Rotavirus subunit vaccines
We evaluated rotavirus subunit vaccines for use in humans and animals. Insect cells were co-infected with combinations of individual baculovirus recombinants expressing human, bovine or simian rotavirus VP2, VP4, VP6 or VP7 to produce virus-like particles (VLPs). To determine whether immunization with VLPs could induce active protective immunity, VLPs were administered parenterally to rabbits, and the immune response and protection from rabbit ALA rotavirus challenge were evaluated. Complete or partial protection was attained, showing that parenteral immunization with VLPs induces active protective immunity. We also examined whether heterotypic immune responses could be induced with a limited number of broadly reactive VP7 proteins or with chimeric particles (multiple VP7 types on individual particles). The feasibility of this approach was determined by immunizing mice with VLPs containing a G3 VP7 or G1 VP7 and chimeric G1/G3 VLPs. Broadly reactive neutralizing antibody was induced by the G1 VLPs. VLPs also have been successfully used to boost lactogenic (colostral and milk) immunity in dairy cows. Taken together, these results show that VLPs can be effective immunogens in rabbits, mice and dairy cattle when administered parenterally, a limited number of VLPs may be sufficient to produce a broadly protective vaccine, and G3 VLPs may serve as an effective subunit vaccine for use in bovines.
KeywordsSubunit Vaccine Aluminum Phosphate Chimeric VLPs Isotype Specific Antibody Chimeric Particle
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