Genetic and antigenic diversity of human caliciviruses (HuCVs) using RT-PCR and new EIAs
RT-PCR using primers from conserved regions of calicivirus genomes, followed by sequencing, permits characterization of genetic variation within the family. EIAs based on baculovirus-expressed viral capsid proteins and hyperimmune antisera against the capsid proteins were developed to detect HuCV antigens and antibodies. Serologic surveys using recombinant Norwalk virus (rNV) and recombinant Mexico virus (rMX, a SMA-like virus) EIAs showed that infections by HuCVs are common and that children acquire antibodies to HuCVs at an early age in both developed and developing countries. Three HuCV genogroups have been described that are represented by Norwalk virus (NV), Snow Mountain agent (SMA), and Sapporo virus, although recently accumulated sequences of HuCV strains indicate these genogroups can be further divided. These genogroups also correspond to distinct antigenic groups based on the results of the recombinant EIAs. The three genogroups co-circulate and have a worldwide distribution, although the SMA genogroup seems to be predominant currently. Application of these new assays for further characterization of the genetic and antigenic properties of HuCVs remains an important task for HuCV research.
KeywordsNorwalk Virus Immune Electron Microscopy Eastern Virginia Medical School Human Caliciviruses Hyperimmune Antiserum
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 3.Cubitt WD, Jiang X, The use of a recently developed enzyme immunoassay to study the occurrence of human calicivirus (Mexico strain) as a cause of sporadic cases and outbreaks of diarrhea in the United Kingdom, 1982-1994 J Med Virol (in press)Google Scholar
- 11.Jiang X, Wang M, Wang K, Estes MK (1993) Sequence and genomic organization of Norwalk virus. J Virol 195: 56–61Google Scholar
- 16.Jiang X, Turf E, Barrett E, Monroe S, Matson DO, Pickering LK, Outbreaks of gastroenteritis in elderly nursing homes and retirement facilities associated with human caliciviruses (HuCVs) J Med Virol (in press)Google Scholar
- 32.Parker SP, Cubitt WD, Jiang X, The application of an enzyme immunoassay using a baculovirus expressed recombinant human calicivirus (Mexico virus) for the study of outbreaks of gastroenteritis and determining its seroprevalence in children in London, UK. J Med Virol (in press)Google Scholar
- 34.Wolfaardt M, Taylor MB, Grabow WOK, Cubit WD, Jiang X, Molecular characterization of small round structured viruses associated with gastroenteritis in South Africa J Med Virol 47: 386–391Google Scholar
- 35.Wang JX, Jiang X, Madore P, Desselberger U, Gray J, Ando T, Oishi I, Estes MK (1994) Sequence diversity of SRSVs in the Norwalk virus group. Virol 68: 5982–5990Google Scholar