Advertisement

Benign Intracranial Hypertension

Pseudotumour cerebri: Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension
  • J. D. Sussman
  • N. Sarkies
  • J. D. Pickard
Part of the Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery book series (NEUROSURGERY, volume 24)

Abstract

Benign intracranial hypertension is a diagnosis of exclusion characterised by the signs, symptoms and proof of raised intracranial pressure in the absence of localising neurological signs, obstruction or deformation of the ventricular system, in an alert and orientated patient (Modified Dandy Criteria, Table 1, 1–4). Traditionally Quincke (1897) [5] and Nonne (1904) [6] have been credited with the original descriptions of BIH. However, Johnston’s (1992) [7] scholarly historical review makes clear that other authors had previously described relevant cases including Lawford (1881), Carter (1887) and Taylor (1890).

Keywords

Intracranial Hypertension Cerebral Blood Volume Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Cerebral Venous Thrombosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Dandy WE (1937) Intracranial pressure without brain tumor. Ann Surg 106: 492–513PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hoffman HJ (1982) How is pseudotumor cerebri diagnosed? Arch Neurol 43: 167–168Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Corbett JJ, Mehta MP (1983) Cerebrospinal fluid pressure in normal obese subjects and patients with pseudotumor cerebri. Neurology 33: 1386–1388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Smith JL (1985) Whence pseudotumor cerebri? J Clin Neuro Ophthalmol 5: 55–56Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Quincke H (1897) Ueber meningitis serosa und verwandte Zustande. Dtsch Z Nervenheilkde 9: 140–168Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nonne M (1904) Über Fälle vom Symptomkomplex “Tumour cerebri” mit Ausgang in Heilling (Pseudotumor cerebri); Über letal verlaufene Falle von “Pseudotumour cerebri” mit Sektionsbefund. Dtsch Z Nervenheilkde 27: 169–216Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Johnston IH (1992) The pseudotumor syndrome. MD Thesis, University of Dundee, ScotlandGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lipton HL, Michelson PE (1972) Pseudotumor cerebri syndrome without papilledema. JAMA 220: 1591–1592PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rush JA (1980) Pseudotumor cerebri. Clinical profile and visual outcome in 63 patients. Mayo Clin Proc 55: 541–546PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Foley J (1955) Benign forms of intracranial hypertension—“toxic” and “otitic” hydrocephalus. Brain 78: 1–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Radhakrishnau K, Ahlskog E, Garrity JA, Kurland LT (1994) Idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Mayo Clin Proc 69: 169–180Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Durcan FJ, Corbett JJ, Wall M (1988) The incidence of pseudotumor cerebri: population studies in Iowa and Louisiana. Arch Neurol 45: 875–877PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Digre KB, Corbett JJ (1988) Pseudotumor cerebri in men. Arch Neurol 45: 866–872PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lessell S (1992) Paediatric pseudotumor cerebri (Idiopathic intracranial hypertension). Surv Ophthalmol 37: 155–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cogan DG (1961) Blackouts not obviously due to carotid occlusion. Arch Ophthalmol 66: 180–187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Orcutt JC, Page NGR, Sanders MD (1984) Factors attending visual loss in benign intracranial hypertension. Ophthalmology 91: 1303–1312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sismanis A (1987) Otologic manifestations of benign intracranial hypertension syndrome: diagnosis and management. Laryngoscope 97: 1–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Reid A, Marchbanks RJ, Bateman D, Martin AM, Brightwell AP, Pickard JD (1989) Mean intracranial pressure monitoring by a non-invasive audio-logical technique—a pilot study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 52: 610–612PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Corbett JJ, Thompson HS (1989) The rational management of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Arch Neurol 46: 1049–1051PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hoyt W, Beeston D (1996) The Ocular Fundus in Neurologic Disease. CV Mosby, St. LouisGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sanders MD (1979) A classification of papilloedema based on fluorescein angiographic study of 69 cases. Trans Ophthalmol Soc UK 89: 177–192Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Corbett JJ, Savino