Advertisement

Human Mummies pp 107-121 | Cite as

The mummy find from Qilakitsoq in northwest Greenland

  • J. P. Hart Hansen
  • J. Nordqvist
Part of the The Man in the Ice book series (3262, volume 3)

Abstract

The mummified bodies of some deceased Eskimos were incidently discovered in two graves in a rock cleft near the abandoned settlement Qilakitsoq in the Uummannaq district of Northwestern Greenland in 1972. At first, nothing happened besides registration of the find in the files of the Greenland Museum. Neither the extent of the find was known, nor the number of buried persons. In early 1978, however, the graves were opened and samples were taken for radio carbon dating. The mummified bodies of two children, who were encountered just below the cap stones, were sent to Copenhagen with the samples.

Keywords

Bone Mineral Content National Museum Head Louse Dead Body Dead Person 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ammitzbøll, T., Møller, R., Møller, G., Kobayasi, T., Hino, H., Asboe-Hansen G., Hansen J. P. H. (1989) Collagen and glycosaminoglycans in mummified skin. In Hansen J. P. H., Gulløv H. C. (Eds.) (1989) Meddr Grønland; Man & Soc. 12: 93–99.Google Scholar
  2. Andersen, S. R., Prause, J. U. (1989) Histopathological examinations of eyes. In Hansen J. P. H., Gulløv H. C. (Eds.) opera cit.: 109–111.Google Scholar
  3. Andreasen, C. (1989) The archaeology at Qilakitsoq. In Hansen J. P. H., Gulløv H. C. (Eds.) opera cit.: 11–22.Google Scholar
  4. Bak, O. (1971) Gravhulerne på øen ûnartoq (in Danish). Tidskr Grønland 18: 77–95.Google Scholar
  5. Bjerregaard, P. (1991) Disease pattern in Greenland. Arc Med Res 50: suppl. 4 (62 pp).Google Scholar
  6. Bresciani, J., Haarløv, N., Nansen, P., Møller, G. (1983) Head louse (Pediculus humanus subsp. capitis de Geer) from mummified corpses of Greenlanders AD 1475. Acta Entomol Fenn 42: 24–27.Google Scholar
  7. Egede, N. (1939) Beskrivelse over Grønland (1769) (Description of Greenland). — In: Ostermann, H. (Ed.): Meddr. Grønland 120: 232–69.Google Scholar
  8. Eiken, M. (1989) X-ray examination of the Eskimo mummies of Qilakitsoq. In Hansen J. P. H., Gulløv H. C. (Eds.) opera cit.: 58–68.Google Scholar
  9. Foged, N. (1989) Diatoms in mummies from Qilakitsoq. In Hansen J. P. H., Gulløv H. C. (Eds.) opera cit.: 184–195.Google Scholar
  10. Fredskild, B. (1989) Botanical investigations of the mummies. In Hansen J. P. H., Gulløv H. C. (Eds.) opera cit.: 179–183.Google Scholar
  11. Ghisler, M. (1989) Significance of mineral grains in clothing and skins from the mummy graves. In Hansen J. P. H., Gulløv H. C. (Eds.) opera cit.: 172–178.Google Scholar
  12. Gotfredsen, A., Borg, J., Christiansen, C. (1989) Bone mineral content in ancient Greenlandic Eskimos. In Hansen, J. P. H., Gulløv H. C. (Eds.) opera cit.: 147–150.Google Scholar
  13. Grandjean, P. (1989) Bone analysis: Silent testimony of lead exposures in the past. In Hansen J. P. H., Gulløv H. C. (Eds.) opera cit.: 156–160.Google Scholar
  14. Gudmand-Høyer, E., McNair, A., Jarnum, S. (1973) Laktosemalabsorption i Vestgrønland (Summary in English). Ugeskr læger 135: 169–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Hansen, H. E., Gürtler, H. (1983) HLA types of mummified eskimo bodies from the 15th century. Amer j phys anthropol 61: 447–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hansen, J. C., Toribara, T. Y., Muhs, A. G. (1989) Trace metals in human and animal hair from the 15 th century graves in Qilakitsoq compared with recent samples. In Hansen J. P. H., Gulløv H. C. (Eds.) opera cit.: 161–167.Google Scholar
