipine for 24 hours after acute cerebral infarction. Stroke 19: 147.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Batjer HH (1993) Cerebral protective effects of etomidate experimental and clinical aspects. Cerebrovasc Brain Metab Rev 5: 17–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Batjer HH, Frankfurt AI, Purdy PD, Smith SS, Samson DS (1988) Use of etomidate, temporary arterial occlusion and intraoperative angiography in surgical treatment of large and giant cerebral aneurysms. J Neurosurg 68: 234–240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Baumann KW, Kassell NF, Olin J, Yamada T (1982) The effects of gammahydroxybutyric acid on canine cerebral blood flow and metabolism. J Neurosurg 57: 197–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bazan NG (1970) Effects of ischemia and electroconvulsive shock on free fatty acid pool in the brain. Biochim Biophys Acta 218: 1–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bazan NG, Braquet P, Ginsberg MD (eds) (1992) Neurochemical correlates of cerebral ischemia. In: Advances in neurochemistry, Vol 7. Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Beal MF (1992) Does impairment of energy metabolism result in excitotoxic neuronal death in neurodegenerative illnesses? Ann Neurol 31: 119–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Beckman J, Beckman T, Chen J, Marshall P, Freeman B (1990) Apparent hydroxyl radical production by peroxynitrite: implications for endothelical injury from nitric oxide and Superoxide. Proc Natl Acad Sci 87: 1620–1624.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Benson DW, Williams GR Jr, Spencer FC, Yates AJ (1959) The use of hypothermia after cardiac arrest. Anesth Analg 38: 423–428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Benveniste H, Drejer J, Schousboe A and Diemer NH (1984) Elevation of the extracellular concentrations of glutamate and aspartate in rat hippocampus during transient cerebral ischemia monitored by intracerebral microdialysis. J Neurochem 43: 1369–1374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Benveniste H, Jòrgensen B, Sandberg M, Christensen T, Hagberg H, Diemer NH (1989) Ischaemic damage in hippocampus CA1 is dependent on glutamate release and intact innervation from CA3. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 9: 629–639.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Berridge MJ (1984) Inositol trisphosphate and diacylglycerol as second messengers. Biochem J 220: 345–360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bishop RL, Weisfeldt ML (1976) Sodium bicarbonate administration during cardiac arrest, effect on arterial pH, pCO2 and osmolality. JAMA 235: 506–509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bleyaert AL, Nemoto EM, Safar P, et al (1978) Thiopental amelioration of brain damage after global ischemia in monkeys. Anesthesiology 49: 390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bolas N, Rajgopalan B, Mitsumori F, et al (1988) Metabolic changes during experimental cerebral ischemia in hyperglycemic rats, observed by 31P and 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Stroke 19: 608–614.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Borle AB (1981) Control, modulation and regulation of cell calcium. Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol 90: 13–164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bouma GJ, Muizelaar JP, Choi SC, Newlon PG, Young HF (1991) Cerebral circulation and metabolism after severe traumatic brain injury: the elusive role of ischemia. J Neurosurg 75: 685–693.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Braakman R (1993) Clinical trials in neurotrauma. Possibilities and pitfalls. Communication at the second International symposium on brain trauma. Glasgow, 1993.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Braakman R (1994) Multicentre trials on the efficacy of nimodipine on outcome after severe head injury. European Study Group. J Neurosurg (in press).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bracken MB, Shepard MJ, Collins WF, et al (1990) A randomized controlled trial of methylprednisolone or naloxone in the treatment of acute spinal-cord injury: results of the second national acute spinal cord injury study. N Engl J Med 322: 1405–1411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bracken MB, Shepard MJ, Collins WF, et al (1992) Methylprednisolone or naloxone treatment after acute spinal cord injury: 1-year follow-up data. J Neurosurg 76: 23–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bralet J, Beley P, Bralet AM, et al (1979) Influence of various agents on the development of brain edema in the rat following microembolism. Protective effect of gammabutyrolactone. Stroke 10: 653–656.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Braughler JM, Hall ED, Means ED, et al (1987) Evaluation of an intensive methylprednisolone sodium succinate dosing regimen in experimental spinal cord injury. J Neurosurg 67: 102–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Braughler JM, Lainer MJ (1986) The effects of large doses of methylprednisolone on neurologic recovery and survival in the Mongolian gerbil following three hours of unilateral carotid occlusion. Cent Nerv Syst Trauma 3: 153–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Breivik H, Safar P, Sands P (1978) Clinical feasibility trials of barbiturate therapy after cardiac arrest. Crit Care Med 6: 228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bromont C, Marie C, Bralet J (1989) Increased lipid peroxydation in vulnerable brain regions after transient forebrain ischemia in rats. Stroke 20: 918–924.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Buchan A, Li H, Pulsinelli W (1991) The N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist, MK-801, fails to protect against neuronal damage caused by transient, severe forebrain ischemia in adult rats. J Neurosci 11: 1049–1056.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bulkley GB (1987) Free radical-mediated reperfusion injury: a selective review. Br J Cancer [Suppl] 55: 6673.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Bullock R, Butcher SP, Chen MH, Kendall L, McCulloch J (1991) Correlation of the extracellular glutamate concentration with extent of blood flow reduction after subdural hematoma in the rat. J Neurosurg 74: 794–802.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Bullock R, Graham DI, Chen MH, Lowe D, McCulloch J (1990) Focal cerebral ischemia in the cat: pretreatment with a competitive NMDA receptor antagonist D-CPP-ene. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 10: 668–674.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Busto R, Dietrich WD, Globus MY-T, Valdes I, Scheinberg P, Ginsberg MD (1987) Small differences in intraischemic brain temperature critically determine the extent of ischemic neuronal injury. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 7: 729–738.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Busto R, Dietrich WD, Globus MY-T, Ginsberg MD (1989a) The importance of brain temperature in cerebral ischemic injury. Stroke 20: 1113–1114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Busto R, Globus MY-T, Dietrich WD, Martinez E, Valdes I, Ginsberg MD (1989b) Effect of mild hypothermia on ischemia-induced release of neurotransmitters and free fatty acids in rat brain. Stroke 20: 904–910.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Busto R, Yoshida S, Ginsberg MD, Alsonso O, Smith DW, Goldberg WJ (1984) Regional blood flow in compression-induced brain edema in rats: effect of dietary vitamin E. Ann Neurol 15: 441–448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Butcher SP, Bullock R, Graham DI, McCulloch J (1990) Correlation between aminoacid release and neuropathological outcome in rat brain following middle cerebral artery occlusion. Stroke 21: 1727–1733.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Campan L (1981) De la réanimation à la mort cérébrale. Agressologie 22: 89–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Campbell KP, Leung AT, Sharp AH (1988) The biochemistry and molecular biology of the dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channel. TINS 11: 425–430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Carafoli E (1987) Intracellular calcium homeostasis. Ann Rev Biochem 56: 395–433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Carter C, Benavides J, Legendre P, Vincent JD, Noel F, Thuret F, Lloyd KG, Arbilla S, Zivkovic B, MacKenzie ET, Scatton B, Langer SZ (1988) Ifenprodil and SL 820715 as cerebral anti-ischemic agents. II. Evidence for N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist properties. Pharmacol Exp Ther 247: 1222–1232.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Castel JP (1991) Aspects of the medical management in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. In: Symon L, Calliauw L, Cohadon F, et al (eds) Advances and technical standards in neurosurgery, Vol 18. Springer, Wien New York, pp 47–110.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Castel JP, Frerebeau P, Lagarrigue J, Moreau JJ (1994) Traitement neurochirurgical des anévrysmes intracraniens. Cours de la Société de Neurochirurgie de Langue Française, Paris, Décembre 1992. Neurochirurgie (in press).Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Chan PH, Chen SF, Yu ACH (1988) Induction of intracellular Superoxide radical formation by arachidonic acid and by polyunsaturated fatty acids in primary astrocytic cultures. J Neurochem 50: 1185–1193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Chan PH, Fishman RA (1980) Transient formation of Superoxide radicals in polyunsaturated fatty acid-induced brain swelling. J Neurochem 35: 1004–1007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Chan PH, Fishman RA, Wesley MA, Longar S (1990) Pathogenesis of vasogenic edema in focal cerebral ischemia: role of Superoxide radicals. Adv Neurol 52: 177–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Chan PH, Longar S, Fishman RA (1983) Phospholipid degradation and edema development in cold-injured rat brain. Brain Res 277: 329–337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Chan PH, Longar S and Fishman RA (1987) Protective effects of liposomeentrapped Superoxide dismutase on post-traumatic brain edema. Ann Neurol 21: 540–547.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Chan PH, Yang GY, Chen SF, Carlson E, Epstein CJ (1991) Cold-induced brain edema and infarction are reduced in transgenic mice overexpressing Cuzn Superoxide dismutase. Ann Neurol 29: 482–486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Chen HSV, Pellegrini JW, Aggarwal SK, Lei SZ, Warach S, Jensen FE, Lipton SA (1992) Open-channel block of NMDA responses by memantine therapeutic advantage against NMDA receptor-mediated neurotoxicity. J Neurosci 12: 4427–4436.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Cheung JY, Bonventre JV, Malis CD, Leaf A (1986) Calcium and ischemic injury. N Engl J Med 314: 1670–1676.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Choi DW (1987) Ionic dependence of glutamate neurotoxicity. Neuroscience 7(2): 369–379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Choi DW (1988a) Calcium mediated neurotoxicity: relationship to specific channel types and role in ischemic damage. Trends Neurosci 11: 465–469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Choi DW, Koh JY, Peters S (1988b) Pharmacology of glutamate neurotoxicity in cortical cell culture: attenuation by NMDA antagonists. Neuroscience 8: 185–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Chopp M, Frinak S, Walton DR, et al (1987) Intracellular acidosis during and after cerebral ischemia in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance study of hyperglycemia in cats. Stroke 18: 919–923.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Chopp M, Weigh K M A, Tidwell CD, et al (1988) Global cerebral ischemia and intracellular pH during hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia in cats. Stroke 19: 1383–1387.