Advertisement

Abstract

Saponins are complex molecules made up of sugars linked to a triterpenoid or a steroid or a steroidal alkaloid. These natural products are attracting much attention in recent years because of the host of biological activities they exhibit. The diversity of structural features, the challenges of isolation because of their occurrence as complex mixtures, the pharmacological and biological activities still to be discovered, and the prospect of commercialization — these all are driving the study of saponins. Triterpenoid saponins are dominating constituents of this class and occur widely throughout the plant kingdom including some human foods e.g. beans, spinach, tomatoes, and potatoes, and animal feed e.g. alfalfa and clover. Saponins were initially a rather neglected area of research primarily because of great difficulties in their isolation and characterization. With the advent of more sophisticated methods of isolation and structure elucidation through the last two decades, there has been increased interest in these natural products. Besides structure determination, research activities are now moving forward to clarify structure-activity relationships. Our previous reviews on triterpenoid saponins (1, (2) covered literature from 1979 to mid-1989. The literature on triterpenoid saponins up to 1988 has also been covered by two reviews by HILLER et al. (3, 4). This review incorporates newer trends in isolation and structure determination of triterpenoid saponins, new triterpenoid saponins isolated and biological properties of these products reported during the period late 1989–mid 1996.

Keywords

Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Ursolic Acid Oleanolic Acid Triterpene Glycoside Triterpenoid Saponin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Mahato, S.B., S.K. Sarkar, and G. Poddar: Triterpenoid Saponins. Phytochemistry, 27, 3037 (1988).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mahato, S.B., and A.K. Nandy: Triterpenoid Saponins Discovered between 1987 and 1989. Phytochemistry, 30, 1357 (1991).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bader, G., and K. Hiller: Triterpenoid Saponins. Pharmazie, 42, 577 (1987).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schöpke, T., and K. Hiller: Triterpenoid Saponins. Pharmazie, 45, 313 (1990).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jia, Z., K. Koike, T. Ohmoto, and M. Ni: Triterpenoid Saponins from Ardisia crenata. Phytochemistry, 37, 1389 (1994).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhao, W., J. Xu, G. Quin, and R. Zu: New Triterpenoid Saponins from Mussaenda pubescens. J. Nat. Prod., 57, 1613 (1994).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Massiot, G., C. Lavaud, V. Besson, L.L. Men-Olivier, and G.V. Binst: Saponins from Aerial Parts of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa). J. Agric. Food Chem., 39, 78 (1991).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rodriguez, J., R. Castro, and R. Riguera: Holothurinosides: New Antitumour Non Sulphated Triterpenoid Glycosides from the Sea Cucumber Holothuria forskalii. Tetrahedron, 47, 4753 (1991).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mahato, S.B.: Saponins with Antifilarial Activity from Acacia auriculiformis. In: Saponins: Chemistry and Biological Activity (G.R. Waller, K. Yamasaki, eds.). New York: Plenum, 1996.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Williams, D.H., C. Bradley, G. Bojesen, S. Santikarn, and L.C.E. Taylor: Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry: A Powerful Technique for the Study of Polar Molecules. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 103, 5700 (1981).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fenselau, C.: Fast Atom Bombardment and Middle Molecule Mass Spectrometry. J. Nat. Prod., 47, 215 (1984).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lattimer, R.P., and H.R. Schulten: Field Ionization and field Desorption Mass Spectrometry: Past, Present and Future. Anal. Chem., 61, 1201A (1989).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sundvist, B., P. Roepstorff, J. Fohlman, A. Hedin, P. Hakansson, I. Kamensky, M. Lindberg, M. Salehpoour, and G. Save: Molecular Weight Determination of Proteins by Californium Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry. Science, 226, 696 (1984).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Karas, M., and F. Hillenkamp: Laser Desorption Ionization of Proteins with Molecular Masses Exceeding 10,000 Daltons. Anal. Chem., 60, 2299 (1988).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Covey, T.R., E.C. Huang, and J.D. Henion: Structural Characterization of Protein Tryptic Peptides via Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and Collision-Induced Dissociation of their Doubly Charged Molecular Ions. Anal. Chem., 63, 1193 (1991).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Imoto, T., F.M. Yamamoto, A. Miyasaka, and H. Hatano: High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Mass Spectrometry of Gymnemic Acids. J. Chromatography, 557, 383 (1991).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Castello, C.E.: Application of Tandem Mass Spectral Approaches to Structural Determination of Saponins. Symposium on Saponins: Chemistry and Biological Activity, 210th ACS National Meeting, Chicago, Illinois, August 20–24, 1995.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lee, M.R., J.S. Lee, J.C. Wang, and G.R. Waller: Structural Determination of Saponins from Mung Bean Sprouts by Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Symposium on Saponins: Chemistry and Biological Activity, 210th ACS National Meeting, Chicago, Illinois, August 20–24, 1995.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lee, M.K., Y.C. Ling, M. Jurzysta, and G.R. Waller: Saponins from Alfalfa, Clover, and Mungbeans Analyzed by Electrospray Iionization Mass Spectrometry Compared with Positive and Negative FAB Mass Spectrometry. Symposium on Saponins: Chemistry and Biological Activity, 210th ACS National Metting, Chicago, Illinois, August 20–24, 1995.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    West, P.R., P.W. Geno, G.R. Waller, W. Oleszek, and M. Jurzysta: Structure Confirmation of Alfalfa Saponins by LS/MS and B/E LS/MS/MS. Symposium on Saponins: Chemistry and Biological Activity, 210th ACS National Meeting, Chicago, Illinois, August 20–24, 1995.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Arao, T., J. Kinjo, T. Nohara, and R. Isobe: Oleanene-type Triterpene Glycosides from Puerariae Radix II. Isolation of Saponins and the Application of Tandem Mass Spectrometry to their Structure Determination. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 43, 1176 (1995).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Schöpke, T., C. Al-Tawaha, V. Wray, M. Nimtz, A. Meyer, and K. Hiller: Triterpenoid Saponins from the Aerial Parts of Aster bellidiastrum. Phytochemistry, 40, 1489 (1995).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Perera, P., R. Andersson, L. Bohlin, C. Andersson, D. Li, N.L. Owen, R. Dunkel, C.L. Mayne, R.J. Rugmire, D.M. Grant, and P.A. Cox: Structure Determination of a New Saponin from the Plant Alphitonia zizyphoides by NMR Spectroscopy. Magn. Res. Chem., 31, 472 (1993).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Garai, S., S.B. Mahato, K. Ohtani, and K. Yamasaki: Dammarane-Type Triterpenoid Saponins from Bacopa monniera. Phytochemistry, 42, 815 (1993).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Waltho, J.P., D.H. Williams, S.B. Mahato, B.C. Pal, and J.C.J. Barna: Structure Elucidation of Two Triterpenoid Tetrasaccharides from Androsace saxifragifolia. J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 1, 1517 (1986).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bader, G., T. Danzandarjaa, K. Hiller, G. Renicek, J. Jurenitsch, M. Golly, H. Schröder, M. Schubert-Zsilaveez, and E. Haslinger: A New Triterpene Saponin from Heteropappus biennis with an Unusual Carbohydrate Chain. Helv. Chim. Acta, 77, 1861 (1994).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shao, Y., B. Zhou, L. Lin, and G.A. Cordell: Triterpenoid Saponins from Aster batangensis. Phytochemistry, 38, 927 (1995).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bader, G., Y. Kulhanek, and H. Ziegler-Boehme: Antifungal Action of Glycosides of Polygalacic Acid. Pharmazie, 45, 618 (1990).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Takechi, M., and Y. Tanaka: Structure-Activity Relationships of the Saponin α-Hederin. Phytochemistry, 29, 451 (1990).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Shimoyamada, M., M. Suzuki, H. Sonta, M. Muruama, and K. Okubo: Antifungal Activity of the Saponin Fraction from Asparagus officinalis L. and its Active Principle. Agric. Biol. Chem., 54, 2553 (1990).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lalitha, T., and L.V. Venkataraman: Antifungal Activity and Mode of Action of Saponins from Madhuca butyraceae Macb. Indian J. Chem., 29, 558 (1991).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zehavi, U., O. Ziv-Fecht, M. Levy, M. Naim, R. Evron, and I. Polachek: Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Medicagenic Acid Saponins on Plant Pathogens: Modification of the Saccharide Moiety and the 23α-Substitution. Carbohydr. Res., 244, 161161 (1993).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bower, P., B.R. Clarke, P. Lunnes, M.J. Daniels, and A.E. Osbourn: Host Range of a Plant Pathogenic Fungus Determined by Saponin Detoxifying Enzyme. Science, 267, 371 (1995).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Favel, A., M.D. Steinmetz, P. Regli, E. Vidal-Ollivier, R. Elias, and G. Balansard: In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Triterpenoid Saponins. Planta Med., 60, 50 (1994).