  17. Hansen, J. P. H., Meldgaard, J., Nordqvist, J. (Eds.) (1985) Qilakitsoq — De grønlandske mumier fra 1400-tallet. Christian Ejlers forlag & Grønlands landsmuseum, Copenhagen & Nuuk 1985.Google Scholar
  18. Hansen, J. P. H., Meldgaard, J., Nordqvist, J. (Eds.) (1991) The Greenland Mummies. British Museum Press, Smithsonian Institution Press & McGill-Queens University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Hansen, J. P. H., GullGrøv, H. C. (Eds) (1989) The mummies from Qilakitsoq — Eskimos in the 15th century. Meddr Grønland; Man & Soc 12: 1–199.Google Scholar
  20. Hansen, J. P. H. (1989) The mummies from Qilakitsoq — Paleopathological aspects. In Hansen J. P. H., Gulløv H. C. (Eds.) opera cit.: 69–82.Google Scholar
  21. Hansen, P. K., Bennike, T. (1989). Botulismus in Greenland Eskimos. In Harvald, B., Hansen, J. P. H. (Eds.). Circumpolar Health’81, Oulu: 438–441.Google Scholar
  22. Harvald, B. (1982) Eskimo disease pattern — genes or environment? — Acta med scand 212: 97–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hooton, E. A. (1930) Finns, Lapps, Eskimos, and Martin Luther. Harvard Alumni Bulletin 1930: 545–553.Google Scholar
  24. Jeppesen, B. J., Harvald, B. (1983) Serum calcium in Greenland Eskimos. Acta med scand 214: 99–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Johansson, A. (1989) Final preservation of mummies by gamma irradiation. In Hansen J. P. H., Gulløv H. C. (Eds.) opera cit.: 134–136.Google Scholar
  26. Jørgensen, J. B. (1989) Anthropology of the Qilakitsoq Eskimos. In Hansen J. P. H., Gulløv H. C. (Eds.) opera cit.: 56–57.Google Scholar
  27. Kissmeyer-Nielsen, F., Andersen, H., Hauge, M. et al. (1971) HLA types in Danish Eskimos from Greenland. Tissue antigens 1: 74–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kleivan, I. (1984) West Greenland before 1950. In Sturtevant, W. C. (Ed.). Handbook of North American Indians. Vol. V Arctic, Damas, D.(Ed.), Smithsonian Institution, Washington: 612.Google Scholar
  29. Kobayashi, T., Ammitzbøll, T., Asboe-Hansen, G. (1989) Electron microscopy of the skin of a Greelandic mummy. In Hansen J. P. H., Gulløv, H. C. (Eds.) opera cit.: 100–105.Google Scholar
  30. Kromann, N. P., Kapel, H., Løytved, E. R., Hansen, J. P. H. (1989) The tatooings of the Qilakitsoq mummies. In Hansen J. P. H., Gulløv H. C. (Eds.) opera cit.: 168–171.Google Scholar
  31. Kromann, N. P., Mikkelsen, E, Løytved, E. R., Hansen, J. P. H. (1989) Dermatological examination of the Qilakitsoq Eskimo mummies. In Hansen J. P. H., Gulløv H. C. (Eds.) opera cit.: 83–88.Google Scholar
  32. Lorentzen, B., Rørdam, A. M. (1989) Investigation of faeces from a mummified Eskimo woman. In Hansen J. P. H., Gulløv H. C. (Eds.) opera cit.: 139–143.Google Scholar
  33. Lyneborg, L. (1984) Personal communication.Google Scholar
  34. Masters, P. M. & Zimmerman, M. R. (1978) Age determination of an Alaskan mummy: Morphological and biochemical correlation. Science 201: 811–812.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mathiassen, T. (1936) The Eskimo archaeology of Julianehaab district. V. The mummy caves at Qerrortut. Meddr Grønland 118: 103–113.Google Scholar
  36. Mazess, R. B. (1974) Bone mineral content of North Alaskan Eskimos. Am j clin nutr 27: 916–925.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Mazess, R. B., Mather, W. (1975) Bone mineral content in Canadian Eskimos. Hum biol 47: 45–63.Google Scholar
  38. Meldgaard, J. (1953) Fra en grønlandsk mumiehule (From a Greenlandic mummy cave — in Danish). Fra Nationalmuseets arbejdsmark 1953 14–20.Google Scholar
  39. Myhre, J., Svendstrup, L., Hansen, J. P. H. (1989) Histologic examination of the Qilakitsoq mummies. In Hansen J. P. H., Gulløv H. C. (Eds.) opera cit.: 106–108Google Scholar