PJ, Thompson HJ, et al (1982) Visual loss in pseudotumor cerebri: follow-up of 57 patients from 5 to 41 years and a profile of 14 patients with permanent severe visual loss. Arch Neurol 39: 461–474PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hedges TR, Weinstein JD, Crystle CD (1964) Orbital vascular response to acutely increased intracranial pressure in the rhesus monkey. Arch Ophthalmol 71: 226–237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hayreh SS (1964) Pathogenesis of oedema of the optic disc (papilloedema). Br J Ophthalmol 48: 522–543PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tso MOM, Hayreh SS (1977a,b) Optic disc oedema in raised intracranial pressure III A pathologic study and IV Axoplasmic transport in experimental papilloedema. Arch Ophthalmol 95: 1448–1462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Minckler DS, Bunt DH (1977) Axoplasmic transport in ocular hypotony and papilloedema in the monkey. Arch Ophthalmol 95: 1430–1436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Radins RL, Anderson DR (1980) Fast axonal transport in early experimental disc edema. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 19: 158–168Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Parhad IM, Griffin JW, Cork LC, et al (1980) IDPN intoxications: a toxic model of disc swelling. J Neuropath Exp Neurol 39: 380–385Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Medlock MD, et al (1992) Children with cerebral venous thrombosis diagnosied with magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography. Neurosurgery 31: 870–875PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gibby WA, et al (1993) Pseudotumor cerebri: CT findings and correlation with vision loss. Am J Roentgenol 160: 143–146Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Reid AC, Matheson MJ, Teasdale G (1980) Volume of the ventricles in benign intracranial hypertension. Lancet ii: 7–8Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rothwell PM, Gibson RJ, Sellar RJ (1994) Computed tomographic evidence of cerebral swelling in benign intracranial hypertension. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 57: 1407–1409PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Czosnyksa M, Whitehouse H, Smieleroski P, Simac S, Rickard JD (1996) Testing of cerebrospinal compensatory reserve in shunted and non-shunted patients. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 60: 549–558Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Janny P, Chazul J, Colnet G, Irthum B, Georget AM (1980) Benign intracranial hypertension and disorders of CSF absorption. Surgical Neurology 15: 168–174Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Martins AN (1973) Resistance to drainage of cerebrospinal fluid: clinical measurements and significance. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 36: 313–318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Calabrese VP, Selhorst JB, Harbisons JW (1978) Cerebrospinal fluid infusion tests in pseudotumor cerebri. Trans. Am Neurol Assoc 103: 146–150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mann JD, Johnson RN, Butler AB, Bass BH (1979) Impairment of cerebrospinal fluid circulatory dynamics in pseudotumor cerebri and response to steroid treatment. Neurology (Minn) 29: 550Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sklar FH, Beyer CWJV, Ramanatham M, Cooper PR, Clark WK (1979) CSF dynamics in patients with pseudotumor cerebri. Neurosurgery 5: 208–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ropper AH, Marmarou A (1984) Mechanisms of pseudotumor in Guillain-Barre syndrome. Arch Neurol 41: 259–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gjerris F, Sorensen PS, Paulson OB (1985) ICP conductance to CSF outflow and CBF in patients with benign intracranial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri). Ann Neurol 17: 158–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Johnston IH, Patterson A (1974a,b) Benign intracranial hypertension I Diagnosis and Prognosis II CSF pressure and circulation. Brain 97: 289–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Chandra V, Bellur SN, Anderson RJ (1986) Low CSF protein concentration in idiopathic pseudotumor cerebri. Ann Neurol 19: 80–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Johnston PK, Corbett JJ, Maxner CE (1991) CSF protein and opening pressure in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri). Neurology 41: 1040–1042PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    James AE, Harbert JC, Hoffer DB, Deland FH (1974) CSF imaging in benign intracranial hypertension. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 37: 1053–1058Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Creagh MD, et al (1919) Screening for the lupus acnticoagulant and anti-cardiolipin antibody in women with fetal loss. J Clin Pathol 44: 45–47Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Griffin JP (1992) A review of the literature on benign intracranial hypertension associated with medication. Adverse Drug React Toxicol Rev 11: 41–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Giuseffi V, et al (1991) Symptoms and disease associations in idipoathic intracranial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri): a case-control study. Neurology 41: 239–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ireland B, Corbett JJ, Wallace RB (1990) The search for causes of pseudotumor cerebri: A preliminary case-control study. Arch Neurol 47: 315–320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Cochran WG (1954) Biometrics 10: 417Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Wall M, Giuseffi V, Rojas PB (1989) Symptoms and disease associations in pseudotumor cerebri: A case controlled study. Neurology 39 [Suppl]: 210Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wall M (1991) Idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Neurologic Clinics 9: 73–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Walsh FB (1952) Papilledema associated with increased intracranial pressure in Addison’s disease. Arch Ophthalmol 47: 86Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Boudin G, Funck-Brentano JL, Gayno M (1956) Maladie d’Addison par aplasie surrenale et syndrome para-biermerien. Bull Soc Med Hop Paris 66: 1736–1740Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Greer M (1963) Benign intracranial hypertension: II Following cortico-steroid therapy. Neurology 13: 439–441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Bronsky D, et al (1958) Idiopathic hypoparathyroidism and pseudohypo-parathyroidism: case reports and review of the literature. Medicine (Balt) 37: 317–352Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Sheldon RS, et al (1987) Hypoparathyroidism and pseudotumor cerebri: An infrequent clinical association. Can J Neurol Sci 14: 622–625PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Dickman MS, Somasundaram M, Brzozowski L (1980) Pseudotumor cerebri and hyperthyroidism. NY State J Med 80: 1118–1120Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Karsakis EJ, Bass NH (1982) Benign intracranial hypertension induced by deficiency of vitamin K during infancy. Neurology 32: 1292–1295Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Shah A, et al (1987) Danazol and benign intracranial hypertension. Br Med J 294: 1323Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hamed LM, et al (1989) Am J Ophthalmol 107: 105–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Saul RF, Hamburger HA, Selhorst JB (1985) Pseudotumor cerebri secondary to lithium carbonate. J Am Med Assoc 253: 2869–2870Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Levine SH, Puchalski C (1990) Pseudotumor cerebri associated with lithium therapy in two patients. J Clin Psychiatry 51: 251–253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Mukherjee A, et al (1990) Benign intracranial hypertension after nalidixic acid overdose in infants. Lancet 335: 1602PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Van Dop C, et al (1983) Pseudotumor cerebri associated with initiation of levothyroxine therapy for juvenile hypothyroidism. N Engl J Med 308: 1076–1080PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Vyas CK, et al (1981) Steroid-induced benign intracranial hypertension. Postgrad Med J 57: 181–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Neville BGR, Wilson J (1970) Benign intracranial hypertension following corticosteroid withdrawal in children. Br Med J 3: 554PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Korzets A, et al (1988) Pseudotumor cerebri and nitrofurantoin. Drug Intell Clin Pharm 22: 345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Mushet GR (1977) Pseudotumor and nitrofurantoin therapy. Arch Neurol 34: 257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Konomi H, et al (1978) Indomethacin causing pseudotumor cerebri in Bartter’s syndrome. N Engl J Med 298: 855PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Larizza D, et al (1979) Ketoprofen causing pseudotumor cerebri in Bartter’s syndrome. N Engl J Med 300: 796PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Buchheit WA, et al (1969) Papilloedema and idiopathic intracranial hypertension: Report of a familial occurrence. N Engl J Med 280: 938–941PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Howe J, Saunders M, Clarke P (1973) Familial benign intracranial hypertension. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 29: 173–175Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Rothman AP, Brust JCM (1974) Pseudotumor cerebri: report of a familial occurrence. Arch Neurol 30: 110–111Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Traviesa DC, et al (1976) Familial benign intracranial hypertension. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 39: 420–423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Johnston I, Morgan MK (1991) A familial coincidence of pseudotumor cerebri and communicating hydrocephalus. Neurourgery 28: 727–729Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Bousser MG, et al (1985) Cerebral venous thrombosis: a review of 38 cases. Stroke 16: 199–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kaplan RE, et al (1985) Pseudotumor cerebri associated with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, internal jugular vein thrombosis, and systemic lupus erythematosis. J Pediatr 107: 266–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Bettman JW, et al (1968) Papilledema and asymptomatic intracranial hypertension in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arch Ophthalmol 80: 189–193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Carlow TJ, Glaser JA (1974) Pseudotumor cerebri syndrome in systemic lupus erythematosus. JAMA 228: 197–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kinal ME (1967) Traumatic thrombosis of dural venous sinuses in closed head injuries. J Neurosurg 27: 142–145Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Carroll JD, Leak D, Lee HA (1966) Cerebral thrombophlebitis in pregnancy and the puerperium. Quart J Med 35: 347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Melamed E, et al (1976) Aseptic cavernous sinus thrombosis after internal carotid arterial occlusion in polycythaenia vera. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 39: 320–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Esack A, Thompson G, Burmester H (1989) Benign intracranial hypertension and essential thrombocythaemia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 52: 914PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Casalé Turn A, et al (1992) Oedeme de la papille et syndrome de POEMS. Ophthalmologica 205: 144–148Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Wasan H, et al (1992) Myeloma and benign intracranial hypertension. Br Med J 304: 685Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Greaves M, Preston FE (1993) Clinical and laboratory aspects of thrombophilia in recent advances in blood coagulation. Churchill Livingstone, London, pp 119–140Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Massons J, et al (1992) Cerebral venous thrombosis and hereditary protein C deficiency. Neurologia 7: 34–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Schutta HS, et al (1991) Cerebral venous thrombosis associated with plasminogen deficiency. Stroke 22: 401–405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Cros D, et al (1990) Superior saggital sinus thrombosis in a patient with protein S deficiency. Stroke 21: 633–636PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Ambruso DR, Jacobson LJ, Hathaway WE (1980) Inherited antithrombin III deficiency and cerebral thrombosis in a child. Paediatrics 65: 125–131Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Mokri B, Jack CR, Petty GW (1993) Pseudotumor syndrome associated with cerebral venous sinus occlusion and antiphospholipid antibodies. Stroke 24: 469–472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Levine SR, et al (1987) Cerebral venous thrombosis with lupus anticoagulants: report of two cases. Stroke 18: 801–804PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Ikkala E, Laitinen L (1963) Papilloedema due to iron deficiency anaemia. Acta Haematol 29: 368–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Risdale L, Moseley I (1978) Thoracolumbar intraspinal tumours. Presenting features of raised intracranial pressure. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 41: 737–745Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Morley JB, Reynolds H (1966) Papilloedema and the Landry-Guillain-Barre syndrome. Case reports and a review. Brain 89: 205–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Sussman JD, Leach M, Greaves M, Maliar, Davies-Jomes GAD (1997) Potentially pro-thrombotic abnormalities of coagnitation in benign intracranial hypertension J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 62: 229–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Wyper DJ, Pickard JD, Matheson MS (1979) Accuracy of ventricular volume estimation. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 42: 345–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Weisberg LA (1985) Computed tomography in benign intracranial hypertension. Neurology 35: 1075–1078PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Jacobson DM, Karanjia PN, Olson KA, Warner JJ (1990) Computed tomography ventricular size has no predictive value in diagnosing pseudotumor cerebri. Neurology 40: 1454–1455PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Gideon P, Sorenson PS, Thomsen C, Stahlberg F, Gjerris F, Henriksen O (1995) Increased brain water self-diffusion in patients with idiopathic intra-cranial hypertension. Am J Neuroradiol 16: 381–387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Sans AL, Joynt RJ (1956) Brain swelling of unknown cause. Neurology (Minn) 6: 791–803Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Wall M, Pollar JD, Sadon AA, Kardon R (1995) Idiopathic intracranial hypertension—lack of histologic evidence for cerebral edema. Arch Neurol 52: 141–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Brooks DJ, Beaney RP, Lammertsma AA (1984) Quantitative measurement of bloodbrain barrier permeability using Rubidium-82 and positron emission tomography. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 4: 535–545PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Boddie HG, Banna M, Bradley WG (1974) ‘Benign’ intracranial hypertension A survey of the clinical and radiological features and longterm prognosis. Brain 97: 313–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Weisberg LA (1975) Benign intracranial hypertension. Medicine 54: 197–207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Kaye AH, Tress BM, Brownbill D, King J (1982) ICP in patients with the empty sella syndrome without benign intracranial hypertension. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 45: 209–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Raichle ME, Grubb RL, Phelps Me, Gado MH, Caronna J (1978) Cerebral haemodynamics and metabolism in pseudotumor cerebri. Ann Neurol 4: 104–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Mathew NT, Meyer JS, Ott EO (1975) Increased cerebral blood volume in benign intracranial hypertension. Neurology (Minn) 25: 646–649Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Brooks DJ, Beaney RP, Leenders KL, Marshall J, Thomas DJ, Jones T (1985) Regional cerebral oxygen utilisation blood flow and blood volume in benign intracranial hypertension studied by positron emission tomography. Neurology 35: 1030–1034PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Davidoff LM, Dyke CG (1937) Hypertensive meningeal hydrops. Am J Ophthalmol 20: 908–927Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Lofgren J, Zwetnow NW (1973) Cranial and spinal components of the cerebrospinal fluid pressure volume curve. Acta Neurol Scand 49: 575–585PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Fishman RA (1980) Cerebrospinal fluid in diseases of the nervous system. Sanders, LondonGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Donaldson JO (1981) Pathogenesis and pseudotumor cerebri syndromes. Neurology 31: 877–880PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Gideon P, Sorenson PS, Thomsen C, Stahlberg F, Gjerris F, Henriksen O (1994) Assessment of CSF dynamics and venous flow in the superior sagittal sinus by MRI in idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a preliminary study. Neuroradiology 36: 350–354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Davson HG, Hillingsworth MB, Segal (1970) The mechanism and drainage of the cerebrospinal fluid. Brain 93: 665–678PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Johnston IH (1975) The definition of a reduced CFS absorption syndrome; a re-appraisal of benign intracranial hypertension and related conditions. Medical Hypotheses 1: 10–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Sante RoseC, Lacombe J, Pierre-Kahn A, Renieu, D, Hirsch JF (1984) Intracranial venous sinus hypertension—cause or consequence of hydrocephalus in infants? J Neurosurg 60: 727–736Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Malm J, Kristensen B, Morkgren P, Ekstedt J (1992) CSF hydrodynamics in idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a long term study. Neurology 42: 851–858PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Hayes KC, McCombs HL, Faherty TP (1971) The fine structure of Vitamin A deficiency II arachnoid granulations and CSF pressure. Brain 94: 213–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Johnston I, Paterson A, Besser M (1981). The treatment of benign intracranial hypertension: a review of 134 cases. Surg Neurol 16: 218–224Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Greer M (1968) Management of benign intracranial hypertension. Clin Neurosurg 15: 