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dalsgaard, K.: A Study of the Isolation and Characterization of the Saponin Quil A: Evaluation of its Adjuvant Activity with Special Reference to the Application in the Vaccination of Cattle Against Foot and Mouth Disease. Acta Vei. Scand., 695, 1 (1978).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wu, J.Y., B.H. Gardner, C.I. Murphy, J.R. Seals, C.R. Kensil, J. Recchia, G.A. Beltz, G.W. Newman, and M.J. Newman: Saponins Adjuvant Enhancement of Antigen-Specific Immune Responses to an Experimental HIV-1 Vaccine. J. Immunol., 148, 1519 (1992).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    White, A.C., P. Cloutier, and R.T. Coughlin: A Purified Saponin Acts as an Adjuvant for a T-Independent Antigen. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol., 303, 207 (1991).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Newman, M.J., J.Y. Wu, B.H. Gardner, and K.J. Munroe: Saponin Adjuvant Induction of Ovalbumin-Specific CD8+ Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Responses. J. Immunol., 148, 2357 (1992).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kirkley, J.E., P.H. Naylor, D.J. Marciani, C.R. Kensil, M. Newman, and A.L. Goldstein: QS-21 Augments the Antibody Response to a Synthetic Peptide Vaccine Compared to Alum. Comb. Ther. [Proc. Int. Symp.] 1st 1991 (A.L. Goldstein, Garaci, eds.). New York: Plenum. 1992.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bomford, R., M. Stapleton, S. Winsor, J.E. Beesley, E.A. Jssup, K.R. Price, and G.R. Fenwick: Adjuvanticity and ISCOM Formation by Structurally Diverse Saponins. Vaccine, 10, 572 (1992).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Newman, M.J., J.Y. Wu, R.T. Coughlin, C.I. Murphy, J.R. Seals, M.S. Wyand, and C.R. Kensil: Immunogenicity and Toxicity Testing of an Experimental HIV-1 Vaccine in Nonhuman Primates. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 8, 1413 (1992).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Newman, M.J., K.J. Munroe, C.A. Anderson, C.I. Murphy, D.L. Panicali, J.R. Seals, J.Y. Wu, M.S. Wyano, and C.R. Kensil: Induction of Antigen-Specific Killer T Lymphocyte Responses Using Subunit SIV mac 251 gag and enV Vaccines Containing QS-21 Saponin Adjuvant — Immunochemistry. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 10, 853 (1994).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Yang, C., and G. Yang: Immunologic Effect of Panaxquinquefolium Saponin in vitro and in vivo. Zhongguo Mianyixue Zazhi, 8, 188 (1992).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    He, G., J. Zhang, X. Xue, and J. Want: Immune Function Stimulatory and Regulatory Action of Ginseng Saponins on Chronic Pulmonary Heart Diseases. Baiqiuen Yike Daxue Xuebao, 19, 50 (1993).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ronnberg, B., M. Fekadli, and B. Morein: Adjuvant Activity of Nontoxic Quillaja Saponaria molina Components for Use in ISCOM Matrix. Vaccine, 13, 1375 (1995).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Takeda, O., S. Tanaka, K. Yamasaki, H. Khoda, Y. Ywanaga, and M. Tsuji: Screening for Molluscicidal Activity in Crude Drugs. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 37, 1090 (1989).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Thiilborg, S.T., S.B. Christenseen, C. Cornett, C.E. Olsen, and E. Lemmich: Molluscicidal Saponins from Phytolacca dodecandra. Phytochemistry, 32, 1167 (1993).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ndama, J., E. Lemmich, and P. Moelgaard: Release of Molluscicidal Saponins from Phytolacca dodecandra Aqueous Berry Extracts as Influenced by the Male Plant and the Extraction Procedure. Biochem. Syst. Ecol., 22, 249 (1994).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hamburger, M., I. Slacanin, K. Hostettmann, W. Dyatmiko, and S. Jadi: Acetylated Saponins with Molluscicidal Activity from Sapindus rarak: Unambiguous Structure Determination by PMR and Quantitative Analysis. Phytochem. Anal., 3, 231 (1992).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lemmich, E., C. Cornett, P. Furu, C.L. Jorstian, A.D. Knudsen, and C.E. Olsen: Molluscicidal Saponins from Catunaregam nilotica. Phytochemistry, 39, 63 (1995).Google Scholar
  51. 57.
    Pakrashi, A., H. Ray, B.C. Pal, and S.B. Mahato: Sperm Immobilizing Effect of Triterpene Saponins from Acacia auriculiformis. Contraception, 43, 475 (1991).Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Garg, S., G. Dancel, S. Chabra, S.N. Upadhyay, and G.P. Talwar: Synergistic Spermicidal Activity of Neem Seed Extract Reetha Saponins and Quinine Hydrochloride. Contraception, 50, 185 (1994).Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Rajasekaran, M., A.G.R. Nair, W.J.G. Hellstron, and S.C. Sikka: Spermicidal Activity of an Antifungal Saponin Obtained from the Tropical Herb Mollugo pentaphylla. Contraception, 47, 401 (1993).Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Mahato, S.B.: Bioactive Gymnemic Acids and Congeners from Gymnema sylvestre. In: Studies in Natural Products Chemistry (A. Rahman, ed.), Vol. 18, pp. 649–676. Amsterdam: Elsevier 1996.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kang, J.S., H. Koh, and T.K. Suh: Effect of Gymnemic Acid on the Elevation of Blood Glucose Concentration Induced with Oral Sucrose in Strepto-zotocin-Diabetic Rats. Hanyang Vidae Haksulchi, 10, 587 (1990).Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Harms, S.D., Z. Lu, S. Li, and Y. Cai: Hypoglycemic Effect of Saponin Isolated from Leaves of Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim.). Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, 19, 683 (1994).Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Jod, C.N., and J.Y. Kim: Hypoglycemic Action of Ginseng Saponins on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Rats (II). Koryo Insam Hakhoechi, 16, 198 (1992).Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Wang, D., H. Yu, S. Hu, P. Qiu, and H.W. Leng: Hypoglycemic Effect of Total Saponins of Aralia decaisneana in Rat and Mice Models. Zhongguo Yaoxue Zazhi, 30, 407 (1995).Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Tokuda, H., T. Konoshima, M. Kuzuka, and T. Kimura: Inhibition of 12-O-Tetra-decanoylphorbol-13-acetate-promoted Mouse Skin Papilloma by Saponins. Oncology, 48, 77 (1991).Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kim, W., and N.P. Jung: Effects of a Ginseng Saponin Fraction on the Tumoricidal Activity of Murine Macrophage against K562 Cells. Koryo Insam Hakhoechi, 13, 24 (1989).Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hesegawa, H., S. Matsumiya, M. Uchiyama, T. Kurokawa, Y. Inouye, R. Kasai, S. Ishibashi, and K. Yamasaki: Inhibitory Effect of Some Triterpenoid Saponins on Glucose Transport in Tumor Cells and its Application to in vitro Cytotoxic and Antiviral Activities. Planta Med., 60, 240 (1994).Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Rao, A.V., and M.K. Sung: Saponins as Anticarcinogens. J. Nutr., 125, 7175 (1995).Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Sung, M.K., C.W.C. Kendall, M.M. Koo, and A.V. Rao: Effect of Soybean Saponins and Gypsophila Saponins on Growth and Viability of Colon Carcinoma Cells in Culture. Nutr. Cancer, 23, 259 (1995).Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Amarowicz, R., M. Shimoyamad, and K. Okubo: Hypocholesterolemic Effects of Saponins. Rocz. Panstw. Zakl. Hig., 45, 125 (1994).Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Xu, Q., Y. Zhao, and G. Cheng: Blood Lipid-decreasing Action of Total Saponins of Panax notoginseng (Bark). F.H. Chen. Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, 18, 367 (1993).Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Li, J., Z. Lu, and Y Lu: Effects of Panax quinquefolium Saponin on Serum Lipoprotein-Cholesterol and Its Anti-peroxidation in Hyperlipidemic Rats. Zhongguo Yaoxue Zazhi, 28, 355 (1993).Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Yamamoto, M., and S. Kameda (MARUZEN SEIYAKU KK): Feed Additives Containing Quillaja Saponins and/or Yucca Saponins for Poultry Egg Production with the Saponins and Low-Cholesterol Eggs Produced by the Poultry. Japanese patent JP 0507, 462 (1993).Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Wu, C., Q. Yu, W. Liu, Y. Guo, and G. Zhang: A Study on the Antiaging Effect of Ginseng Stem and Leaf Saponin in Terms of the Free Radical Theory of Aging. Shenyang Yaoxueyuan Xuebao, 9, 37 (1992).Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Pan, H., L. Huang, Z. Zhou, G. Liang, X. Hong, and Z. Huan: Experimental Studies on Anti-Aging Effect of Total Saponin from Stalk and Leaf of Sanchi (Panax notoginseng). Zhongcaoyao, 24, 581 (1993).Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Ma, C., Z. Lu, and Y. Jiang: Antioxidative Effect of Panax quinquefolium Saponin on the Myocardium Injury Induced by Dexorubicin in Rats. Zhongguo Yaolixue Yu Dulixue Zazhi, 7, 267 (1993).Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Yang, S., J. Qu, G. Zhong, and W. Zhang: Protective Effects of PQS on Oxidative Damage of Cultured Rat Cardiac Cells. Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, 17, 555 (1992).Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Wang, S., Y. Jiang, G. Zhang, and X. Sun: Anti-Free-Radical Damaging Action of PDS, PTS on the Myocardial Contractibility of the Isolated Rat Working Heart. Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, 18, 113 (1993).Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Wang, S., R. Sun, S. Li, Y. Wang, X. Xiao, L. Hao, and X. Ma: Anti-Aging Effects of Rhodosin and Ginseng Stem-Leaf Saponins. Baiqien Yike Daxue Xuebao, 20, 329 (1994).Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Li, H., and L. Shi: Effects of Total Saponinsfrom Panax notogenseng on Calcium Influx into Myocardial Cells. Zhongguo Yaote Xuebao, 11, 213 (1990).Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Zhang, K., Y. Zou, and C. Zhou: Preventive Effects of Crude Saponins of Glabrous Greenbrier (Smilax glabra) on the cholesterol-Fed Atherosclerosis of Quails. Zhon-caoyao, 22, 411 (1991).Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Huang, C., T. Gu, Y. Guean, and J. Wang: Effects of Panax notoginseng Saponins on Myocardial Ischemia and Reprefusion Injury in Conscious Rabbit. Zhongguo Yaolixue Tongbao, 7, 190 (1991).Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Li, L., Z. Wang, Z. Huang, Y. Zhang, and J. Wei: Effects of Panax notoginseng Saponins on Acute Cerebral Ischemia. Zhonguo Yoolixue Tonbao, 1, 56 (1991).Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Gao, B.Y., X.J. Li, L. Liu, and B.H. Zhang: Effect of Panaxatriol Saponins (PTS) Isolated from Panax notoginseng on Myocardial Ischemic Arrhythmia in Mice and Rats. Yaoxue Xuebao, 27, 641 (1992).Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Wu, J., and J. Sun: Comparative Effects of Panax notoginseng Saponins, Verapamil, and Norepinephrine on Cerebral Circulation in Anesthetized Rats and Rabbits. Zhongguo Yaoli Xuebao, 13, 520 (1992).Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Zhong, S. J., H. Li, W.J. Zheg, C.W. Sun, X.K. Ma, and L. Wang: Block Effect of PQS on Calcium Channel on Culture Rat Myocardiocyte. Zhongguo Yaoxue Zazhi, 29, 525 (1994).Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Hang, H., X. Lin, Q. Wang, J. Wei, and Y. Chen: Protective Effects of Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS), Panax Japonicus Saponins (PJS) and Gypenosides (GP) on Myocardial Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury. Zhongguo Bingli Shengli Zazhi, 10, 128 (1994).Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Lu, C., H. Jin, W. Lu, and Y. Chen: Effects of Astragalus saponins on Dog Cardiac Functions in vivo. Baiquen Yike Daxue Xuebao, 20, 326 (1994).Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Jiang, Y., G. Zhong, C. Shao, and G. Yue: Calcium Channel Blocking Effect of Panaxadiol Saponins and Panaxatriol Saponins on Cultured Cardiac Cells. Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, 17, 172 (1992).Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Sui, D., Z. Lu, L. Ma, and Z. Fan: Effects of Saponins of Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et. Maxim) Harms. On Myocardial Infarct Size in Acute Ischemic Dogs. Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, 19, 746 (1994).Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Li, J., X. Wang, and H. Zhang: Protective Effect of Saponin of Chinese and American inseng Stem and Leaf on Cells Infected by HSV-1. Zhongcaoyao, 23, 249 (1992).Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Maria, L., and C. Pizza: Structure and in vitro Antiviral Activity of Triterpenoid Saponins from Calendula arvensis. Planta Med., 57, 250 (1991).Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Lin, X., Y. Cai, and P. Xiao: Inhibition of SIV in vitro by Cimicifuga dahurica Saponin and Its Action Mechanism. Huaxi Yaoxue Zazhi, 9, 221 (1994).Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Yoshikawa, K., N. Shimono, and S. Arihara: Antisweet Substances, Jujuba saponins I–III from Zizyphus jujuba. Revised Structure of Ziziphin. Tetrahedron Lett., 32, 7059 (1991).Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Yoshikawa, K., S. Arihara, and K. Matsuura: A New Type of Antisweet Principles occurring in Gymnema sylvestre. Tetrahedron Lett., 32, 789 (1991).Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Yoshikawa, K., S. Tumura, K. Yamada, and S. Arihara: Antisweet Natural Products. VII Hodulosides I, II, III, IV and V from the Leaves of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 40, 2287 (1992).Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Imoto, T.: Sugar Discriminations and Plant Originated Glycosides and Gymnemic Acids. Seibatsi Butsuri, 30, 146 (1990).Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Kim, H.S., S.H. Kim, M.K. Lee, K.J. Choi, and S.C. Kim: Effects of Ginseng Leaf Saponins on the Development of Morphine Tolerance and Dependence in Mice. Koryo Insam Hakoechi, 13, 8 (1989).Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Kim, H.S., J.G. Kang, H.M. Rheu, D.H. Cho, and K.W. Oh: Blockade by Ginseng Total Saponin of the Development of Methamphetamine Reverse Tolerance and Dopamine Receptor Supersensitivity in Mice. Planta Med., 61, 22 (1995).Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Kim, H.S., J.G. Kang, Y.H. Seong, K.Y. Nam, and K.W. Oh: Blockade by Ginseng Total Saponin of the Development of Cocaine Induced Reverse Tolerance and Dopamine Receptor Supersensitivity in Mice. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 50, 23 (1995).Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Kim, H.S., K.W. Oh, and Y.H. Seong: The Role of Ginseng Total Saponins in the Inhibition of the Development of Analgesic Tolerance to Morphine. Koryo Insam Hokhoechi, 15, 179 (1991).Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Majester-Savornin, B., R. Elias, A.M. Diaz-Lanza, G. Balansard, M. Gasquet, and F. Delmas: Saponins of Ivy Plant, Hedera helix, and their Leishmanicidic Activity. Planta Med., 57, 260 (1991).Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Ghosh, M., S.P. Sinha Babu, N.C. Sukul, and S.B. Mahato: Antifilarial Effect of Two Triterpenoid Saponins Isolated from Acacia auriculiformis. Indian J. Exp. Biol., 31, 604 (1993).Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Waller, G.R., M. Jurzysta, and R.L.Z. Thorne: Allelopathic Activity of Root Saponin from Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) on Weeds and Wheat. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin., 34, 1 (1993).Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Oleszek, W.: Allelopathic Potentials of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Saponins: Their Relation to Antifungal and Hemolytic Activities. J. Chem. Ecol., 19, 1063 (1993).Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Hiji, Y.: Gymnemic Acid for Prevention of Dental Caries. US Patent, US4, 912, 089, 27 Mar 1990.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kato, T., N. Nagata, and S. Watabe (Rohto Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.): Ethanol-Absorption Inhibitors Containing Saponins. Japanese patent JP 04,145,028, 19 May 1992.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Kennelly, E.J., L. Cai, N.C. Kim, and A.D. Kinghorn: Abrusoside E, a Further Sweet-Tasting Cycloartane glycoside from the Leaves of Abrus precatorius. Phytochemistry, 41, 1381 (1993).Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Pauthe-Dayde, D., M. Rochd, and M. Henry: Triterpenoid Saponins Production in Callus and Multiple Shoot Cultures of Gypsophila spp. Phytochemistry, 29, 483 (1990).Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Besson, V., C. Lavaud, G. Massiot, L.E. Men-Olivier, S. Bianchi, P. Flament, and Y. Dattee: Medicagenic Acid and Saponins in Callus and Suspension Cultures of Alfalfa. Phytochemistry, 28, 1379 (1989).Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Yu, X.: Preliminary Study on Saponin Content in Callus of Five Leaf Gynostemma (Gynostemma pentaphyllum). Zhongcaoyao, 22, 468 (1991).Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Katakura, M., and T. Kimura: Production of Saikosaponins by Tissue Culture of Bupleurum falcatum L. Endo. I. Eng., 7, 97 (1991).Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Kubo, Y., and M. Murakami: Tissue Culture of Panax japonicus. III. Saponin Production in Adventitious Root Cultures. Toyama-ken Yakuji Kenkyusho Nenpo 18, 60 (1990).Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Zhou, L.G., G.Z. Zheng, F.Y. Gan, S.L. Wang, C.R. Yang, and C. Xu: Separation and Identification of Main Medicinal Saponin Components from Cell Cultures of Panax notoginseng. F.H. Chem. Yaoxue Xuebao, 26, 876 (1991).Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Ionkova, I.: Producing Triterpene Saponins by Conventional and Genetically-Transformed Cultures of Astragalus hamosus L. Probl. Farmakol. Farm., 5, 32 (1991).Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Choi, K.T., and J.C. Park: Production of Ginseng Saponin in Tissue Culture of Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer). Fiziol. Rast., 41, 891 (1994).Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Zhou, Y., M. Hirotani, H. Rui, and T. Furuya: TWO Triglycosidic Triterpene Astragalosides from Hairy Root Cultures of Astragalus membranaceus. Phytochemistry, 38, 1407 (1995).Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Mahato, S.B.: Glycosides, Saponins and Sapogenins. In: Second Supplement to the 2nd Edition of Rodd’s Chemistry of Carbon Compounds, Vol. II B (Partial) and E (M. Sainsbury, ed.) pp. 509–554. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1994.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Sakai, Y., T. Takeshita, J. Kinjo, Y. Ito, and T. Nohara: Leguminous Plants 17. Two New Triterpenoid Sapogenals and a New Saponin from Abrus cantoniensis (II). Chem. Pharm. Bull., 38, 824 (1990).Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Choi, Y.H., R.A. Hussain, J.M. Pezzuto, A.D. Kinghorn, and J.F. Morton: Abrusosides A-D, Four Novel Sweet-tasting Triterpene Glycosides from the Leaves of Abrus precatorius. J. Nat. Prod., 52, 1118 (1989).Google Scholar
  115. 775.
