All cells of higher organisms are covered with surface carbohydrates, which are linked to peptides or fatty acids to form glycoconjugates (1). These cell surface glycoconjugates (glycoproteins, proteoglycans, glycosphingolipids, and glycosyl phosphatidyl inositols) play an important role in biological recognition, carrying encoded biological information that is recognized by other cells, viruses, bacteria, and toxins (2). This is another example of the lock and key mechanism, which was first used by Emil Fischer in 1897 to explain the interactions between enzymes and substrates. The recognition event is important for the regulation of cell-substratum adhesion and cell proliferation, for the binding and uptake of extracellular components, and for the regulation of extracellular matrix formation (3).


Amino Sugar Raney Nickel Benzyl Ether Stereoselective Synthesis Methyl Glycoside 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. A. Otsomaa
    • 1
  • A. M. P. Koskinen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of OuluLinnanmaaFinland

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