  40. Mulvad, G., Pedersen H. S., Jul E., Newmann W, Middaugh, J., Misfeldt, J. (1993) Atherosclerosis in Greenland Natives. An autopsy study. IX International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Reykjavik, Iceland, abstract D1-9.Google Scholar
  41. Møhl, J. (1983) Personal communication.Google Scholar
  42. Møller, G. (1989) Eskimo clothing from Qilakitsoq. In Hansen J. P. H., Gulløv H. C. (Eds.) opera cit.: 23–46.Google Scholar
  43. Newell, R. R. (1984) The archaeological, human biological, and comparative contexts of a catastrophically-terminated Kataliguaq house at Utqiagvik, Alaska (BAR-2). Arctic anthropology 21: 5–51.Google Scholar
  44. Nielsen, N. H. (1986) Cancer incidence in Greenland. Arct med res 43: 1–168.Google Scholar
  45. Nielsen, H., Engberg, J., Thuesen, I. (1994) DNA in skin and bone samples from Arctic human burials. In B. Hermann (Ed.): Ancient DNA. Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  46. Nielsen, N. H., Mikkelsen, F., Hansen, J. P. H. (1977) Nasopharyngeal cancer in Greenland. The incidence in an Arctic Eskimo population. Acta path microbiol scand sect A 85: 850–858.Google Scholar
  47. Pallesen, G. (1987) Personal communication.Google Scholar
  48. Pedersen, P. O., Jakobsen, J. (1989) Teeth and jaws of the Qilakitsoq mummies. In Hansen J. P. H., Gull—v H. C. (Eds.) opera cit.: 112–130.Google Scholar
  49. Rosing, J. (1986) The sky is low. Penumbra Press, Ontario.Google Scholar
  50. Sebbesen, O., Thomsen, V E (1984) Personal communication.Google Scholar
  51. Shand, G., Høiby, N. (1987) Personal communication.Google Scholar
  52. Svejgård, E., Stenderup, A., Møller, G. (1989) Isolation and eradication of fungi contaminating the mummified corpses from Qilakitsoq. In Hansen J. P. H., Gulløv H. C. (Eds.) opera cit.: 131–133.Google Scholar
  53. Thuesen, I., Engberg, J. (1990) Recovery and analysis of human genetic material from mummified tissue and bone. J Arch Sci 17: 679–689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Thompson, D. D., Cowen K. S., Laughlin, S. B. (1989) Estimation of age at death and histomorphometric analysis of cortical and trabecular bone from four Greenlandic mummies. In Hansen J. P. H., Gulløv H. C. (Eds.) opera cit.: 151–155.Google Scholar
  55. Thompson, D. D., Harper, A. B., Laughlin, W S., Jørgensen, J. B. (1982) Bone loss in Eskimos. In Harvald, B., Hansen, J. P. H. (Eds.). Circumpolar Health’ 81, Oulu: 327–330.Google Scholar
  56. von Westarp, C., Outhet, D., Eaton, R. D. P. (1982) Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in two arctic communities. In Harvald, B., Hansen, J. P. H. (Eds.), Circumpolar Health’ 81, Oulu: 331–333.Google Scholar
  57. Zimmerman, M. R., Aufderheide, A. C. (1984) The frozen family of Utqiagvik: The autopsy findings. Arctic anthropology 21: 53–64Google Scholar
  58. Zimmerman, M. R., Smith, G. S. (1975) A probable case of accidental inhumation of 1600 years ago. Bull NY Acad Med 51: 828–837.Google Scholar
  59. Zimmerman, M. R., Trinkaus, E., LeMay M. et al. (1981) The paleopathology of an Aleutian mummy. Arch path lab med 105: 638–641.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Zimmerman, M. R., Yearman, G. W, Sprinz, H. et al. (1971) Examination of an Aleutian mummy. Bull NY Acad Med 47: 80–103.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. P. Hart Hansen
    • 1
  • J. Nordqvist
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Pathology, Gentofte HospitalUniversity of CopenhagenHellerupDenmark
  2. 2.Department of ConservationNational Museum of DenmarkBredeDenmark

Personalised recommendations