    Mahato, S.B., B.C. Pal, and A.K. Nandy: Structure Elucidation of Two Acylated Triterpenoid Bisglycosides from Acacia auriculiformis Cunn. Tetrahedron, 48, 6717 (1992).Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Kohda, H., S. Tanaka, and Y. Yamaoko: Saponins from Leaves of Acantho-panax hypoleucus Makino. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 38, 3380 (1990).Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Sawada, H., M. Miyakoshi, S. Isoda, Y. Ida, and J. Shoji: Saponins from Leaves of Acanthopanax siebodianus. Phytochemistry, 34, 1117 (1993).Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Miyakoshi, M., Y. Ida, S. Isoda, and J. Shoji: 3α-Hydroxy-oleanane-type Triterpene Glycosyl Esters from Leaves of Acanthopanax spinosus. Phytochemistry, 34, 1599 (1993).Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Miyakoshi, M., Y. Ida, S. Isoda, and J. Shoji: 3 Epi-oleanane Type Triterpene Glycosyl Esters from Leaves of Acanthopanax spinosus. Phytochemistry, 33, 891 (1993).Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Lacaille-Dubois, M.A., B. Hanquet, A. Rustaiyan, and H. Wagner: Squarroside A, a Biologically Active Triterpene Saponin from Acanthophyllum squarrosum. Phytochemistry, 34, 489 (1993).Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Ida, Y., Y. Satoh, M. Katoh, M. Katsumata, M. Nagasao, K. Yamaguchi, H. Kamei, and J. Shoji: Achyranthosides A and B, Novel Cytotoxic Saponins from Achyranthes fauriei Root. Tetrahedron Lett., 35, 6887 (1994).Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Ida, Y., Y. Satoh, M. Katsumata, M. Nagasao, and J. Shoji: Achyranthosides C and D, Novel Glucuronide Saponins from Achyranthes fauriei Root. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 43, 896 (1995).Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Faini, E., M. Castillo, R. Torres, G. Delle Monache, and E. Gacs-Baitz: Malabaricane Triterpene Glucosides from Adesmia aconcaquensis. Phytochemistry, 40, 885 (1995).Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Fang, S., Z. He, J. Gao, and P. WANG: Triterpenoid Glycosides from Adina rubella. Phytochemistry, 39, 1241 (1995).Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Ikuta, A., and H. Itokawa: 30-Noroleanane Saponins from Callus Tissues of Akebia quinata. Phytochemistry, 28, 2663 (1989).Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Ikuta, A.: Saponins and Triterpenes from Callus Tissues of Akebia trifoliata and Comparison with the Constituents of Other Lardizabalaceous Callus Tissues. J. Nat. Prod., 58, 1378 (1995).Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Pal, B.C., B. Achari, K. Yoshikawa, and S. Arihara: Saponins from Albizia lebbeck. Phytochemistry, 38, 1287 (1995).Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Orsini, F., F. Pelizzoni, and L. Verotta: Saponins from Albizzia lucida. Phytochemistry, 30, 4111 (1991).Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Li, D., N.L. Owen, P. Perera, C. Andersson, L. Bohlin, P.A. Cox, R.J. Pugmire, C.L. Mayne, and D.M. Grant: Structure Elucidation of Three Triterpenoid Saponins from Alphitonia zizypleoides Using 2D NMR Techniques. J. Nat. Prod., 59, 218 (1994).Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Rastrelli, L., C. Pizza, P. Saturnino, O. Schettino, and A. Dim: Studies on the Constituents of Amaranthus caudatus (Kiwicha) Se eds. Isolation and Characterization of Seven New Triterpene Saponins. J. Agric. Food Chem., 43, 904 (1995).Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Kohda, H., S. Tanaka, Y. Yamoka, and Y. Ohhara: Saponins from Amaranthus hypochodriacus. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 39, 2609 (1991).Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Brandao, M.G.L., M.A. Lacailee-Dubois, M.A. Teixeira, and H. Wagner: Triterpene Saponins from the Roots of Ampelozizphus amaronicus. Phytochemistry, 31, 352 (1992).Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Brandao, M.G.L., M.A. Lacaille-Dubois, M.A. Teixeira, and H. Wagner: A Dammarane-Type Saponin from the Roots of Ampelozizyphus amaronicus. Phytochemistry, 34, 1123 (1993).Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Shoji, N., A. Umeyama, K. Yoshikawa, and S. Arihara: Structures of Anagallosa-ponins I-V and Their Companion Substances from Anagallis arvensis L. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 42, 1874 (1994).Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Shoji, N., A. Umeyama, K. Yoshikawa, and S. Arihara: Triterpenoid Glycosides from Anagallis arvensis. Phytochemistry, 37, 1397 (1994).Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Mahato, S.B., N.P. Sahu, S.K. Roy, and S. Sen: Structure Elucidation of Four New Triterpenoid Oligoglycosides from Anagallis arvensis. Tetrahedron, 47, 5215 (1991).Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Li, X., C. Yang, Y. Liu, R. Kasai, K. Ohtani, and K. Yamasaki: Triterpenoid Glycosides from Anemocleama glaucifolium. Phytochemistry, 39, 1175 (1995).Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Wang, M., F. Wu, and Y. Chen: Triterpenoid Saponins from Anemone hupehensis. Phytochemistry, 34, 1395 (1993).Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Duoux, M.G., C. Lavaud, G. Massiot, L. Lemenoliver, and D.M. Sheeley: A Saponin from Leaves of Aphloia madagascariensis. Phytochemistry, 34, 497 (1993).Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Hu, M., K. Ogawa, Y. Sashida, and P. Xiao: Triterpenoid Glucurono-saponins from Root Bark of Aralia armata. Phytochemistry, 39, 179 (1995).Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Miyase, T., N. Sutoh, D.M. Zhang, and A. Ueno: Araliasaponins XII-XVIII, Triterpene Saponins from the Roots of Aralia chinensis. Phytochemistry, 42, 1123 (1993).Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Kawai, H., M. Nishida, Y. Tashiro, M. Kuroyanagi, A. Ueno, and M. Satake: Studies on the Structures of Udosaponins A, B, C, D, E and F from Aralia cordates Thumb. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 37, 2318 (1989).Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Miyase, T., K. Shiokawa, D.M. Zhang, and A. Ueno: Araliasaponins I-XI, Triterpene Saponins from the Roots of Aralia decaisneana. Phytochemistry, 41, 1411 (1993).Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Saito, S., S. Sumita, N. Tamura, Y. Nagamura, K. Nishida, M. Ito, and I. Ishiguro: Saponins from the Leaves of Aralia elata Seem (Araliaceae). Chem. Pharm. Bull., 38, 411 (1990).Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Jiang, Y., S. Xu, X. Yao, and Y. Chen: Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Activities of Aralia elata. Shenyang Yaoxueynan Xuebao, 8, 290 (1991).Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Sakai, S., M. Katsumato, Y. Satoh, M. Nagasao, M. Miyakoshi, Y. Ida, and J. Shoji: Oleanolic Acid Saponins from Root Bark of Aralia elata. Phytochemistry, 35, 1319 (1994).Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Satoh, Y., S. Sakai, M. Katsumato, M. Nagasao, M. Miyakoshi, Y. Ida, and J. Shoji: Oleanolic acid Saponins from Root Bark of Aralia elata. Phytochemistry, 36, 147 (1994).Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Yu, S., D. Yu, and X. Liang: Triterpenoid Saponins from the Roots of Aralia spinifolia. J. Nat. Prod., 57, 978 (1994).Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Jia, Z., K. Koike, T. Nikaido, T. Ohmoto, and M. Ni: Triterpenoid Saponins from Ardisia crenata and their Inhibitory Activity on CAMP Phosphodiesterase. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 42, 2309 (1994).Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Jia, Z., K. Koike, T. Nikaido, and T. Ohmoto: TWO Novel Triterpenoid Pentasaccharides with an Unusual Glycosylglycerol Side Chain from Ardisia crenata, Tetrahedron, 50, 11853 (1994).Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Wang, M., X. Guan, X. Han, and S. Hong: A New Triterpenoid Saponin from Ardisia crenata. Planta Med., 58, 205 (1992).Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    De Tommasi, N., S. Piacente, F. Desimone, C. Pizza, and Z.L. Zhou: Characterization of Three New Triterpenoid Saponins from Ardisia japonica. J. Nat. Prod., 56, 1669 (1993).Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Charrouf, Z., J.M. Wieruszeski, S. Fkih-Tetouani, Y Leroy, M. Charrouf, and B. Fournet: Triterpenoid Saponnins from Argania spinosa. Phytochemistry, 31, 2079 (1992).Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Shao, Y., B. Zhou, K. Ma, and H. Wu: New Triterpenoid Saponins, Asterbatanoside D and E from Aster batangensis. Planta Med., 61, 246 (1995).Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Shao, Y., B. Zhou, K. Ma, H. Wu, L. Lin, and G. A. Cordell: Medicagenic Acid Saponins from Aster batangensis. Phytochemistry, 39, 875 (1995).Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Nagao, T., R. Tanaka, Y. Iwase, and H. OKABE: Studies on the Constituents of Aster scaber Thunb. IV. Structure of Four Echinocystic acid Glycosides Isolated from the Herb. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 41, 659 (1993).Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Nagao, T., Y. Iwase, and H. OKABE: Studies on the Constituents of Aster scaber Thumb. V. Structures of Six New Echinocystic Acid Glycosides Isolated from the Herb. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 41, 1562 (1993).Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Tanaka, R., T. Nagao, H. Okabe, and T. YAMAUCHI: Studies on the Constituents of Aster tataricus L.f.I.V. Structures of Aster Saponins Isolated from the Herb. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 38, 1153 (1992).Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Cheng, D., and Y. Shao: Terpenoid Glycosides from the Roots of Aster tataricus. Phytochemistry, 35, 173 (1994).Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Nagao, T., H. Okabe, and T. Yamauchi: Studies on the Constituents of Aster tataricus L.f.III. Structures of Aster Saponins E and F Isolated from the Root. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 38, 783 (1990).Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Shao, Y., B. Zhou, K. Ma, and H. Wu: Echinocystic Acid Saponins from Aster Yunnanensis. J. Nat. Prod., 58, 837 (1995).Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Shao, Y., B. Zhou, L. Lin, and G.A. Cordell: Triterpene Saponins from Aster yunnanensis. Phytochemistry, 38, 1487 (1995).Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Shao, Y., B. Zhou, J. Gao, L. Lin, and G.A. Cordell: Glycosides from Aster yunnanensis. Phytochemistry, 38, 675 (1995).Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Espada, A., C. Jimenez, J. Rodriguez, P. Crews, and R. Riguera: Sarasinosides D-G Four New Triterpenoid Saponins from the Sponge Asteropus sarasinosum. Tetrahedron, 48, 8685 (1992).Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Orsini, F., L. Verotta, L. Barboni, N.A. El-Sebakhy, A.M. Asaad, R.M. Abdallah, and S.M. Toaima: Cycloaratane Triterpene Glycosides from Astragalus alexandrinus. Phytochemistry, 35, 745 (1994).Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Wang, H.K., K. He, L. Ji, Y. Tezuka, and K.I. Tohru: Asernestioside C, a New Saponin from the Roots of Astragalus ernestii Comb; First Example of Negative Nuclear Overhauser Effect in the Saponins. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 37, 2041 (1989).Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Zhu, Y.Z., S. Lu, Y. Okada, M. Takata, and T. Okuyama: TWO New Cycloartane-type Glycosides Mongholicoside I and II from Aerial Part of Astragalus mongholicus Bungi. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 40, 2230 (1992).Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    El-Sebakhy, N.A., F.M. Hadraz, R.M. Abdallah, A.M. Asaad, F. Orsini, F. Pelizzoni, G. Sello, and L. Verotta: Cycloartane Triterpene Glycosides from Egyptian Astragalus Species. Phytochemistry, 29, 3271 (1990).Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Gariboldi, P., F. Pelizzoni, M. Tato, L. Verotta, N. El-Sebakhy, A.M. Asaad, R.M. Abdallah, and S.N. Toaima: Cycloartane Triterpene Glycosides from Astragalus trigonus. Phytochemistry, 40, 1755 (1995).Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Hiller, K., M. Leska, E. Gruendemann, G. Dube, A. Karwatzki, and P. Franke: Structure of Bisdesmosidic Saponins from Astrantia major L. Pharmazie, 45, 615 (1990).Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Jain, P., and D.K. Kulshreshtha: Bacoside A1, a Minor Saponin from Bacopa monniera. Phytochemistry, 33, 449 (1993).Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Rastogi, S., R. Pal, and D.K. Kulshreshtha: Bacoside A3, a Triterpenoid Saponin from Bacopa monniera. Phytochemistry, 36, 133 (1994).Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Garai, S., S.B. Mahato, K. Ohtani, and K. Yamasaki: Bacopasaponin D-A Pseudo-jujubogenin Glycosides from Bacopa monniera. Phytochemistry, 43, 447 (1993).Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Pal, B.C., T. Chaudhuri, K. Yoshikawa, and S. Arihara: Saponins from Barringtonia acutangula. Phytochemistry, 35, 1315 (1994).Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Pal, B.C., B. Achari, and K.R. Price: A Triterpenoid Glucoside from Barringtonia acutangula. Phytochemistry, 30, 4177 (1991).Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Schöpke, T., V. Wray, B. Rzazewska, and K. Hiller: Bellissaponins BA1 and BA2, Acylated Saponins from Bellis perennis. Phytochemistry, 30, 627 (1991).Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Schöpke, T., V. Wray, A. Kunath, and K. Hiller: Bayogenin and Asterogenic Acid Glycosides from Bellis perennis. Phytochemistry, 31, 2555 (1992).Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Schöpke, T., K. Hiller, V. Wray, K.D. Koppel, K. Yamasaki, and R. Kasai: Triterpenoid Saponins from Bellis sylvestris, I. Structures of the Major Deacyl Saponins. J. Nat. Prod., 57, 1279 (1994).Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Schöpke, T., M.I.H. Agha, V. Wray, and K. Hiller: Triterpenoid Saponins from Bellium bellidioides. Phytochemistry, 36, 449 (1994).Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Schöpke, T., V. Wray, M. Nimtz, and K. Hiller: Triterpenoid saponins from Bellium bellidioides. Structure of the Minor Deacylsaponins. Phytochemistry, 41, 1399 (1993).Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Ridout, C.L. K.R. Price, G. Parkin, M.G. Dijoux, and C. Lavaud: Saponins from Sugar Beet and the Floc Problem. J. Agric. Food. Chem., 42, 279 (1994).Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Fuchino, H., T. Satoh, and N. Tanaka: Chemical Evaluation of Betula Species in Japan. I. Constituents of Betula ermanii. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 43, 1937 (1995).Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Ohashi, K., H. Kojima, T. Tanikawa, Y. Okumura, K. Kawazoe, N. Tatara, H. Shibuya, and I. Kitagawa: Indonesian Medicinal Plants. IX. Chemical Structures of Gongganosides A, B and C, Three New Quinovic Acid Glycosides from the Bark of Bhesa paniculata (Celastraceae). Chem. Pharm. Bull., 42, 1596 (1994).Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Espada, A., J. Rodriguez, M.C. Villaverde, and R. Riguera: Boussingoside D1, a New Triterpenoid Saponin from Boussingaultia baselloides. Liebigs Ann. Chem., 3, 291 (1991).Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Espada, A., J. Rodriguez, M.C. Villaverde, and R. Riguera: Hypoglycemic Triterpenoid Saponins from Boussingaultia baselloides. Can. J. Chem., 68, 2039 (1990).Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Oobyyashi, K., K. Yoshikawa, and S. Arihara: Structural Revision of Bryonoside and Structure Elucidation of Minor Saponins from Bryonia dioica. Phytochemistry, 31, 943 (1992).Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Ebata, N., K. Nakajima, H. Taguchi, and H. Mitsuhashi: Isolation of New Saponins from the Root of Bupleurum falcatum L. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 38, 1432 (1990).Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Pistelli, L., A. Cammilli, A. Manunta, A. Marsili, and I. Morelli: Triterpenoid Saponins and Flavonoid Glycosides from Bupleurum falcatum subsp. cirnuum. Phytochemistry, 33, 1537 (1993).Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Ebata, N., K. Nakajima, K. Hayashi, M. Okada, and M. Maruno: Saponins from the Root of Bupleurum falcatum. Phytochemistry, 41, 895 (1993).Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Guinea, M.C., J. Parellada, M.A. Lacaille-Dubois, and H. Wagner: Biologically Active Triterpene Saponins from Bupleurum fruticosum. Planta Med., 60, 163 (1994).Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Pistelli, L., A.R. Bilia, A. Marsili, N. De Tommasi, and A. Manunta: Triterpenoid Saponins from Bupleurum fruticosum. J. Nat. Prod., 56, 233 (1993).Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Zhang, R.Y., X.K. Chen, X.B. Yang, W.Y. He, and L. Tan: Structures of Saikosaponin M and N from Bupleurum smithi. Yaoxue Xuebao, 29, 684 (1994).Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Luo, H.S., Y.Y. Zhao, L.B. Ma, Y.Z. Jin, J.R. Peng, and R.Y. Zhang: Isolation and Identification of Saikogenin Q and Saikosaponin Q from Bupleurum smithi. Yaoxue Xuebao, 30, 435 (1995).Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Takeda, T., T. Nakamura, S. Takashima, O. Yano, and Y. Ogihara: Studies on the Constituents of Calliandra anomala (Kunth) Macbr. I. Structure Elucidation of Two Acylated Triterpenoidal Saponins. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 41, 2132 (1993).Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Nakamura, T., T. Takeda, and Y. Ogihara: Studies on the Constituents of Calliandra anomala (Kunth) Macbr. II. Structure Elucidation of Four Acylated Triterpenoidal Saponins. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 42, 1111 (1994).Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    Yoshikawa, M., E. Harada, T. Murakami, H. Matsudo, J. Yamahara, and N. Murakami: Camellia Saponins B1 B2, C1 and C2, New Type Inhibitors of Ethanol Absorption in Rats from the Seeds of Camellia japonica L. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 42, 742 (1994).Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Ahmad, W., K. Usmanghani, I. Ahmad, V.U. Ahmad, and T. Miyase: Isolation and Characterization of Saponins from Castanospermum australe Cunn. et. Fraster. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 42, 314 (1994).Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Ahmad, V.U., W. Ahmad, and K. Usmanghani: Triterpenoid Saponins from Leaves of Castanospermum australe. Phytochemistry, 31, 2805 (1992).Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    Sahu, N.P., S.K. Roy, and S.B. Mahato: Spectroscopic Determination of Structures of Triterpenoid Trisaccharides from Centella asiatica. Phytochemistry, 28, 2852 (1989).Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Gupta, D., and J. Singh: Triterpenoid Saponins from Centipeda minima. Phytochemistry, 28, 1197 (1989).Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Caliskan, O.A., H. Anil, and G.R. Stephenson: Cephalaria Saponin A, a New Bidesmosidic Triterpene Saponin from Cephalaria transylvanica. J. Nat. Prod., 57, 1001 (1994).Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Alankus-Caliskan, O., and H. Anil: A Bidesmosidic Triterpene Saponin from Cephalaria transylvanica. Phytochemistry, 38, 1493 (1995).Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Kirmizigul, S., and H. Anil: An Acidic Triterpene Glycoside from Cephalaria transsylyvanica. Phytochemistry, 36, 1555 (1994).Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    Kirmizigul, S., H. Anil, and M.E. Rose: Triterpenoid Glycosides from Cephalaria transsylvanica. Phytochemistry, 39, 1171 (1995).Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Mizui, F., R. Kasai, K. Ohtani, and O. Tanaka: Saponins from Bran of Quinoa, Chenopodium quinoa Wild. II. Chem Pharm. Bull., 38, 375 (1990).Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Kusano, A., K. Shimizu, M. Idoji, M. Shibano, K. Minoura, and G. Kusano: Studies on the Constituents of Cimicifuga species. XVI. Three New Cycloartane Xylosides from the Aerial Parts of Cimicifuga simplex. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 43, 279 (1995).Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    Shao, B., G. Qin, R. Xu, H. Wu, and K. Ma: Triterpenoid Saponins from Cleamatis chinensis. Phytochemistry, 38, 1473 (1995).Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Bahuguna, R.P., J.S. Jangwan, T. Kaiya, and J. Sakakibara: Clemontanoside A, a Bisglycoside from Clematis montana. Phytochemistry 28, 2511 (1989).Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    Thapliyal, R.P. and R.P. Bahuguna: Clemontanoside E, an New Saponin from Clematis montana. Int. J. Pharmacogn., 32, 373 (1994).Google Scholar
  210. 210.
    Whang, W.: Aromatic Compounds and Triterpenoidal Saponins from Clematis koreana var. umbrosa. Arch. Pharmacol. Res., 17, 5 (1994).Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    Kuntze, O., S.R. Xue, J.Q. Liu, G. Wang, J.Q. Shi, Q.J. Wu, and S.Z. Hu: Triterpenoid Saponin of Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) O. Yaoxue Xuebao, 27, 207 (1992).Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    Liu, Z., Z. Jia, R.G. Cates, D. Li, and N.L. Owen: Triterpenoid Saponins from Clinopodium chinensis. J. Nat. Prod., 58, 184 (1995).Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    Liu, Z., D. Li, N.L. Owen, D.M. Grant, R.G. Cates, and Z. Jia: Oleanane Triterpene Saponins from the Chinese Medicinal herb Clinopodium chinensis. J. Nat. Prod., 58, 1600 (1995).Google Scholar
  214. 214.
    Mori, F., T. Miyase, and A. Ueno: Oleanane-Triterpene Saponins from Clinopodium Chinese var. Parviflovrum Phytochemistry, 36, 1485 (1994).Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Yamamoto, A., T. Miyase, A. Ueno, and T. Maeda: Clinoposaponins I-V, New Oleanane Triterpene Saponins from Clinopodium gracile. O. Kuntze Chem. Pharm. Bull., 41, 1270 (1993).Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    Yamamoto, A., H. Suzuki, T. Miyase, A. Ueno, and T. Maeda: Clinoposaponins VI and VIII, Two Oleanane-Triterpene Saponins from Clinopodium micranthum. Phytochemistry, 34, 485 (1993).Google Scholar
  217. 277.
    Xue, S., J. Liu, and G. Wang: Triterpenoid Saponins from Clinopodium polycephalum. Phytochemistry, 31, 1049 (1992).Google Scholar
  218. 218.
    Joshi, B.S., K.M. Moore, S.W. Pelletier, M.S. Puar, and B.N. Pramanik: Saponins from Collinsonia canadensis. J. Nat. Prod., 55, 1468 (1992).Google Scholar
  219. 279.
    Seaforth, C.E., S. Mohammed, A. Maxwell, W.F. Tinto, and W.F. Reynolds: Mabioside A, New Saponin from Coluhrina elliptica. Tetrahedron Lett., 33, 4111 (1992).Google Scholar
  220. 220.
    Tinto, W., W.F. Reynolds, C.E. Seaforth, S. Mohammed, and A. Maxwell: New Bitter Saponins from the Bark of Coluhrina elliptica: Proton and Carbon-13 Assignments by 2D NMR Spectroscopy. Magn. Reson. Chem., 31, 859 (1993).Google Scholar
  221. 221.
    Oulad-Ali, A., D. Guillaume, B. Weniger, Y. Jiang, and R. Anton: Mabiosides C-E: Triterpenoid Saponins from the Bark of Coluhrina elliptica. Phytochemistry, 36, 445 (1994).Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    Abdul Quader, M., A.I. Gray, P.G. Waterman, C. Lavaud, G. Massiot, C.M. Hasan, and M.D. Ahmad: Capsugenin-25-30-O-β-D-diglucopyranoside: a New Glycoside from the Leaves of Corchorus capsularies. J. Nat. Prod., 53, 527 (1990).Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    Asada, Y., T. Ueoka, and T. Furuya: Novel Acylated Saponins from Montbretia (Crocosmia crocosmiiflora). Isolation of Saponins and the Structures of Crocosmiosides A, B and H. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 37, 2139 (1989).Google Scholar
  224. 224.
    Asada, Y., T. Ueoka, and T. Furuya: Novel Acylated Saponins from Montbretica (Crocosmia crocosmiiflora). II. The Structures of Crocosmiosides C, D, E, F, G and I. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 38, 142 (1990).Google Scholar
  225. 225.
    Asada, Y., M. Ikeno, and T. Furuya: Acylated Saponins, Masonosides A-C, from the Corms of Crocosmia masoniorum. Phytochemistry, 35, 757 (1994).Google Scholar
  226. 226.
    Asada, Y., M. Ikeno, T. Ueoka, T. Furuya: Desacylsaponins, Desacylmasonosides 1, 2 and 3 from the Corns of Crocosmia masonorum. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 37, 2747 (1989).Google Scholar
  227. 227.
    Asada, Y., M. Ikeno, and T. Furuya: Minor Desacylsaponins from the Corms of Crocosmia masoniorum. Phytochemistry, 36, 455 (1994).Google Scholar
  228. 228.
    Gariboldi, P., L. Verotta, and B. Gobetta: Saponins from Crossopteryx febrifuga. Phytochemistry, 29, 2629 (1990).Google Scholar
  229. 229.
    Ding, Y., J. Kinjo, C. Yang, and T. Nohara: Studies of the Constituents of Leguminous Plants. Part XX. Oleanane Glycosides from Crotalaria albida. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 39, 496 (1991).Google Scholar
  230. 230.
    Reznicek, G., J. Jorenitsch, W. Robien, and W. Kubelka: Saponins in Cyclamen Species: Configuration of Cyclamiretin C and Structure of Isocyclamin. Phytochemistry, 28, 825 (1989).Google Scholar
  231. 231.
    Pambou, T.H., B. Koudogbo, J.C. Tabet, and E. Casadevall: A Triterpene Saponin from Cylicodiscus gabunensis. Phytochemistry, 29, 2723 (1990).Google Scholar
  232. 232.
    Tchivounda, H.P., B. Koudogbo, Y. Besace, and E. Casadevall: Triterpene Saponins from Cylicodiscus gabunensis. Phytochemistry, 30, 2711 (1991).Google Scholar
  233. 233.
    Kong, J., X. Li, B. Wei, and C. Yang: Triterpenoid Glycosides from Decaisnea fargesii. Phytochemistry, 33, 427 (1993).Google Scholar
  234. 234.
    Kubo, T., S. Hamada, T. Nohara, Z.H. Wang, H. Hirayama, K. Ikegami, K. Yasukawa, and M. Takido: Leguminous Plants. XIV. Study on the Constituents of Desmodium styracifolium. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 37, 2229 (1989).Google Scholar
  235. 235.