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Chyatte D, Elefteriades J, Kim B (1989) Profound hypothermia and circulatory arrest for aneurysm surgery. J Neurosurg 70: 489–491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Clasen R A, Pandolfii S, Casey D (1974) Furosemide and phenobarbital in cryogenic cerebral injury and edema. Neurology 24: 642.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Clemens JA, Saunders RD, Ho PP, Phebus LA, Panetta JA (1993) The antioxidant LY231617 reduces global ischemic neuronal injury in rats. Stroke 24: 716–723.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Clifton GL (1992) Outcome measures for clinical trials involving traumatically brain-injured patients: report of a conference. Neurosurgery 31: 975–978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Clifton GL, Kreutzer JS, et al (1993) Relationship between Glasgow outcome scale and neuropsychological measures after brain injury. Neurosurgery 33: 34–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Cole DJ, Drummond JC, Ruta TS, Peckham NH (1990) Hemodilution and hypertension effects on cerebral hemorrhage in cerebral ischemia in rats. Stroke 21: 1333–1339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Collins RC, Dobkin BH, Choi DW Selective vulnerability of the brain: new insights into the pathophysiology of stroke. Annals Intern Med 110: 992-1000.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Conn AW, Montes JE, Barker GA, Edmonds JF (1980) Cerebral salvage in near drowning following neurological classification by triage. Can Anaesth Soc J 27: 201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Cooley DA, Mahaffey DE, De Bakey ME (1955) Total excision of the aortic arch for aneurysm. Surg Gynecol Obset 101: 667–672.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Cooley DA, Ott DA, Frazier OH, Walker WE (1981) Surgical treatment of aneurysm of the transverse aortic arch: experience with 25 patients using hypothermic techniques. Ann Thorac Surg 32: 260–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Corbett D, Evans S, Thomas C, Wang D, Jonas RA (1990) MK-801 reduced cerebral ischemie injury by inducing hypothermia. Brain Res 514: 300–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Coselli JS, Crawford ES, Beall AC, Mizrahi EM, Hess KR, Patel VM (1988) Determination of brain temperatures for safe circulatory arrest during cardiovascular operation. Ann Thorac Surg 45: 638–642.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Crawford ES, Saleh SA, Schessler J (1979) Treatment of aneurysm of transverse aortic arch. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 78: 383–393.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Dawson TM, Dawson VL, Snyder SH (1992) A novel neuronal messenger molecule in brain: the free radical, nitric oxide. Ann Neurol 32: 297–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Dawson VL, Dawson T, London ED, Bredt DS, Snyder SH (1991) Nitric oxide mediates glutamate neurotoxicity in primary cortical cultures. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88: 6368–6371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    De Bakey ME, Crawford ES, Cooley DA, Morris GC (1957) Successful resection of fusiform aneurysm of aortic arch with replacement by homograft. Surg Gynecol Obstetric 105: 657–664.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Demopoulos HB, Flamm ES, Seligman ML, et al (1977) Antioxidant effects of barbiturates in model membranes undergoing free radical damage. Acta Neurol Scand 56: 7.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Demopoulos HB, Flamm E, Seligman M, Pietronigro DD (1982) Oxygen free radicals in central nervous system ischemia and trauma. In: Autor AP (ed) Pathology of oxygen. Academic Press, New York, pp 127–155.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Demopoulos HB, Milvy P, Kakari S, Ransohoff J (1972) Molecular aspects of membrane structure in cerebral edema. In: Reulen HJ, Schürmann K (eds) Steroids and brain edema. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 29–39.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Dempsey RJ, Maley BE, Cowen D, Olson JW (1988) Ornithine decarboxylase activity and immunohistochemical location in postischemic brain. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 8: 843–847.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Dernbach PD, Little JR, Jones SC, Ebrahim ZY (1988) Altered autoregulation an CO2 reactivity after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurosurgery 22: 822–826.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Diemer NH, Johansen FF, Jorgensen MB (1990) N-methyl-D-aspartate and non-N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists in global cerebral ischemia. Stroke 21 [Suppl III]: 39–42.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Dienel GA (1984) Regional accumulation of calcium in postischemic rat brain. J Neurochem 43: 913–925.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Dietrich WD, Busto R, Valdes I, Loor Y (1990) Effects of normothermic versus mild hyperthermic forebrain ischemia in rats. Stroke 21: 1318–1325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Dirnagl U, Tanabe J, Pulsinelli W (1990) Pre-and posttreatment with MK-801 but not pretreatment alone reduces neocortical damage after focal cerebral ischemia in the rat. Brain Res 527: 62–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Doczi T, Joo F, Sonkodi S, et al (1986) Increased vulnerability of the BBB to experimental SAH in hypotensive rats. Stroke 17: 498–500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Downey JM (1988) Ischaemia-reperfusion injury: current research status. Free Rad Res Commun 5: 185–208.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Drake CG, Barr HWK, Coles JC, Gergely NF (1964) Theuse of extracorporeal circulation and profound hypothermia in the treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysm. J Neurosurg 21: 575–581.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Drejer J, Beneviste H, Diemer NH, Schousboe A (1985) Cellular origin of ischemia induced glutamate release from brain tissue in vivo and in vitro. J Neurochem 45: 145–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Dumuis A, Sebben M, Haynes L, Pin JP, Bockaert J (1988) NMDA receptors activate the arachidonic acid cascade system in striatal neurons. Nature 336: 68–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Edgar AD, Strosznajder J, Horrocks LA (1982) Activation of ethanolamine phospholipase A2 in brain during ischemia. J Neurochem 39: 1111–1116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Edwards DH, Byrne JV, Griffith TM (1992) The effect of chronic subarachnoid hemorrhage on basal endothelium-derived relaxing factor activity in intrathecal cerebral arteries. J Neurosurg 76: 830–837.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Ernster L (1988) Biochemistry of reoxygenation injury. Crit Care Med 16: 947–953.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Escuret E, Roquefeuil B, Frerebeau P, et al (1977) Effect of hyperventilation associated with administration of central nervous depressants in brain injuries. Acta Neurol Scand 56 [Suppl 64]: 154–155.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Faden Al, Demediuk P, Panter SS, Vink R (1989) The role of excitatory amino acids and NMDA receptors in traumatic brain injury. Science 244: 798–800.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Faden AI, Jacobs TP, Mougey E, et al (1981) Endorphins in experimental spinal cord injury: therapeutic effect of naloxone. Ann Neurol 10: 326–332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Faden Al, Salzman S (1992) Pharmacological strategies in CNS trauma. Trends Pharmacol Sci 13: 29–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Faden AI, and Simon RP (1988) A potential role for excitotoxins in the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury. Ann Neurol 23: 623–626.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Farber JL (1981) The role of calcium in cell death. Life Sei 29: 1289–1295.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Fay T (1943) Observations on generalized refrigeration in cases of severe cerebral trauma. Assoc Res Nerv Ment Dis Proc. 24: 611–619.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Fazl M, Houlden DA, Weaver K (1991) Correlation between cerebral blood flow, somatosensory evoked potentials, CT scan grade, and neurologic grade in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Can J Neurol Sci 18: 453–457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 12.
    Ferguson GG (1982) Intra-operative monitoring and internal shunts: are they necessary in carotid endarterectomy? Stroke 13: 287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Findlay JM, Weir BKA, Kanamaru K, Espinosa F (1989) Arterial wall change in cerebral vasospasm. Neurosurgery 25: 736–746.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Flamm ES, Seligman ML, Demopoulos HB (1980) Barbiturate protection of the ischemie brain. In: Cotterell JE, Turndorf H (eds) Anaesthesia and neurosurgery. Mosby, Saint Louis, pp 248–260.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Flamm ES, Young W, Demopoulos HB, et al (1982) Experimental spinal cord injury: treatment with naloxone. Neurosurgery 10: 227–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Francel PC, Long BA, Malik JM, Tribble C, Jane JA, Krön IL (1993) Limiting ischemie spinal cord injury using a free radical scavenger 21-aminosteroid and/or cerebrospinal fluid drainage. J Neurosurg 79: 742–751.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Frandsen A, Schousboe A (1992) Mobilization of Dantrolene-sensitive intracellular calcium pools is involved in the cytotoxicity induced by quisqualate and N-methyl-D-aspartate but not by 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionate and kainate in cultured cerebral cortical neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89: 2590–2594.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Freeman BA, Crapo JD (1982) Biology of disease: free radicals and tissue injury. Lab Invest 47: 412–426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Frerichs KU, Lindsberg PJ, Hallenbeck JM, Feuerstein GZ (1990) Plateletactivating factor and progressive brain damage following focal brain injury. J Neurosurg 73: 223–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Fridovich I (1978) The biology of oxygen radicals. The Superoxide radical is an agent of oxygen toxicity: Superoxide dismutases provide an important defense. Science 201: 875–880.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Frist WH, Baldwin JC, Starnes VA, Stinson EB, Oyer PE, Crig Miller D, Jamieson SW, Scott Mitchell R (1986) A reconsideration of cerebral perfusion in aortic arch replacement. Ann Thorac Surg 42: 273–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Frost EAM (1981) Brain preservation. Anesth Analg 60: 821–832.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Gaab M, Knoblich OE, Spohr A, et al (1980) Effect of THAM on ICP, EEG and tissue edema. In: Shulman K, Marmarou A, Meller JD, et al (eds) Intra-cranial pressure, Vol I. Springer, Wien New York, pp 664–668.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Garcia JH (1990) Relevance of experimental models to clinical stroke. In: Weinstein PR, Faden AI (eds) Protection of the brain from ischemia, pp 75-79.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Gennarelli TA (1983) Head injury in man and experimental animals: clinical aspects. Acta Neurochir (Wien) [Suppl] 32: 1–13.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Gennarelli TA, Tipperman R, Maxwell WL, Graham DI, Adams JH, Irvine A (1993) Traumatic damage to the nodal axolemma: an early, secondary injury. Acta Neurochir (Wien) [Suppl] 57: 49–52.