161–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Ahlskog E, O’Neill BP (1982) Pseudotumor cerebri. Annals of Internal Medicine 97: 249–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Digre KL, Varner MW, Corbett JJ (1984) Pseudotumor cerebri and pregnancy. Neurology (Cleveland) 34: 721–729Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Newborg B (1974) Pseudotumor cerebri treated by rice/reduction diet. Arch Int Med 133: 802–807Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Wall M, George D (1991) Idiopathic intracranial hypertension: A prospective study of 50 patients. Brain 114: 155–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Sugerman HJ, Felton WL III, Salvant JB (1995) Effects of surgically induced weight loss on idiopathic intracranial hypertension in morbid obesity. Neurology 45: 1655–1659PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Corbett JJ (1996) Surgical management of papilloedema. In: Festschrift for WB Hoyt. (In Press)Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Bulens C, De Vries VAEJ, Van Crevel H (179) Benign intracranial hypertension. A retrospective and follow-up study. J Neurol Sci 40: 147–157Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Jefferson A, Clark J (1976) Treatment of benign intracranial hypertension by dehydrating agents with particular reference to the measurement of the blind spot area as a means of recording improvement. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 39: 627–639PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Rubin RC, Henderson ES, Ommaya AK (1966) The production of cerebrospinal fluid in man and its modifications by acetazolamide. J Neurosurg 25: 430–436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Gucer G, Viernstein L (1978) Longterm intracranial pressure recording in the management of pseudotumor cerebri. J Neurosurg 49: 256–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Buckell M, Walsh L (1964) Effect of glycerol by mouth on raised intracranial pressure in man. Lancet 2: 1151–1152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Absolon MJ (1966) Unusual presentation of benign intracranial hypertension. Early treatment with oral glycerol. Br J Ophthalmol 50: 683–686PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Javaheri S (1991) Role of NaCl cotransport in cerebrospinal fluid production: effects of loop diuretics. J Appl Physiol 71: 795–800PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Luongo C, et al (1992) Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of benign intracranial hypertension. Follow-up of a preliminary study. Minerva Anestesiol 58 [Suppl 1]: 97–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Maruishi M, et al (1992) Successful treatment of increased intracranial pressure by barbiturate therapy in a patient with severe sinus thrombosis after failure of osmotic therapy. A case report. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 120: 88–91Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Faraci FM, Mayhan WG, Heistad DD (1990) Effect of vasopressin on production of cerebrospinal fluid: possible role of vasopressin (Vl)-receptors. Am J Physiol 258: R94–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Boysen SJ, Alexander A (1990) Net production of cerebrospinal fluid is decreased by SCH-23390. Ann Neurol 27: 631–635Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Rosner MJ (1995) Personal Communication.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Vassilouthis J, Uttley D (1979) Benign intracranial hypertension: clinical features and diagnosis using computed tomography and treatment. Surg Neurol 12: 389–392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Paterson R, DePasquale N, Mann S (1961) Pseudotumor cerebri. Medicine 40: 85–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Johnston I, Gilday DL, Hendrick EB (1974) The effects of steroids and steroid withdrawal on CSF absorption. An experimental study in dogs. J Neurosurg 42: 690–695Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Sato O, Hara M, Asai T (1973) The effect of dexamethasone phosphate on the production rate of cerebrosponal fluid in the subarachnoid space of dogs. J Neurosurg 39: 480–484PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Weiss MH, Nulsen FE (1970) The effect of glucocorticoids on CSF flow in dogs. J Neurosurg 32: 452–458PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Jackson JJ, Snodgrass SR (1955) Peritoneal shunts in the treatment of hydrocephalus and increased intracranial pressure. A 4 year survey of 62 patients. J Neurosurg 12: 216–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Vander Ark GD, Kemple LG, Smith DR (1971) Pseudotumor cerebri treated with lumbo-peritoneal shunt. J Am Med