    Malaviya, N., R. Pal, and N.M. Khanna: Saponins from Deutzia corymbosa. Phytochemistry, 30, 2798 (1991).Google Scholar
  236. 236.
    Tagawa, N.T., Y. Inatomi, M. Nishi, H. Murata, A. Inada, and S. Aibara: TWO New Hopane-Triterpene Glycosides from a Fern Diplazium subsinuatum (Wall. ex. Hook et Grev.). Chem. Pharm. Bull., 43, 2256 (1995).Google Scholar
  237. 237.
    Li, H.Y., K. Koike, T. Ohmoto, and K. IKEDA: Dianchinenosides A and B, two New Saponins from Dianthus chinensis. J. Nat. Prod., 56, 1065 (1993).Google Scholar
  238. 238.
    Li, H.Y., K. Koike, and T. Ohmoto: Triterpenoid Saponins from Dianthus chinensis. Phytochemistry, 35, 751 (1994).Google Scholar
  239. 239.
    Koike, K. H. Li, Z. Jia, H. Muraoka, S. Fukui, M. Inoue, and T. Ohmoto: Triterpenoid Saponins from Dianthus chinensis. Tetrahedron, 50, 1281 (1994).Google Scholar
  240. 240.
    Komertelidze, E.P., L.N. Gvazava, M.D. Alaniya, V.S. Kikoladze, and V.G. Tsitsishvili: Digitoside, a Novel Triterpene Glycoside from Digitalis ciliata. J. Nat. Prod., 55, 217 (1992).Google Scholar
  241. 241.
    Jayasinghe, U.L.B., G.P. Wannigama, and J.K. MacLeod: Saponins of Diploclisia glaucescens. Nat. Prod. Lett., 2, 249 (1993).Google Scholar
  242. 242.
    Bandara, B.M.R., L. Jayasinghe, V. Karunaratne, G.P. Wannigama, W. Kraus, M. Bokel, and S. Sotheeswaran: Diploclisin, a Bidesmosicid Triterpenoid Saponin from Diploclisia glaucescens. Phytochemistry, 28, 2783 (1989).Google Scholar
  243. 243.
    Jung, K.Y., J.C. Do, and K.H. Son: Triterpenoid Glycosides from the Roots of Dipsacus asper. J. Nat. Prod., 56, 1912 (1993).Google Scholar
  244. 244.
    Kouno, I., A. Tsuboi, M. Nanri and N. Kawano: Acylated Triterpene Glycoside from Roots of Dipsacus asper. Phytochemistry, 29, 338 (1990).Google Scholar
  245. 245.
    Wei, F., Z.C. Lou, Y.M. Liu, and Z.C. Miao: Application of New Techniques of NMR in the Structure Elucidation of Two New Saponins, Asperosaponin F and H1, and Spectral Rules Involved. Yaoxue Xuebao, 29, 511 (1994).Google Scholar
  246. 246.
    Yoshiki, Y., J.H. Kim, K. Okubo, I. Nagoya, T. Sakabe, and N. Tamura: A Saponin Conjugated with 2,3,-Dihydro-2,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one from Dolichos lablab. Phytochemistry 38, 229 (1995).Google Scholar
  247. 247.
    Kinjo, J., K. Suyama, and T. Nohara: Triterpenoidal Saponins from Dumasia truncata. Phytochemistry, 40, 1765 (1995).Google Scholar
  248. 248.
    Segiet-Kujawa, E., and M. Kaluga: Triterpenoid Saponins of Eleuthero-coccus senticosus Roots. J. Nat. Prod., 54, 1044 (1991).Google Scholar
  249. 249.
    Rasoanaivo, P., G. Multar, E. Federici, and C. Galeffi: Triterpenoid Diglucoside of Enterospermum pruinosum. Phytochemistry, 39, 251 (1995).Google Scholar
  250. 250.
    Miyase, T., F.R. Melek, O.D. El-Gindi, S.M. Abdel-Khalik, M.R. El-Gindi, M.Y. Haggag and S.H. Hilal: Saponins from Fagonia arabica. Phytochemistry 41, 1175 (1996).Google Scholar
  251. 251.
    Melek, F.R., T. Miyase, O.D. El-Gindi, S.M. Abdel-Khalik, and M.Y. Haggag: Saponins from Fagonia Mollis. Phytochemistry 42, 1405 (1993).Google Scholar
  252. 252.
    Cai, L.N., R.V. Zhang, Z.L. Zhang, B. Wang, L. Qiao, L.R. Huang, and J.R. Cheng: The Structure of Glyeurysaponin. Yaoxue Xuebao, 29, 447 (1991).Google Scholar
  253. 253.
    Kitagawa, I., K. Hori, M. Sakagami, F. Hashiuchi, M. Yoshikawa, and J. Ren: Saponin and Sapogenol. XLIX. On The constituents of the Roots of Glycyrrhiza inflata Batalin from Xinjiang, China; Characterization of Two Sweet Oleanane-type Triterpene Oligoglycosides, Apioglycyrrhizin And Arabogycyrrhizin. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 41, 1350 (1993).Google Scholar
  254. 254.
    Kitagawa, I., K. Hori, T. Taniyama, J.L. Zhou, and M. Yoshikawa: Saponin and Sapogenol. XLVII. On the Constituents of the Roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fischer From Northeastern China. (1) Licorice-Saponins A3, B2, and C2. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 43 (1993).Google Scholar
  255. 255.
    Kitagawa, I., K. Hori, M. Sakagami, J.L. Zhou, and M. Yoshikawa: Saponin and Sapogenol. XLVIII. On the Constituents of the Roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fischer from Northeastern China. (2) Licorice-Saponins D3, E2, F3, G2, H2, J2 and K2. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 41, 1337 (1993).Google Scholar
  256. 256.
    Kitagawa, I., J. Zhou, M. Sakagami, E. Uchida, and M. Yoshikawa: Licorice-Saponins F3, G2, H2, J2 and K2, Five New Oleanane-Triterpene Oligoglycosides fromthe Root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 39, 244 (1991).Google Scholar
  257. 257.
    Kitagawa, I., K. Hori, E. Uchida, W.Z. Chen, M. Yoshikawa, and J. Ren: Saponin and Sapogenol. L. On the Constituents of the Roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fischer from Xinjiang, China. Chemical Structures of Licorice-Saponin L3 and Isoliquiritin Apioside. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 41, 1567 (1993).Google Scholar
  258. 258.
    Gao, D., R. Zhang, and B. Yao: Structure Identification of Yunnangly-saponin A and B. J. Chin. Pharm. Sci., 3, 1 (1994).Google Scholar
  259. 259.
    Ohtani, K., K. Ogawa, R. Kasai, C. Yang, K. Yamasaki, J. Zhou, and O. Tanaka: Studies on the Constituents of Glycyrrhiza yunnanensis. Part 1. Oleanane Glycosides from Glycyrrhiza yunnanensis Roots. Phytochemistry 31, 1747 (1992).Google Scholar
  260. 260.
    Zang, L., R.Y. Zhang, D. Wang, J.H. Pang, Z.L. Zhang, C.Y. Gao, and Z.C. Lou: Glyyunnanprosapogenin and Glyyunnsapogenin from the Roots of Glycyrrhiza yunnanensis. Yaoxue Xuebao, 25, 750 (1991).Google Scholar
  261. 261.
    Ahmad, V.U., S. Perveen, and S. Bano: Guaiacin A and B from the Leaves of Guaiacum officinale. Planta Med., 55, 307 (1989).Google Scholar
  262. 262.
    Ahmad, V.U., N. Bano, S. Uddin, S. Perveen, and I. Fatima: Structure of Guaianin C from Guaiacum officinale. Fitoterapia, 60, 255 (1989).Google Scholar
  263. 263.
    Ahmad, V.U., S. Perveen, and S. Bano: Saponins from the Leaves of Guaiacum officinale. Phytochemistry, 29, 3287 (1990).Google Scholar
  264. 264.
    Ahmad, V.U., S. Uddin, and S. Bano: Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Saponins from the Fruit of Guaiacum officinale. J. Nat. Prod., 53, 1168 (1990).Google Scholar
  265. 265.
    Ahmad, V.U., N. Saba and S. Perveen: Structure of Guaianin M from Guaiacum officinale. Fitoterapia, 63, 226 (1992).Google Scholar
  266. 266.
    Yoshikawa, K., S. Arihara, K. Matsuura, and T. Miyase: Dammarane Saponins from Gymnema sylvestre. Phytochemistry, 31, 237 (1992).Google Scholar
  267. 267.
    Yoshikawa, K., K. Amimoto, S. Arihara, and K. Matsuura: Gymnemic Acid V, VI and VII from Gur-Ma, the Leaves of Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 37, 852 (1989).Google Scholar
  268. 268.
    Kiuchi, F., H.M. Liu, and Y. Tsuda: TWO New Gymnemic acid Congeners Containing a Hexulopyranoside Moiety. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 38, 2326 (1990).Google Scholar
  269. 269.
    Sahu, N.P., S.B. Mahato, S.K. Sarkar, and G. Poddar: Triterpenoid Saponins from Gymnema sylvestre. Phytochemistry, 41, 1181 (1993).Google Scholar
  270. 270.