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Giannotta SL, Weiss MH, Apuzzo MLJ, et al (1984) High dose glucocorticoids in the management of severe head injury. Neurosurgery 15: 497–501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Ginsberg MD, Sternau LL, Globus MYT, Dietrich WD, Busto R (1992) Therapeutic modulation of brain temperature: relevance to ischemic brain injury. Cerebrovasc. Brain Metab Rev 4: 189–225.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Goldberg WJ, Watson BD, Busto R, Kurchner H, Santiso M, Ginsberg MD (1984) Concurrent measurement of (Na++ K+)-ATPase activity and lipid peroxides in rat brain following reversible global ischemia. Neurochem Res 9: 1737–1747.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Gotti B, Benavides J, MacKenzie ET, Scatton B (1990) The pharmacotherapy of focal cortical ischaemia in the mouse. Brain Res 522: 290–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Gotti B, Duverger D, Bertin J, Carter C, Dupont R, Frost J, Gaudilliere B, MacKenzie ET, Rousseau J, Scatton B, Wick A (1988) Ifenprodil and SL 82.0715 as cerebral anti-ischemic agents. I. Evidence for efficacy in models of focal cerebral ischemia. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 247: 1211–1221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Graff HW, Leach W, Arieff AI (1985) Evidence for a detrimental effect of bicarbonate therapy in hypoxic lactic acidosis. Science 227: 754–757.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Graham DI, Adams JH, Doyle D (1978) Ischaemic brain damage in fatal non-missile head injuries.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Graham DI, Ford I, Adams JH, Doyle D, Teasdale GM, Lawrence AE, McLellan DR (1989) Ischaemic brain damage is still common in fatal non-missile head injury. J Neurosurg Psychiatry 52: 346–350.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Graham SH, Chen J, Sharp FR, Simon RP (1993) Limiting ischemic injury by inhibition of excitatory amino acid release. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 13: 88–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Gxeeley WWJ, Ungerleider RM, Smith LR, Reves JG (1989) The effects of deep hypothermie cardiopulmonary bypass and total circulatory arrest on cerebral blood flow in infants and children. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 97: 737–745.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Greenberg JH, Uematsu D, Araki NI, Reivich M (1991) Changes in intracellular free calcium during cerebral ischemia and the effects of nimodipine on calcium and histological damage. In: Scriabine A, Teasdale GM, Tettenborn D, Young W (eds) Nimodipine: pharmacological clinical results in cerebral ischemia. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 9–24.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Guilmet D, Roux PM, Bachet J, Goudot B, Tawil N, Diaz F (1986) Nouvelle technique de protection cérébrale; chirurgie de la crosse aortique. Presse Med 15: 1096–1098.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Hadley MN (1991) Experimental models of focal ischemia: results with Nimodipine. In: Scriabine A, Teasdale G M, Tettenborn D, Young W (eds) Nimodipine: pharmacological clinical results in cerebral ischemia. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 29–32.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Hagberg H, Lehmann A, Sandberg M, Nyström B, Jacobson I, Hamberger A. (1985) Ischemia-induced shift of inhibitory and excitatory amino acids from intra-to extracellular compartments. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 5: 413–419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Hagerdal M, Harp J, Milsson L, Siesjö BK (1975) The effect of induced hypothermia upon oxygen consumption in the rat brain. J Neurochem 24: 311–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Hall ED (1992) The neuroprotective pharmacology of methylprednisolone. J Neurosurg 76: 13–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Hall ED (1988) Effects of the 21-aminosteroid U74006F on posttraumatic spinal cord ischemia in cats. J Neurosurg 68: 462–465.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Hall ED (1989) Free radicals and CNS injury. Crit Care Clin 5: 793–805.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Hall ED, Braughler JM (1982) Glucocorticoid mechanisms in acute spinal cord injury: a review and therapeutic rationale. Surg Neurol 18: 320–327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Hall ED, Wolf DL, Braughler JM (1984) Effects of a single large dose of methylprednisolone sodium succinate on experimental posttraumatic spinal cord ischemia. Dose-response and time-action analysis. J Neurosurg 61: 124–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Hall ED, Wolf DL (1986) A pharmacological analysis of the pathophysiological mechanisms of posttraumatic spinal cord ischemia. J Neurosurg 64: 951–961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Hall ED, Wolf DL, Althaus JS, von Voigtlander PF (1987) Beneficial effects of the kappa opioid receptor agonist U-50488H in experimental acute brain and spinal cord injury. Brain Res 435: 174–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Hall ED, Yonkers PA, Horan KL, Braughler JM (1989) Correlation between attenuation of posttraumatic spinal cord ischemia and preservation of tissue vitamin 21-aminosteroid U74006 F: Evidence for an in vivo antioxidant mechanism. J Neurotrauma 6(3): 169–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Halliwell B (1989) Oxidants and the central nervous system: some fundamental questions. Acta Neurol Scand 126: 23–33.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Halliwell B (1989b) Superoxide, iron, vascular endothelium and reperfusion injury. Free Rad Res Commun 5: 315–318.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC (1989) Free radicals in biology and medicine, 2nd Ed. Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Halsey JH (1992) Risks and benefits of shunting in carotid endarterectomy. Stroke 23: 1583–1587.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Harada T, Suzuki Y, Satoh S, Ikegaki I, Asano T, Shibuya M, Sugita K (1990) Blood component induction of cerebral vasospasm. Neurosurgery 27: 252–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Harris RJ, Symon L, Branston NM, Bayhan M (1981) Changes in extracellular calcium activity in cerebral ischemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1: 203–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Harrison MJG (1992) Protection against ischaemia: the basis of acute stroke therapy. Current Opin Neurol Neurosurg 5: 33–38.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Hass WK (1981) Beyond cerebral blood flow, metabolism and ischemic thresholds: an examination of the role of calcium in the initiation of cerebral infarction. In: Meyer JS, Lechner H, Reivich M, Ott EO, Arabinar A (eds) Cerebral vascular disease, Vol 3. Proceedings of the 10th Salzburg Conference on Cerebral Vascular Disease. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, pp 3–17.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Hayes RL, Jenkins LW, Lyeth BG (1992) Neurotransmitter-mediated mechanisms of traumatic brain injury: acetylcholine and excitatory amino acids. J Neurotrauma 9 [Suppl 1]: S173–S187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Heiss WD (1992) Experimental evidence of ischemic thresholds and functional recovery. Stroke 23: 1668–1672.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Heiss WD, Fink GR, Pietrzyk U, Huber M, Herholz K (1992) Do PET data support a therapeutic window in ischemie stroke? In: Krieglstein J, OberpichlerSchwenk H (eds) Pharmacology of cerebral ischemia. Wissenschaftliche Verlagssellschaft, Stuttgart, pp 529–536.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Heiss WD, Rosner G (1983) Functional recovery of cortical neurons as related to degree and duration of ischemia. Ann Neurol 14: 294–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Hoff JT (1986) Cerebral protection. J Neurosurg 65: 579–591.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Hoff JT, Pitts LH, Spetzler R, et al (1977) Barbiturates from protection from cerebral ischemia in aneurysm surgery. In: Ingvar DH, Lassen N (eds) Cerebral function, metabolism and circulation. Acta Neurol Scand 56: 158.Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Hoff JT, Smith AL, Hankinson HL (1975) Barbiturate protection from cerebral infarction in primates. Stroke 6: 28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Hossmann KA (1982) Treatment of experimental cerebral ischemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2: 275–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Hossmann KA, Paschen W (1992) Disturbances of protein and polyamine metabolism after reversible cerebral ischemia. In: Bazan NG, Braquet P, Ginsberg MD (eds) Neurochemical correlates of cerebral ischemia. Advances in neurochemistry, Vol 7. Plenum, New York, pp 59–83.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Hossmann KA, Widmann R, Wiessner Ch, Dux E, Djuricic B, Röhn G (1992) Protein synthesis after global ischemia and selective vulnerability. In: Krieglstein J, Oberpichler-Schwenk H (eds) Pharmacology of cerebral ischemia. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft, Stuttgart, pp 289–299.Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Hsu CY (1993) Criteria for valid preclinical trials using animal stroke models. Stroke 24: 633–663.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Huang SFL, Sun GY (1987) Acidic phospholipids, diacylglycerols, and free fatty acids in gerbil brain: a comparison of ischemic changes resulting from carotid ligation and decapitation. J Neurosci Res 177: 162–167.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Ikeda Y, Anderson JH, Long DM (1989a) Oxygen free radicals in the genesis of traumatic and peritumoral brain edema. Neurosurgery 24: 769–685.Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Ikeda Y, Ikeda K, Long DM (1989b) Comparative study of different ironchelating agents in cold-induced brain edema. Neurosurgery 24: 820–824.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Ikeda Y, Long DM (1990) The molecular basis of brain injury and brain edema: the role of oxygen free radicals. Neurosurgery 27: 1–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Ikeda M, Yoshida S, Busto R, et al (1986) Polyphosphoinositides as a probable source of brain free fatty acids accumulated at the onset of ischemia. J Neurochem 47: 123–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Ito U, Kirino T, Kuroiwa T, Klatzo I (eds) (1990) Maturation phenomenon in cerebral ischemia. Proceedings of the satellite symposium of the XIth International Congress of Neuropathology, Tokyo. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 11-12.Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Ito U, Spatz M, Walker JT Jr, Klatzo I (1975) Experimental cerebral ischemia in Mongolian gerbils. I. Light microscopic observations. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 32: 209–223.Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Jansen C, Vriens EM, Eikelboom BC, Vermeulen FEE, Van Gijn J, Ackerstaff FGA (1993) Carotid endarterectomy with transcranial Doppler and electroencephalographie monitoring: a prospective study in 130 operations. Stroke 24: 665–669.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Javid H, Julian OC, Dye WS, et al (1979) Seventeen-year experience with routine shunting in carotid artery surgery. Stroke 3: 167.Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Jenkins LW, Moszynski K, Lyeth BG, Lewelt W, DeWitt DS, Allen A, Dixon CE, Povlishock JT, Majewski TJ, Clifton GL, Young HF, Becker DP, Hayes RL (1989) Increased vulnerability of the mildly traumatized rat brain to cerebral ischemia: the use of controlled secondary ischemia as a research tool to identify common or different mechanisms contributing to mechanical and ischemic brain injury. Brain Res 477: 211–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Johansen FF, Jorgensen MB, Ekstrom von Lubitz KJ, Diemer NH (1986) Selective dendrite damage in hippocampal CA1 stratum radiatum with unchanged axon ultrastructure and glutamate uptake after transient cerebral ischaemia in the rat. Brain Res 291: 373–377.Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Johnston RA (1993) The management of acute spinal cord compression. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 56: 1046–1054.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Jones TJ, Morawetz RB, Crowell RM, Marcoux FW, Fitzgibbon SJ, Degirolami U, Ojemann RG (1981) Thresholds of focal cerebral ischemia in awake monkeys. J Neurosurg 54: 773–782.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Joo F, Kovàcs J, Szerdahelyi P, Temersvàri P, Tosaki A (1992) Treatment with histamine receptor antagonists of ischemie brain edema. In: Krieglstein J, Oberpichler-Schwenk H (eds). Pharmacology of cerebral ischemia. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft, Stuttgart, pp 217–225.Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Kakarieka, Braakman R, Schakel EH (1993) Traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage. Importance and treatment perspective with nimodipine. Communication 2nd International Neurotrauma Symposium, Glasgow (in press).Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Kaku DA, Goldberg MP, Choi DW (1991) Antagonism of non-NMDA receptors augments the neuroprotective effect of NMDA receptor blockade in cortical cultures subjected to prolonged deprivation of oxygen and glucose. Brain Res 554: 344–347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Kalimo K, Rehncrona S, Söderfeldt B, Olsson Y, Siesjö BK (1981) Brain lactic acidosis and ischemie cell damage, Vol 1. Histopathology. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1: 313–327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Kamiya T, Katayama Y, Kashinagi F, Terashi A (1993) The role of bradykinin in mediating ischemie brain edema in rats. Stroke 24: 571–576.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Kanamaru K, Weir BKA, Findlay JM, Grace M, MacDonald RL (1990) A dosage study of the effect of the 21-aminosteroid U74006 F on chronic cerebral vasospasm in a primate model. Neurosurgery 27: 29–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Kanamaru K, Weir BKA, Simpson I, Witbeck T, Grace M (1991) Effect of 21-aminosteroid U-74006F on lipid peroxidation in subarachnoid clot. J Neurosurg 74: 454–459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Kaplan B, Brint S, Tanabe J, Jacewicz M, Wang XJ, and Pulsinelli W (1991) Temporal thresholds for neocortical infarction in rats subjected to reversible focal cerebral ischemia. Stroke 22: 1032–1039.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Katayama Y, Becker DP, Tamura T, et al (1990) Increase in extracellular glutamate and associated massive ionic fluxes following concussive brain injury. J Neurosurg 73: 889–900.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Kempski O, Shohami E, von Lubitz D, et al (1987) Postischemic production of eicosanoids in gerbil brain. Stroke 18: 111–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Kety SS (1950) Circulation and metabolism of the human brain in health and disease. Am J Med 8: 205–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Kinuta Y, Kimura M, Itokawa Y, Ishikawa M, Kikuchi H (1989a) Changes in xanthine oxidase in ischemic rat brain. J Neurosurg 1: 417–420.Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    Kinuta Y, Kikuchi H, Ishikawa M, Kimura M, Itokawa Y (1989b) Lipid peroxydation in focal cerebral ischemia. J Neurosurg 71: 421–429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Kirino T (1982) Delayed neuronal death in the gerbil hippocampus following ischemia. Brain Res 239: 57–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Kitagawa K, Matsumoto M, Oda T, Niinobe M, Hata R, Handa N, Fukunaga R, Isaka Y, Kimura K, Maeda H, Mikoshiba K, Kamada T (1990) Free radical generation during brief period of cerebral ischemia may trigger delayed neuronal death. Neuroscience 35: 551–558.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Kochanek PM, Hallenbeck JM (1992) Polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes/macrophages in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia and stroke. Stroke 23: 1367–1379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Kochanek PM, Dutka AJ, Kumaroo KK, et al (1988a) Effects of prostacyclin, indomethacin, and heparin on cerebral blood flow and platelet adhesion after multifocal ischemia of canine brain. Stroke 19: 693–699.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Kochanek PM, Nemoto EM, Melick JA, et al (1988b) Cerebrovascular and cerebrometabolic effects of intracarotid infusion of platelet-activating factor in rats. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 8: 546–551.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Kofke WA, Nemoto EM, Hossman KA, et al (1979) Brain blood flow and metabolism after global ischemia and post-insult thiopental therapy in monkeys. Stroke 10: 554.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Kogure K and Nakano S (1992) Dysmetabolism in lipid brain ischemia. In: Bazan NG, Braquet P, Ginsberg MD (eds) Neurochemical correlates of cerebral ischemia. Advances in neurochemistry, Vol 7. Plenum, New York, pp 103–116.Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    Koh JY, Palmer E, Cotman CW (1991) Activation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor attenuates N-methyl-D-aspartate neurotoxicity in cortical cultures. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88: 9431–9435.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Kohama A, Takasu N, Ishimatsu S, Maenosono A, Suzuki K (1991) The effects of sodium bicarbonate on cerebrospinal fluid acid-base disturbances in total cerebral ischemia. In: Takeshita H, Siesjö BK, Miller JD (eds) Advances in brain resuscitation. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 151–163.Google Scholar
  214. 214.
    Kohut JJ, Bednar MM, Kimelberg HK, McAuliffe TL, Gross CE (1992) Reduction in ischemie brain injury in rabbits by the anion transport inhibitor L-644,711. Stroke 23: 93–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Kontos HA, Povilshock JT (1986) Oxygen radicals in brain injury. CNS Trauma 3: 257–263.Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    Kontos HA, Wei EP (1986) Superoxide production in experimental brain injury. J Neurosurg 64: 803–807.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Krueger C, Weir B, Nosko M, et al (1985) Nimodipine and chronic vasospasm in monkeys. Part 2: pharmacological studies of vessels in spasm. Neurosurgery 16: 137–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Kumar R, Harvey SAK, Rester M, et al (1988) Production and effects of platelet-activating factor in the rat brain. Biochim Biophys Acta 963: 375–383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Kusumoto K, Mackay KB, McCulloch J (1992) The effect of the kappa-opioid receptor agonist CI-977 in a rat model of focal cerebral ischaemia. Brain Res 576: 147–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Kuwabara M (1992) Continuous monitoring of blood oxygen of internal jugular vein as a useful indicator for selective cerebral perfusion during aortic arch replacement. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 103: 355–362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Laborit G, Kind A, DeLeon RC (1961) 220 Cases of anesthesia in neurosurgery with sodium 4-hydroxybutyrate. Presse Med 69: 1216–1217 (Fre).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Laborit H, Huguenard P (1951) L’hibernation artificielle par moyens pharmacodynamiques et physiques en chirurgie. J Chir 67: 631–641.Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    Lam AM, Winn HR, Cullen BF, Sundling (1991) Hyperglycemia and neurological outcome in patients with head injury. J Neurosurg 75: 545–551.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Lawner P, Lourent J, Simeone F, et al (1979) Attenuation of ischemic brain edema by pentobarbital after carotid ligation in the gerbil. Stroke 10: 644.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Lazorthes G (1978) L’hypotension artérielle contrôlée en neurochirurgie. Neurochirurgie 24: 143–196.Google Scholar
  226. 226.
    Lazorthes G, Campan L (1958) Hypothermia in the treatment of craniocerebral traumatism. J Neurosurg 15: 162–167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Lazorthes Y, Sonilhac FR, Lagarrigue J, Scavazza R (1992) La surveillance des potentiels évoqués somesthésiques dans la chirurgie des anévrysmes sylviens. Neurochirurgie 38: 333–346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Le Mée F (1993) Protection cérébrale par perfusion cérébrale sélective dans la chirurgie de la crosse aortique. Université de Bordeaux II, année 1993. Thèse no 3013.Google Scholar
  229. 229.
    Lei SZ, Pan ZH, Aggarwal SK, Chen HS, Hartman J, Sucher NJ, Lipton SA (1992) Effect of nitric oxide production on the redox modulatory site of the NMDA receptor-channel complex. Neuron 8: 1087–1099.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Lei SZ, Zhang D, Abele AE, Lipton SA (1992) Blockade of NMDA receptormediated mobilization of intracellular Ca + + prevents neurotoxicity. Brain Res 598: 196–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Leonov Y, Sterz F, Safar P, et al (1990) Mild cerebral hypothermia during and after cardiac arrest improves neurologic outcome in dogs. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 10: 57–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Lindsberg PJ, Yue TL, Frerichs KU, Hallenbeck JM, Feuerstein G (1990) Evidence for platelet-activating factor as a novel mediator in experimental stroke in rabbits. Stroke 21: 1452–1457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Lipton SA (1993) Molecular mechanisms of trauma-induced neuronal degeneration. Curr Opin Neurol Neurosurg 6: 588–596.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Liu TH, Beckman JS, Freeman BA, Hogan EL, Hsu CY (1989) Polyethylene glycol-conjugated Superoxide dismutase and catalase reduce ischemic brain injury. Am J Physiol 56: H589–H593.Google Scholar
  235. 235.
    Livesay JJ, Cooleu DA, Real GJ, Walker WE, Frazier OH, Duncan JM, Ott DA (1983) Resection of aortic arch aneurysms: a comparison of hypothermic techniques in 60 patients. Ann Thorac Surg 36: 19–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Lowry OF, Passonneau JV, Hasselberger FX, Schultz PM (1964) Effect of ischemia on known substrates and cofactors of the glycocytic pathway in brain. J Biol Chem 239: 18–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Lyden PD, Hedges B (1992) Protective effect of synaptic inhibition during cerebral ischemia in rats and rabbits. Stroke 23: 1463–1470.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Lyeth BG, Ray M, Hamm RJ, Schnable J, Sandy JJ, Poklis A, Jenkins LW, Gudeman SK, Hayes RL (1992) Postinjury scopolamin administration in experimental traumatic brain injury. Brain Res 569: 281–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Lysko PG, Lysko KA, Yue TL, Webb CL, Gu JL, Feuerstein G (1992) Neuroprotective effects of carvedilal, a new antihypertensive agent, in cultured rat cerebellar neurons and in gerbil global brain ischemia. Stroke 23: 1630–1636.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Mackay KB, Kusumoto K, Graham DI, McCulloch J (1992) The effects of a kappa opioid agonist in experimental focal cerebral ischemia. In: Krieglstein J, Oberpichler-Schwenk H (eds) Pharmacology of cerebral ischemia. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft, Stuttgart, pp 207–215.Google Scholar
  241. 241.
    Mahadik S (1992) Gangliosides: new generation of neuroprotective agents. In: Marangos P (ed) Emerging strategies in neuroprotection. Birkhauser, Boston, pp 196–200.Google Scholar
  242. 242.
    Mahfood S, Qazi A, Garcia J, Mispiret A, Corso P, Smyth N (1984) Management of aortic arch aneurysm using profound hypothermia and circulatory arrest. Ann Thorac Surg 39: 412–417.Google Scholar
  243. 243.