Assoc 217: 1832–1834Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Rosenberg M, et al (1989) The efficacy of shunting procedures in pseudotumor cerebri. Neurology 38 [Suppl]: 209Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Rosenberg ML, Corbett JS, et al (1993) Cerebrospinal fluid diversion procedures in pseudotumor cerebri. Neurology 43: 1071–1072PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Selman WR, Spetzler RF, Wilson CB, Grollmus JW (1980) Percutaneous lumboperitoneal shunt: review of 130 cases. Neurosurgery 6: 255–257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Chumas PD, Armstrong DC, Drake JM, Kulkarni AV, Hoffman HJ, Humphreys RP (1993) Tonsillar hemiation: the rule rather than the exception after lumboperitoneal shunting in the peadiatric population. J Neurosurg 78: 568–573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Johnston IH, Sheridan MM (1993) CSF shunting from the cisterna magna: a report of 16 cases. Br J Neurosurg 7: 39–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Tomkins CM, Spalton DJ (1984) Benign intracranial hypertension treated by optic nerve sheath decompression. J Royal Soc Med 77: 141–144Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Kaye AH, Galbraith JEK, King J (1981) Intracranial pressure following optic nerve decompression for benign intracranial hypertension. J Neurosurg 55: 453–456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    De Wecker L (1872) On incision of the optic nerve in cases of neuroretinitis. 1st Ophthalmic Congr Rep 4: 11–14Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Corbett JJ, Nerad JA, Tse DT, Anderson RL (1988) Results of optic nerve sheath fenestration for pseudotumor cerebri: the lateral orbitotomy approach. Arch Ophthalmol 106: 1391–1397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Sergott RC, Savino PJ, Bosley TM (1988) Modified optic nerve sheath decompression provides longterm visual improvement for pseudotumor cerebri. Arch Ophthalmol 106: 1384–1390PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Flaherty PM, Sergott RC (1992) Optic nerve sheath decompression. Ophthalmol Clin North Am 1: 395–404Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Knight RSG, Fielder AR, Firth JL (1986) Benign intracranial hypertension: visual loss and optic nerve sheath fenestration. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 49: 243–250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Spoor TC, McHenry JG (1993) Longterm effectiveness of optic nerve sheath decompression for pseudotumor cerebri. Arch Ophthalmol III: 632–635Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Plotnik JC, Kosmorsky GS (1993) Operative Complications of optic nerve sheath decompression. Ophthalmology 100: 683–690PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Brourman ND, Spoor TC, Ramacki JM (1988) Optic nerve sheath decompression for pseudotumor cerebri. Arch Ophthalmol 106: 1378–1383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Acheson JF, Green WT, Sanders MD (1994) Optic nerve sheath decompression for the treatment of visual failure in chronic raised intracranial pressure. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 57: 1426–1429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Kelman SE, Heaps R, Wolf A, Elman HJ (1992) Optic nerve decompression surgery improves visual function in patients with pseudotumor cerebri. Neurosurgery 30: 391–395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Foley KM (1977) Is benign intracranial hypertension a chronic disease? Neurology 27: 388 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Einhaupl KM, et al (1991) Heparin treatment in sinus venous thrombosis. Lancet 338: 597–600PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Bousser MG, et al (1985) Cerebral venous thrombosis: a review of 38 cases. Stroke 16: 199–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Pickard JD (1987) Which patients with benign intracranial hypertension can we help? In: Warlow C, Garfield J (eds) More dilemmas in the management of the neurological patient. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp 156–170Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Kirkpatrick PJ, Meyer T, Sarkies N, Pickard JD (1994) Papilloedema and visual failure in a patient with nocturnal hypoventilation. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 57: 1546–1547PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. D. Sussman
    • 1
  • N. Sarkies
    • 2
  • J. D. Pickard
    • 3
  1. 1.Academic Neurology DepartmentUniversity of SheffieldUK
  2. 2.Neuro-ophthalmology DepartmentUK
  3. 3.Academic Neurosurgery UnitUniversity of Cambridge, Addenbrooke’s HospitalCambridgeUK

Personalised recommendations