    Marin P, Lafon-Cazal M, Bockaert J (1992) A nitric-oxide synthase activity selectively stimulated by NMDA receptors depends on protein kinase C activation in mouse striatal neurons. Eur J Neurosci 4: 425–432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Marion DW, Obrist WD, Carlier PM, Penrod LE, Darby JM (1993) The use of moderate therapeutic hypothermia for patients with severe head injuries: a preliminary report. J Neurosurg 79: 354–362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Maroon JC, Nelson PB (1979) Hypovolemia in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage: therapeutic implications. Neurosurgery 4: 223–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Marshall LF, Shapiro HM, Ranscher A, Kaufman NM (1978) Pentobarbital therapy for intracranial hypertension in metabolic coma: Reye’s syndrome. Crit Care Med 6: 1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Marshall LF, Smith RW, Shapiro HM (1979) The outcome with aggressive treatment in severe head injuries. Part II: acute and chronic barbiturate administration in the management of head injury. J Neurosurg 50: 26–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Martz D, Rayos G, Schielke GP, Betz AL (1989) Allopurinol and dimethylthiourea reduce brain infarction following middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. Stroke 20: 488–494.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Mayer S, Pulsinelli W (1992) Failure of GM1 ganglioside to influence outcome in experimental focal ischemia. Stroke 23: 242–246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    McDernott MW, Durity FA, Borozny M, Mountain MA (1989) Temporary brain hrotection 141. vessel occlusion and barbiturate protection in cerebral aneurysm surgery. Surgery 25: 54–62.Google Scholar
  251. 251.
    McCord JM (1985) Oxygen-derived free radicals in postischemic tissue injury. N Engl J Med 312: 159–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    McCulloch J (1992) Excitatory amino acid antagonists and their potential for the treatment of ischaemic brain damage in man. Br J Clin Pharmac 34: 106–114.Google Scholar
  253. 253.
    Meldrum B (1990) Protection against ischaemic neuronal damage by drugs acting on excitatory neurotransmission. Cerebrovasc Brain Metab Rev 2: 21–57.Google Scholar
  254. 254.
    Meldrum B (1992) Protection against ischemic brain damage by excitatory amino acid antagonists. In: Bazan NG, Braquet P, Ginsberg MD (eds) Neurochemical correlates of cerebral ischemia. Advances in neurochemistry, Vol 7. Plenum, New York, pp 245–264.Google Scholar
  255. 255.
    Meldrum B, Evans M, Griffiths T, Simon R (1985) Ischemic brain damage: the role of excitatory activity and of calcium entry. Br J Anaesth 57: 44–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Memezawa H, Smith ML, Siesjö BK (1992) Penumbral tissues salvaged by reperfusion following middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. Stroke 23: 552–559.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Meyer FB (1989) Calcium, neuronal hyperexcitability and ischemie injury. Research Reviews 14: 227–243.Google Scholar
  258. 258.
    Milde LM, Milde JH, Michenfelder JD (1985) Cerebral functional, metabolic, and hemodynamic effects of etomidate in dogs. Anesthesiology 63: 371–377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Milde LM, Milde JH (1986) Preservation of cerebral metabolites by etomidate during incomplete cerebral ischemia in dogs. Anesthesiology 65: 272–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Miller JD (1993) Head injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 56: 440–447.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Minami N, Tani E, Maeda Y, et al (1992) Effects of inhibitors of protein kinase C and calpain in experimental delayed cerebral vasospasm. J Neurosurg 76: 111–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Minamisawa H, Nordström CH, Smith ML, Siesjö BK (1990) The influence of mild body and brain hypothermia on ischemie brain damage. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 10: 365–374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Minamisawa H, Smith ML, Siesjö BK (1990) The effect of mild hyperthermia and hypothermia on brain damage following 5,10, and 15 minutes of forebrain ischemia. Ann Neurol 28: 26–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Mink RB, Dutka AJ, Hallenbeck JM (1991) Allopurinol pretreatment improves evoked response recovery following global cerebral ischemia in dogs. Stroke 22: 660–665.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Mitamura JA, Seligman ML, Solomon JJ, Flamm ES, Demopoulos HB, Ransohoff J (1981) Loss of essential membrane lipids and ascorbic acid from rat brain following cryogenic injury and protection by methylprednisolone. Neurol Res 3: 329–344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Mohr JP (1992) Calcium antagonists in acute ischemie stroke. In: Krieglstein J, Oberpichler-Schwenk H (eds) Pharmacology of cerebral ischemia. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft, Stuttgart, pp 553–558.Google Scholar
  267. 267.
    Molinari GF(1986) Experimental models of ischemic stroke. In: Barnett HJM, Mohr JP, Stein BM, Yatsu FM (eds) Stroke pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management. Churchill Livingstone, New York, pp 57–73.Google Scholar
  268. 26.
    Molinari GF (1988) Why model strokes? Stroke 19: 1195–1197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Monaghan DT, Bridges RJ, Cotman CW (1989) The excitatory amino acid receptors: their classes, pharmacology, and distinct properties in the function of the central nervous system. Ann Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 29: 365–402.Google Scholar
  270. 270.
    Monyer H, Harley DM, Choi DW (1990) 21-Aminosteroids attenuate excitotoxic neuronal injury in cortical cell cultures. Neuron 5: 121–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Moreland DB, Soloniuk DS, Feldman MJ (1989) Leukotrienes in experimental spinal cord injury. Surg Neurol 31: 277–280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Mosinger JL, Price MT, Bai HY, Xiao H, Olney JW (1991) Blockade of both NMDA and non-NMDA receptors is required for optimal protection against ischemic neuronal degeneration in the vivo adult mammalian retina. Exp Neurol 113: 10–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Muizelaar JP, Marmarou A, Young HF, Choi SC, Wolf A, Schneider RL, Kontos HA (1993) Improving the outcome of severe head injury with the oxygen radical scavenger polyethylene glycol-conjugated Superoxide dismutase: a phase 11 trial. J Neurosurg 78: 375–382.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Myers RE, Yamaguchi M (1976) Effects of serum glucose concentration on brain response to circulatory arrest. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 35: 30.Google Scholar
  275. 275.
    Myers RE, Yamaguchi M (1977) Nervous system effects of cardiac arrest in monkeys. Arch Neurol 34: 65–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Nagai H, Kamiya K, Sugiyama N, Ueda Y (1988) Change of ischemie threshold after subarachnoid hemorrhage. In: Wilkins RH (ed) Cerebral vasospasm. Raven, New York, pp 57–78.Google Scholar
  277. 277.
    Nakanishi S (1992) Molecular diversity of glutamate receptors and implications for brain function. Nature 258: 597–603.Google Scholar
  278. 278.
    Nedergaard M (1987) Transient focal ischemia in hyperglycemic rats is associated with increased cerebral infarction. Brain Res 408: 79–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Nellgard B, Wieloch T(1992) Postischemic blockade of AMPA but no NMDA receptors litigates neuronal damage in the rat brain following transient severe cerebral ischemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 12: 2–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Niazi SA, Lewis FJ (1958) Profound hypothermia in man. Ann Surg 147: 264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Nicholls D, Attwell D (1990) The release and uptake of excitatory amino acids. Trends Pharmac Sei 11: 462–468.Google Scholar
  282. 282.
    Nilsson P, Hillered L, Pontén U, Ungerstedt U (1990) Changes in cortical extracellular levels of energy-related metabolites and amino acids following concussive brain injury in rats. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 10: 631–637.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Nishizuka T (1989) The family of protein kinase C for signal transduction. JAMA 262: 1826–1833.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Nordstrom CH, Messeter K, Sundbärg G, Schalén W, Werner M, Ryding E (1988) Cerebral blood flow, vasoreactivity, and oxygen consumption during barbiturate therapy in severe traumatic brain lesions. J Neurosurg 68: 424–431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Nordström CH, Rehncrona S, Siesjö BK (1978a) Restitution of cerebral energy state, as well as of glycolytic metabolites, citric acid cycle intermediates and associated amino acids after 30 minutes of complete ischemia in rats anaesthetized with nitrous oxide or phenobarbital. J Neurochem 30: 479–486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Nordstrom CH, Siesjö BK (1978b) Effects of phenobarbital in cerebral ischemia. Part I: cerebral energy metabolism during pronounced incomplete ischemia. Stroke 9: 327–335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Norenberg MD, Mozes LW, Gregorios JB, Norenberg LOB (1987) Effects of lactic acid on astrocytes in primary culture. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 46: 154–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Nosko M, Krueger CA, Weir BKA, Cook DA (1986) Effects of nimodipine on in vitro contractility of cerebral arteries of dog, monkey, and man. J Neurosurg 65: 376–381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Nosko M, Weir B, Krueger C, et al (1985) Nimodipine and chronic vasospasm in monkeys Part I: clinical and radiological findings. Neurosurgery 16: 129–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Nottebohm F (ed) (1985) Hope for a new neurology. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol 457, pp 1-238.Google Scholar
  291. 291.
    Nowicki JP, Carreau A, Duval D, Poignet H, Vigé X, Scatton B (1992) Blockade of nitric oxide synthesis: a new pharmacological approach for the treatment of cerebral infarction? In: Krieglstein J, Oberpichler-Schwenk H (eds) Pharmocology of cerebral ischemia. Wissenschaftliche Verlagssellschaft, Stuttgart, pp 409–416.Google Scholar
  292. 292.
    Nozaki K, Beal MF (1992) Neuroprotective effects of L-Kynurenine on hypoxia-ischemia and NMDA lesions in neonatal rats. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 12: 400–407.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Nussmeier NA, Arlund C, Slogoff S (1986) Neuropsychiatric complications after cardiopulmonary bypass: cerebral protection by a barbiturate. Anesthe-siology 64: 165–170.Google Scholar
  294. 294.
    Oh SM, Betz AL (1991) Interaction between free radicals and excitatory amino acids in the formation of ischemic brain edema in rats. Stroke 22: 915–921.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. 295.
    Ohnishi T, Posner JB, Shapiro WR (1992) Vasogenic brain edema induced by arachidonic acid: role of extracellular arachidonic acid in blood-brain barrier dysfunction. Neurosurgery 30: 545–551.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. 296.
    Olanow CW (1992) An introduction to the free radical hypothesis in Parkinson’s disease. Ann Neurol 32: S2–S9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    Olney JW (1989) Excitatory amino acids and neuropsychiatrie disorders. Biol Psychiatry 6: 505–525.Google Scholar
  298. 298.
    Olney JW, Ho OC, Rhee V (1971) Cytotoxic effects of acidic and sulphur containing amino acids on the infant mouse central nervous system. Exp Brain Res 14: 61–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. 299.
    Panetta T, Marcheselli VL, Braquet P, et al (1987) Effects of a platelet activating factor antagonist (BN 52051) on free fatty acids, diacylglycerols, polyphosphoinositides and blood flow in the gerbil brain: inhibition of ischemia reperfusion induced cerebral injury. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 149: 580–587.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. 300.
    Pappius HM (1991) Brain injury new insights into neurotransmitter and receptor mechanisms. Neurochem Res 16: 941–949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. 301.
    Patt A, Harken AH, Burton LK, et al (1988) Xanthine oxidase-derived hydrogen peroxide contributes to ischemia reperfusion-induced edema in gerbil brains. J Clin Invest 81: 1556–1562.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. 302.
    Pelligrini-Giampietro DE, Cherici G, Alesiani M, Carla V, Moroni F (1988) Excitatory amino acid release from rat hippocampal slices as a consequence of free-radical formation. J Neurochem 51: 1960–1963.Google Scholar
  303. 303.
    Pellegrini-Giampietro DE, Cherici G, Alesiani M, Carla V, Moroni F (1990) Excitatory amino acid release and free radical formation may cooperate in the genesis of ischemia-induced neuronal damage. J Neurosci 10: 1035–1041.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. 304.
    Persson L, Hillered L (1992) Chemical monitoring of neurosurgical intensive care patients using intracerebral microdialysis. J Neurosurg 76: 72–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. 305.
    Peterson JW, Kwun BD, Hackett JD, Zervas NT (1990) The role of inflammation in experimental cerebral vasospasm. J Neurosurg 72: 767–774.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. 306.
    Pettigrew LC, Grotta JC, Rhoades HM, et al (1989) Effect of thromboxane synthase inhibition on eicosanoid levels and blood flow in ischemic rat brain. Stroke 20: 627–632.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. 307.
    Pickard JD, Murray GD, Illingworth R, et al (1989) Effect of oral nimodipine on cerebral infarction and outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage: British aneurysm nimodipine trial. BMJ 298: 636–642.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. 308.
    Pietronigro DD, Hovsepian M, Demopoulos HB, Flamm ES (1983) Loss of ascorbic acid from injured feline spinal cord. J Neurochem 41: 1072–1076.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. 309.
    Plum F (1983) What causes infarction in ischemic brain? The Robert Wartenberg lecture. Neurology 33: 222–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. 310.
    Povlishock JT (1992) Traumatically induced axonal injury pathogenesis and pathobiological implications. Brain Pathol 2: 1–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  311. 311.
    Pulsinelli WA, Brierly JB, Plum G (1982) Temporal profile of neuronal damage in a model of transient forebrain ischemia. Ann Neurol 11: 154–159.Google Scholar
  312. 312.
    Pulsinelli WA, Buchan A (1989) The utility of animal ischemia models in predicting pharmacotherapeutic response in the clinical setting. In: Ginsberg MD, Dietrich WD (eds) Cerebrovascular diseases. Raven, New York, pp 87–91.Google Scholar
  313. 313.
    Raichle ME (1983) The pathophysiology of brain ischemia. Ann Neurol 13: 2–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. 314.
    Raschetti R, Maggini M, Popoli P (1992) Guillain-Barré syndrome and ganglioside therapy in Italy. Lancet 340: 60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  315. 315.
    Rawe SE, Perot PL (1979) Pressor response resulting from experimental contusion injury to the spinal cord. Neurosurgery 50: 58–63.Google Scholar
  316. 316.
    Rehncrona S, Hauge HN, Siesjö BK (1981) Brain lactic acidosis and ischemie cell damage 1, biochemistry and neurophysiology. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1: 297–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  317. 317.
    Rehncrona S, Hauge HN, Siesjö BK (1989) Enhancement of iron-catalyzed free radical formation by acidosis in brain homogenates: differences in effect by lactic acid and CO2. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 9: 65–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  318. 318.
    Rehncrona S, Westerberg E, Akesson B, Siesjö BK (1982) Brain cortical fatty acids and phospholipids during and following complete and severe incomplete ischemia. J Neurochem 38: 84–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  319. 319.
    Renou AM, Vernhier J, Macrez P, et al (1978) Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during etomidate anesthesia in man. Br J Anaesth 50: 1047–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  320. 320.
    Rockoff MA, Marshall LF, Shapiro HM (1979) High-dose barbiturate therapy in humans: a clinical review of 60 patients. Ann Neurol 6: 194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  321. 321.
    Rosenthal RE, Williams R, Bogaert YE, Getson PR, Fiskum G (1992) Prevention of postischemic canine neurological injury through potentiation of brain energy metabolism by acetyl-L-carnitine. Stroke 23: 1312–1318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  322. 322.
    Rosner MJ, Becker DP (1984) Experimental brain injury: successful therapy with the weak base, tromethamine. With an overview of CNS acidosis. J Neurosurg 60: 961–971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. 323.
    Rosner MJ, Bennett MD, Becker DP (1982) The clinical relevance of laboratory head injury models: prerequisites of therapeutic testing. In: Grossman RG, Gildenberg PL (eds) Head injury; basic and clinical aspects. Raven, New York.Google Scholar
  324. 324.
    Rosomoff HL (1957) Hypothermia and cerebral vascular lesions. II. Experimental middle cerebral artery interruption followed by induction of hypothermia. AMA Arch Neurol Psychiatry 78: 454–464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  325. 325.
    Rosomoff HL (1959) Experimental brain injury during hypothermia. J Neurosurg 16: 177–187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  326. 326.
    Rosomoff HL (1959) Hypothermia and cerebral vascular lesions. I. Experimental interruption of the middle cerebral artery during hypothermia. J Neurosurg 13: 332–343.Google Scholar
  327. 327.
    Rosomoff HL, Holaday DA (1954) Cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygen consumption during hypothermia. Am J Physiol 179: 85–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  328. 328.
    Rossanda M, Selenativ VL (1973) Role of automatic ventilation in treatment of severe head injuries. J Neurosurg Sci 17: 265–270.Google Scholar
  329. 329.
    Rothman SM (1992) Excitotoxins: possible mechanisms of action. Ann N Y Acad Sci 11: 132–139.Google Scholar
  330. 330.
    Rothman SM, Olney JN (1986) Glutamate and the pathophysiology of hypoxic ischemie brain damage. Ann Neurol 19: 105–111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  331. 331.
    Rudolphi KA, Schubert P, Parkinson FE, Fredholm BB (1992) Adenosine and brain ischemia. Cerebrovasc Brain Metab Rev 4: 346–369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  332. 332.
    Sagar SM (1993) The molecular biology of brain ischemia: trendy genes in sick neurons. Ann Neurol 33: 437–438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. 333.
    Sakaki T, Tsunoda S, Utsumi S (1990) The influence of volume expansion with induced hypertension on vessel reactivities, the blood-brain barrier and cerebral infarction in cats, with one hour occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. Neurosurgery 27: 268–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  334. 334.
    Salford LG, Siesjö BK (1974) The influence of arterial hypoxia and unilateral carotid artery occlusion upon regional blood flow and metabolism in the rat brain. Acta Physiol Scand 92: 130–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  335. 335.
    Sandercock PAG, Van Den Belt AGM, Lindley RI, Slattery J (1993) Antithrom-botic therapy in acute ischaemic stroke: an overview of the completed randomised trials. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 56: 17–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  336. 336.
    Scatton B, Carter C, Benavides J, Giroux C (1991) N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists: a novel therapeutic perspective for the treatment of ischemie brain injury. Cerebrovasc Dis 1: 121–135.Google Scholar
  337. 337.
    Scheller MS (1992) Routine barbiturate brain protection during cardio pulmonary bypass cannot be recommended. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 4(1): 60–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  338. 338.
    Schmidley J W (1990) Free radicals in central nervous system isehaemia. Stroke 21: 1086–1090.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  339. 339.
    Schmidt-Kastner R, Freund TF (1991) Selective vulnerability of the hippocampus in brain ischemia. Neuroscience 40: 599–636.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  340. 340.
    Schubert P, Kreutzberg GW (1990) Neuroprotective mechanisms of endogenous adenosine action and pharmacological implications. In: Krieglstein J, Oberpichler H (eds) Pharmacology of cerebral ischemia. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft, Stuttgart, pp 417–426.Google Scholar
  341. 341.
    Schwarcz R (1989) Excitotoxic and anti-excitotoxic mechanisms in neurological disease, Curr Opn Neurol Neurosurg 2: 504–508.Google Scholar
  342. 342.
    Schwartz ML, Tator CH, Rowed DW, et al (1984) The University of Toronto head injury treatment study: a prospective randomized comparison of phenobarbital and mannitoi. Can J Neuroi Sci 11; 434–440.Google Scholar
  343. 343.
    Selman WR, Spetzler RF, Roessmann UR, Rosenblatt JI, Crumrine RC(1981) Barbiturate-induced coma therapy for focal cerebral ischemia, J Neurosurg 55: 220–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. 344.
    Senter HJ, Venes JL (1979) Loss of autoreguiation and post-traumatic ischemia following experimental spinal cord trauma. J Neurosurg 50: 198–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  345. 345.
    Seubert P, Lee K, Lynch G (1989) Ischemia triggers NMDA receptor linked cytoskeletal proteolysis in hippocampus. Brain Res 492: 366–370.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  346. 346.
    Shapiro HM, Galindo A, Wyte SR, Harris AB (1973) Rapid intraoperative reduction of intracranial pressure with thiopentone. Br J Anaesth 45: 1057.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  347. 347.
    Shaw PJ (1993) Excitatory amino acid receptors, excitotoxicity and the human nervous system. Curr Opin Neurol Neurosurg 6: 414–422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  348. 348.
    Shibuya M, Suzuki Y, Sugita K, Saito L, Sasaki T, Takakura K, Nagata L, Kikuchi H, Takemae T, Hidaka H, Nakashima M (1992) Effect of AT877 on cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, J Neurosurg 76: 571–577.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  349. 349.
    Shimada N, Graf R, Rosner G, Wakayama A, George CP, Heiss WD (1989 Ischemic flow threshold for extracellular glutamate increase in cat cortex. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 9: 603–606.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  350. 350.
    Shiozaki F, Sugimoto H, Taneda M, Yoshida H, Iwai A, Yoshioka T, Sugimoto T (1993) Effect of mild hypothermia on uncontrollable intraeraniai hypertension after severe head injury, J Neurosurg 79: 363–368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  351. 351.
    Siemkonicz E, and Hansen J (1978) Clinical restitution following cerebral ischemia in hypo-, normo-, and hyperglycemie rats. Acta Neurol Scand 58: 1–8.Google Scholar
  352. 352.
    Siesjö BK (1978) Brain energy metabolism. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  353. 353.
    Siesjö BK (1981) Cell damage in the brain: a speculative synthesis. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1: 155–185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  354. 354.
    Siesjö BK (1988) Acidosis and ischemie brain damage, Neurochem Pathol 9: 31–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  355. 355.
    Siesjö BK (1992a) Pathophysiology and treatment of focal cerebral ischemia. Part I: pathophysiology. J Neurosurg 77: 169–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  356. 356.
    Siesjö BK (1992b) Pathophysiology and treatment of focal cerebral ischemia. Part II: mechanisms of damage and treatment. J Neurosurg 77: 337–354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  357. 357.
    Siesjö BK, Agardh CD, Bengtsson F (1989) Free radicals and brain damage. Cerebrovasc Brain Metab Rev 1: 165–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  358. 358.
    Siesjö BK, Bendek G, Koide T, et al (1985) Influence of acidosis on lipid peroxidation in brain tissues in vitro. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 5: 253–258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  359. 359.
    Siesjö BK, Bengtsson F (1989) Calcium fluxes calcium antagonists, and calcium-related pathology in brain ischemia, hypoglycemia, and spreading depression: a unifying hypothesis. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 9: 127–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  360. 360.
    Siesjö BK, Katsura K, Pahlmark K, Smith ML (1992) The multiple causes of ischemic brain damage: a speculative synthesis. In: Krieglstein J, Oberpichler-Schwenk H (eds) Pharmacology of cerebral ischemia. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft, Stuttgart, pp 511–525.Google Scholar
  361. 361.
    Siesjö BK, Wieloch T (1985) Cerebral metabolism in ischemia: neuchemical basis for therapy. Br J Anaesth 57: 47–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  362. 362.
    Silver FL, Norris JW, Lewis AJ, et al (1984) Early mortality following stroke: a prospective view. Stroke 15: 492–496.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  363. 363.
    Silverberg GD, Reitz BA, Ream AK (1981) Hypothermia and cardiac arrest in the treatment of giant aneurysms of the cerebral circulation and hemangio-blastoma of the medulla. J Neurosurg 55: 337–346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  364. 364.
    Simeone FA, Frazer G, Lawner P (1979) Ischemic brain edema: comparative effects of barbiturates and hypothermia. Stroke 10: 8–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  365. 365.
    Simon RP, Griffiths T, Evans MC, Swan BS, Meldrum BS (1984) Calcium overload in selectively vulnerable neurons of the hippocampus during and after ischemia: an electron microscopy study in the rat. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 4: 350–361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  366. 366.
    Singh R, Pathak DN (1990) Lipid peroxidation and glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, Superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glucose-6-phos-phate dehydrogenase activities in FeC13-induced epileptogenic foci in the rat brain. Epilepsia 31: 15–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  367. 367.
    Slater TF (1984) Free-radical mechanisms in tissue injury. Biochem J 222: 1–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  368. 368.
    Smith AL, Hoff JT, Nielsen SL, Larson CP (1974) Barbiturate protection in acute focal cerebral ischemia. Stroke 5: 1–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  369. 369.
    Smith DS, Rehncrona S, Siesjö BK (1980) Inhibitory effects of different barbiturates on lipid peroxidation in brain tissue in vitro: comparison with the effects of promethazine and chlorpromazine. Anesthesiology 53: 186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  370. 370.
    Spetzler RF, Hadley MN, Rigamonti D, et al (1988) Aneurysms of the basilar artery treated with circulatory arrest, hypothermia, and barbiturate cerebral protection. J Neurosurg 68: 868–879.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  371. 371.
    Spinnewyn B, Blavet N, Clostre F, et al (1987) Involvement of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in cerebral post-ischemic phase in monygolian gerbils. Prosta-glandins 34: 337–349.Google Scholar
  372. 372.
    Stälhammar D (1986) Experimental models of head injury. Acta Neurochir (Wien) [Suppl] 36: 33–46.Google Scholar
  373. 373.
    Steen PA, Gisvold SE, Milde JH, Newberg LA, Scheithauer BW, Lanier WL, Michenfelder JD (1985) Nimodipine improves outcome when given after complete cerebral ischemia in primates. Anesthesiology 62: 406–414.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  374. 374.
    Stein SC, Spettell C, Young G, Ross SE (1993) Delayed and progressive brain injury in closed-head trauma: radiological demonstration. Neurosurgery 32: 25–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  375. 375.
    Steinke DE, Weir BKA, Findlay JM, Tanabe T, Grace M, Krushelnycky BW (1989) A trial of the 21-aminosteroid U74006F in a primate model of chronic cerebral vasospasm. Neurosurgery 24: 179–186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  376. 376.
    Sterz F, Safar P, Tisherman S, et al (1991) Mild hypothermia cardiopulmonary resuscitation improves outcome after prolonged cardiac arrest in dogs. Crit Care Med 19: 379–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  377. 377.
    Stratham PF, Johnston RA, Macpherson P (1989) Delayed deterioration in patients with traumatic frontal contusions. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 52: 351–354.Google Scholar
  378. 378.
    Strong AJ (1984) y-Hydroxybutyric acid and intracranial pressure. Lancet 1304.Google Scholar
  379. 379.
    Strong AJ, Fairfield JE, Montera E, Kirby M, Hogg AR, Snape M, Ross-Field L (1990) Insulin protects cognitive function in experimental stroke. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 53: 847–853.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  380. 380.
    Strong AJ, Venables GS and Gibson G (1983) The cortical ischaemic penumbra associated with occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in the cat: 1. Topography of changes in blood flow, potassium ion activity, and EEG. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 3: 86–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  381. 381.
    Strong AJ, Tomlinson BE, Venables GS, Gibson G, Hardy JA (1983) The cortical ischaemic penumbra associated with occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in the cat: 2. Studies of histopathology, water content, and in vitro neurotransmitter uptake. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 3: 97–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  382. 382.
    Sundt TM Jr, Sbarbrough FW, Trautmann JC, et al (1975) Monitoring. techniques for carotid endarterectomy. Clin Neurosurg 22: 199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  383. 383.
    Suzuki J, Yoshimoto T, Mizoi K (1981) Preservation of the olfactory tract in bifrontal craniotomy for anterior communicating artery aneurysms, and functional prognosis. J Neurosurg 54: 342–345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  384. 384.
    Suzuki R, Masaoka H, Hirata Y, et al (1992) The role of endothelin-1 in the origin of cerebral vasospasm in patients with aneurysmai subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg 76: 96–100.Google Scholar
  385. 385.
    Swan JH, Meidrum BS (1990) Protection by NMDA antagonists against selective cell loss following transient ischaemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 10: 343–351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  386. 386.
    Sweeney MS, Cooley DA, Reul RG (1985) Hypothermic circulatory arrest for cardiovascular lesions: technical considerations and results. Ann Thorac Surg 40: 498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  387. 387.
    Symon L, Crockard HA, Dorsch NWC, et al (1975) Local cerebral blood flow and vascular reactivity in a chronic stable stroke in baboons. Stroke 6: 482–492.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  388. 388.
    Symon L, Momma F, Schwerdtfeger K, Bentivoglio P, Costa e Silva IE, Wang A (1986) Evoked potential monitoring in neurosurgical practice. In: Symon L et al (eds) Advances and technical standard in neurosurgery, Vol 14. Springer, Wien New York, pp 26–70.Google Scholar
  389. 389.
    Symon L, Pasztor E, Branston NM (1974) The distribution and density of reduced cerebral blood flow following acute middle cerebral artery occlusion: an experimental study by the technique of hydrogen clearance in baboons. Stroke 5: 355–364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  390. 390.
    Symon L, Wang AD, Costa e Silva IE, Gentili F (1984) Perioperative use of somatosensory evoked responses in aneurysm surgery. J Neurosurg 60: 269–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  391. 391.
    Takahashi H, Manaka S, Sano K (1981) Changes in extracellular potassium concentration in cortex and brain stem during the acute phase of experimental closed head injury. J Neurosurg 55: 708–717.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  392. 392.
    Takahashi S, Kassell NF, Toshima M, Dougherty DA, Foley PL, Lee KS (1993) Effect of U88999E on experimental cerebral vasospasm in rabbits. Neurosurgery 32: 281–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  393. 393.
    Takanashi Y, Weir BKA, Vollrath B, et al (1992) Time course of changes in concentration of intracellular free calcium in cultured cerebrovascular smooth muscle cells exposed to oxyhemoglobin. Neurosurgery 30: 346–350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  394. 394.
    Tanabe T, Lewis PJ, Itoh H, et al (1988) Hypervolemic therapy without induced hypertension in patients with severe subarachnoid hemorrhage. In: Wilkins RH (ed) Cerebral vasospasm. Raven, New York, pp 421–424.Google Scholar
  395. 395.
    Tanaka J, Shiki K, Asou T, Yasui H, Tokunaga K (1988) Cerebral autoregulation during deep hypothermic non pulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass with selective cerebral perfusion in dogs. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 95: 124–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  396. 396.
    Tator Ch, Fehlings MG (1991) Review of the secondary injury theory of acute spinal cord trauma with emphasis on vascular mechanisms. J Neurosurg 75: 15–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  397. 397.
    Taylor R (1991) A lot of “excitement” about neurodegeneration. Science 252: 1380–1381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  398. 398.
    Teichberg VI (1991) Glial glutamate receptors: likely actors in brain signalling. Faseb J 5: 3086–3091.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  399. 399.
    Thomas DJ (1992) Rheology and stroke. Curr Opin Neurol Neurosurgery 5: 44–48.Google Scholar
  400. 400.
    Todd NV, Picozzi MD, Crockard HA, et al (1986) Reperfusion after cerebral ischemia: influence of duration of ischemia. Stroke 17: 460–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  401. 401.
    Treasure T, Naftel DC, Conger KA, Garcia JH, Kirklin JW, Blackstone EH (1983) The effect of hypothermic circulatory arrest time on cerebral function, morphology and biochemistry. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 86: 761–770.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  402. 402.
    Trust Study Group (1990) Randomised, double-blind placebo controlled trial of Nimodipine in acute stroke. Lancet 336: 1205–1209.Google Scholar
  403. 403.
    Tsumoto T (1990) Excitatory amino acid transmitters and their receptors in neural circuits of the cerebral neocortex. Neurosci Res 9: 79–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  404. 404.
    Tulleken CAF, Van Dieren A, Jonkman J, et al (1982) Clinical and experimental experience with etomidate as a brain protective agent J Cereb Blood Flow Metah 2 [Suppl 1]: S92–S97.Google Scholar
  405. 405.
    Turrens JF, Crapo JD, Freeman BA (1984) Protection against oxygen ioxieky by intravenous injection of Hposome-entrapped catalase and Superoxide dismutase, J Clin Invest 73: 87–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  406. 406.
    Ueda T, Yamamoto YL, Diksic M (1989a) Transvenous perfusion of the brain with verapamil during focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Stroke 20: 501–506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  407. 407.
    Ueda T, Yamamoto Y L, Takara E, Diksic M (1989b) Tolerance of the cerebral venous system to retrograde perfusion pressure in focai cerebral ischemia in rats. Stroke 20: 378–385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  408. 408.
    Ueda Y, Obrenovitch TR, Lok SY, Sarna GS, Symon L (1992) Changes in extracellular glutamate concentration produced in the rat striatum by repeated ischemia. Stroke 23: 1125–1131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  409. 409.
    Ueda Y, Mtki S, Kusuhara K, Okita Y, Tahata T, Yamanaka K (1992) Deep hypothermia systemic circulatory arrest and continuous retrograde cerebral perfusion for surgery of aortic arch aneurysm. Eur j Cardiothorac Surg 6: 36–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  410. 410.
    Ueda Y, Obrenovitch TP, Lok SY, Sarna GS, Symon L (1992) Efflux of glutamate produced by short ischemia of varied severity in rat striaium. Stroke 23: 253–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  411. 411.
    Uematsu D, Greenberg JH, Reivich M, Karp A (1988) In vivo measurement of cytosotic free calcium during cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. Ann Neuroi 24; 420–428.Google Scholar
  412. 412.
    Uematsu D, Greenberg JH, Hickey WF, Relvich M (1989) Nimodipine attenuate both increase in cytosolic free calcium and histologie damage following focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in cats. Stroke 20: 1531–1537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  413. 413.
    Uemura Y, Miller JM, Matson WR, Beal MF (1991) Neurochemical analysis of focal ischemia in rats. Stroke 22: 1548–1553.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  414. 414.
    Uyama O, Matsuyama T, Michishita H, Nakamura H, Sugita M (1992) Protective effects of human recombinat Superoxide dismutase on transient ischemie injury of CAI neurons in gerbils. Stroke 23; 75–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  415. 415.
    Vaccarino F, Guidotti A, Costa E (1987) Ganglioside rnhrbition-of glutamate-mediated protein kinase C translocation in primary cultures of cerebellar neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84: 8707–8711.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  416. 416.
    Valtysson J, Jiang M, Persson L (1992) Transient elevation of the intracranial pressure increases the infaret size and perifocal edema after subsequent middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat. Neurosurgery 30: 887–890.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  417. 417.
    Van Reempts J, Haseldonckx M, Van Deuren B, Wouters L, Borgers M (1986) Structural damage of the ischemie brain: involvement of calcium and effects of postisehemie treatment with calcium entry blockers. Drug Develop Res 8: 387–395.Google Scholar
  418. 418.
    Venables GS, Miller SA, Gibson G, et al (1985) The effects of hyperglycemia on changes during reperfusion following focal cerebral ischemia in the cat. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 48: 663–669.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  419. 419.
    Vibulsresth S, Dietrich WD, Busto R, Ginsberg MD (1987) Failure of nimodipine to prevent ischemie neuronal damage in rats. Stroke 18: 210–216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  420. 420.
    Wahl M, Unterberg A, Baethmann A, Schilling L (1988) Mediators of blood brain barrier dysfunction and formation of vasogenic brain edema. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 8: 621–634.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  421. 421.
    Ward JD, Becker DP, Miller JD, et al (1985) Failure of prophylactic barbiturate coma in the treatment of severe head injury. J Neurosurg 62: 383–388.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  422. 422.
    Watson BD, Busto R, Goldberg WJ, Santiso M, Yoshida S, Ginsberg MD (1984) Lipid peroxidation in vivo induced by reversible global ischemia in rat brain. J Neurochem 42: 268–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  423. 423.
    Watson JC, Drummond JC, Patel PM, et al (1992) An assessment of the cerebral protective effects of etomidate in a model of incomplete forebrain ischemia in the rat. Neurosurgery 30: 540–544.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  424. 424.
    Weber M, Grolimund P, Seiler RW (1990) Evaluation of posttraumatic cerebral blood flow velocities by transcranial doppler ultrasonography. Neurosurgery 27: 106–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  425. 425.
    Wei EP, Dietrich WD, Povlishock JT, Navari RM, Kontos HA (1980) Functional morphological and metabolic abnormalities of the cerebral micro-circulation after concussive brain injury in cats. Circ Res 46: 37–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  426. 426.
    White BC, Grossman LI, Krause GS (1993) Brain injury by global ischemia and reperfusion: a theoretical perspective on membrane damage and repair. Neurology 43: 1656–1665.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  427. 427.
    Wiebers DO, Adams HP, Whisnant JP (1990) Animal models of stroke: are they relevant to human disease (editorial). Stroke 21: 1–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  428. 428.
    Wiedemann K, Hoyer S (eds) (1983) Brain protection: morphological, pathophysiological and clinical aspects. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo.Google Scholar
  429. 429.
    Wieloch T (1990) Neuronal injury and cerebrovascular disorders. Curr Opin Neurol Neurosurg 3: 944–950.Google Scholar
  430. 430.
    Wieloch T, Cardell M, Bingren H, Zivin J, Saitoh T (1991) Changes in the activity of protein kinase C and the differential subcellular redistribution of its isozymes in the rat striatum during and following transient forebrain ischemia. J Neurochem 56: 1227–1235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  431. 431.
    Wijdicks EFM, Ropper AH, Hunnicutt EJ, et al (1991) Atrial natriuretic factor and salt wasting after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke 22: 1519–1524.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  432. 432.
    Williams WM, Lu ST, Delcerro M, et al (1984) Effect of 2450 MHz microwave energy on the blood-brain barrier to hydrophilic molecules. D. Brain temperature and blood-brain barrier permeability to hydrophilic tracers. Brain Res 319: 191–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  433. 433.
    Wilson JT, Bednar MM, McAuliffe TL, et al (1992) The effect of 21-aminosteroid U74006F in a rabbit model of thromboembolic stroke. Neurosurgery 31: 929–934.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  434. 434.
    Wolf AL, Levi L, Marmarou A, Ward JD, Muizelaar PJ, Choi S, Yong H, Riagmonti D, Robinson WL (1993) Effect of THAM upon outcome in severe head injury: a randomized prospective clinical trial. J Neurosurg 78: 54–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  435. 435.
    Wright RL, Ames A (1964) Measurement of maximal permissible cerebral ischemia and a study of its pharmacologie prolongation. J Neurosurg 21: 567–574.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  436. 436.
    Xue D, Slivka A, Buchan AM (1992) Tirilazad reduces cortical infarction after transient but not permanent focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Stroke 23: 894–899.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  437. 437.
    Yamamoto M, Shima T, Uozumi T, Sogabe T, Yamada K, Kawasaki T (1983) A possible roie of lipid peroxidation in cellular damages caused by cerebral ischemia and the protective effect of a-tocopheroi administration. Stroke 14: 977–982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  438. 438.
    Yatsu FM, Diamond I, Graziano C, Lindquist P (1972) Experimental brain ischemia. Protection from irreversible damage with a rapid-acting barbiturate (methohexital). Stroke 43: 726.Google Scholar
  439. 439.
    Yoshida S, Busto R, Ginsberg MD, Abe K, Martinez E, Watson BD, Scheinberg P (1983) Compression-induced brain edema: modification by prior depletion and supplementation of vitamin E. Stroke 33: 166–172.Google Scholar
  440. 440.
    Yoshida S, Busto R, Watson BD, Santiso MK, Ginsberg MD (1985) Post ischemie cerebral lipid peroxidation in vitro: modification by dietary vitamin E, J Neuroehem 44: 1593–1601.Google Scholar
  441. 442.
    Yoshida S, Inoh S, Asano T, Sano K, Kubota J, Shimazaki H, Meta N (1980) Effect of transient ischemia on free fatty acids and phospholipids in the gerbil brain. J Neurosurg 53: 323–331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  442. 442.
    Yoshida K, Marmarou A (1991) Effects of tromethamine and hyperventilation on brain injury in the cat. J Neurosurg 74: 87–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  443. 443.
    Young W (1985) The role of calcium in spinal cord injury. Neurotrauma 2: 109–114.Google Scholar
  444. 444.
    Young W (1992) Medical treatments of acute spinal cord injury, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 55: 635–639.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  445. 445.
    Young W, Flamm ES, Demopoulos HB (1981) Effect of naxolone on posttraumatic ischemia in experimental spinal contusion. J Neurosurg 55: 209–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  446. 446.
    Young W, Flamm ES (1982) Effect of high-dose conicosteroid therapy on blood flow, evoked potentials, and extracellular calcium in experimental spinal injury, J Neurosurg 57: 667–673.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  447. 447.
    Young W, Wojak JC, DeCrescito V (1988) 21-aminosteroid reduces ion shifts and edema in the rat middle cerebral artery occlusion model of regional ischemia. Stroke 19: 1013–1019.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  448. 448.
    Zimmerman VJP, Schlaepfer WW (1982) Characterization of a brain calcium activated protease that degrades neurofilaments proteins. Biochemistry 21: 3977–3983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  449. 449.
    Zivin JA, Kochhar A, Saitoh T (1990) Protein phosphorylation during ischemia. Stroke 21[Suppl III]: 117–121.Google Scholar
  450. 450.
    Zuccarello M, Marsch JT, Schmitt G, Woodward J, Anderson DK (1989) Effect of the 21-aminosteroid U-74006F on cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg 71: 98–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Cohadon
    • 1
  1. 1.Clinique Universitaire de Neurochirurgie Hôpital Pellegrin TripodeBordeauxFrance

Personalised recommendations