    Yoshikawa, K., M. Nakagawa, R. Yamamoto, S. Arihara, and K. Matsuura: Antisweet Natural Products. V Structures of Gymnemic Acids VIII-XII from Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 40, 1779 (1992).Google Scholar
  271. 271.
    Yoshikawa, K., Y. Kondo, S. Arihara, and K. Matsuura: Antisweet Natural Products. IX. Structures of Gymnemic Acids XV-XVIII from Gymnema sylvestre R.Br.V. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 41, 1730 (1993).Google Scholar
  272. 272.
    Ding, S., and Z. Zhu: Gycomoside I: A New Dammarane Saponin from Gynostemma compressum. Planta Med., 59, 373 (1993).Google Scholar
  273. 273.
    Zhang, X., H. Zhang, W. Sun, and Z. Shan: Studies on the Saponin Constituents of Gynostemma longipes. Chin. Chem. Lett., 2, 221 (1991).Google Scholar
  274. 274.
    Piacente, S., C. Pizza, T.N. De, and S.F. De: New Dammarane-Type Glycosides from Gynostemma pentaphyllum. J. Nat. Prod., 58, 512 (1995).Google Scholar
  275. 275.
    Kuwahara, M., F. Kawanishi, T. Komiya, and H. Oshio: Dammarane Saponins of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino and Isolation of Malonylginsenosides-Rb1,-Rd, and Malonylgypenoside V. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 37, 135 (1989).Google Scholar
  276. 276.
    Elgamal, M.H.A., H.S.M. Soliman, M.S. Karawya, B. Mikhova, and H. Duddeck: Isolation of Triterpene Saponins from Gypsophila capillaris. Phytochemistry, 38, 1481 (1995).Google Scholar
  277. 277.
    Liu, Z., D. Li, N. Owen, D.M. Grant, R.G. Cates, and Z. Jia: Triterpenoid Saponins from Gypsophila oldhamiana. J. Nat. Prod., 58, 1632 (1995).Google Scholar
  278. 278.
    Frechet, D., B. Christ, B.M. Dusorbier, H. Fischer, and M. Vuilhorgne: Four Triterpenoid Saponins from Dried Roots of Gypsophila Species. Phytochemistry 30, 927 (1991).Google Scholar
  279. 279.
    Elias, R., A.M. Diaz-Lanza, E. Vidai-Ollivier, G. Balansard, R. Faure, and A. Babadjamian: Triterpenoid Saponins from the Leaves of Hedera helix. J. Nat. Prod., 54, 98 (1991).Google Scholar
  280. 280.
    Grishkovets, V.I., A.A. Loloiko, A.S. Shashkov, and V.Y. Chirva: Triterpene Glycosides of Hedera taurica. V. Structure of Hederosides C and E1 from Crimean Ivy Berries. Khim. Prir. Soedin., 230 (1990).Google Scholar
  281. 281.
    Babady-Bila, W.C., S. Toppet, A. Kilonda, and G. Hoornaert: TWO Triterpenoid Saponins from Heinsia crinata. Phytochemistry, 36, 1489 (1994).Google Scholar
  282. 282.
    Bader, G., M. Zieschang, K. Wagner, E. Gruendemann, and K. Hiller: New Triterpenoid Saponins from Helianthus annuus. Planta. Med., 57, 471 (1991).Google Scholar
  283. 283.
    Kasai, R., T. Tanaka, R.L. Nie, M. Miyakoshi, J. Zhou, and O. Tanaka: Saponins from Chinese Medicinal plant, Hemsleya graciliflora (Cucurbitaceae). Chem. Pharm. Bull., 38, 1320 (1990).Google Scholar
  284. 284.
    Schroeder, H., M. Schubert-Zsilavecz, G. Reznicek, J. Cart, J. Jurenitsch, and E. Haslinger: A Triterpene Saponin from Herniaria glabra. Phytochemistry, 34, 1609 (1993).Google Scholar
  285. 285.
    Tamamsch, B.G., D. Tuia, V. Wray, and K. Hiller: New Triterpenoid Saponins from Heteropappus altaicus (Willd.) Novopokr. and Heteropappus biennis (Ldb.) Tarn. Pharmazie, 49, 209 (1994).Google Scholar
  286. 286.
    Yoshikawa, K., Y. Nagai, M. Yoshida, and S. Arihara: Antisweet Natural Products. VIII. Structures of Hodulosides VII-X from Hovenia dulcis Thunb. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 41, 1722 (1993).Google Scholar
  287. 287.
    Dellagreca, M., A. Fiorentino, P. Monaco, and L. Previtera: Oleanane Glycosides from Hydrocotyle ranunculoids. Phytochemistry, 36, 1479 (1994).Google Scholar
  288. 288.
    Kakuno, T., K. Yoshikawa, and S. Arihara: Saponin from Ilex spp. Part 3. Triterpene Saponins from Fruit of Ilex crenata. Phytochemistry, 31, 2809 (1992).Google Scholar
  289. 289.
    Kakuno, T., K. Yoshikawa, and S. Arihara: Triterpenoid Saponins from Ilex crenata. Phytochemistry 31, 3553 (1992).Google Scholar
  290. 290.
    Hata, C., M. Kakuno, K. Yoshikawa, and S. Arihara: Triterpenoid Saponins of Aquifoliaceous Plants. V. Ilexosides XV-XIX from the Bark of Ilex crenata. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 40, 1990 (1992).Google Scholar
  291. 291.
    Kakuno, T., K. Yoshikawa, S. Arihara, M. Takei, and K. Endo: Ilexo-sides E, F, G, H and I, Novel 18,19-Seco-ursane Glycosides from Fruit of Ilex crenata. Tetrahedron, 47, 7219 (1991).Google Scholar
  292. 292.
    Heinzmann, B.M., and E.P. Schenkel: Saponins from Ilex dumosa. J. Nat. Prod., 58, 1419 (1995).Google Scholar
  293. 293.
    Yano, I., C. Nishizumi, K. Yoshikawa, and S. Arihara: Triterpenoid Saponins of Aquifoliaceous Plants. Part VII. Triterpenoid Saponins from Ilex integra. Phytochemistry, 32, 417 (1993).Google Scholar
  294. 294.
    Ouyang, M., C.R. Yang., Z. Chen, and H. Wang: Triterpenes and Triterpenoid Glycosides from the Leaves of Ilex kudincha. Phytochemistry, 41, 871 (1993).Google Scholar
  295. 295.
    Gosmann, G., D. Guilliaume, A.T.C. Taketa, E.P. Schenkel: Triterpenoid Saponins from Ilex paraguariensis. J. Nat. Prod., 58, 438 (1995).Google Scholar
  296. 296.
    Kraemer, K.H., A.T.C. Taketa, E.P. Schenkel, G. Gosmann, and D. Guilliaume: Matesaponin 5, a Highly Polar Saponin from Ilex paraguariensis. Phytochemistry, 42, 1119 (1993).Google Scholar
  297. 297.
    Amimoto, K., K. Yoshikawa, and S. Arihara: Triterpenoid Saponins of Aquifoliaceous plants. VIII. Ilexosides XXIX-XXXII from the Leaves of Ilex rotunda Thunb. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 40, 3138 (1992).Google Scholar
  298. 298.
    Amimoto, K., K. Yoshikawa, and S. Arihara: Triterpenoid Saponins of Aquifoliaceous Plants. XL Ilexosides XLI-XLV from the Leaves of Ilex rotunda Thunb. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 41, 39 (1993).Google Scholar
  299. 299.
    Amimoto, K., K. Yoshikawa, and S. Arihara: Triterpenoid Saponins of Aquifoliaceous Plants. XII. Ilexosides XLVI-LI from the Leaves of Ilex rotunda Thunb. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 41, 77 (1993).Google Scholar
  300. 300.
    Rumbero-Sanchez, A., and P. Vazquez: A Nor-triterpene Glycoside from Isertia haenkeana and A-13C NMR study of Cincholic Acid. Phytochemistry, 30, 623 (1991).Google Scholar
  301. 301.
    Della, G.M., A.J. Fiorentino, P. Monaco, and L. Previtera: Juncoside I, a New Cycloartane Lactone Glycoside from Juncus effusus. Nat. Prod. Lett., 4, 183 (1994).Google Scholar
  302. 302.
    Shao, C., R. Kasai, K. Ohtani, O. Tanaka, and H. Kohda: Saponins from Leaves of Kalopanax pictus (Thunb.). Nakai, Harigiri: Structures of Kalopanaxsaponins JLa and JLb. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 38, 1087 (1990).Google Scholar
  303. 303.
    Shao, C., R. Kasai, J.D. Xu, and O. Tanaka: Saponins from Roots of Kalopanax septemlobus (Thunb.). Koidz: Structures of Kalopanax saponins C, D, E and F. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 37, 311 (1989).Google Scholar
  304. 304.
    Shao, C., R. Kasai, K. Ohtani, J. Su, O. Tanaka: Saponins from leaves of Kalopanax septemlobus (Thunb.) Koidz. Structures of Kalopanax Saponins La, Lb and Lc. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 37, 3251 (1989).Google Scholar
  305. 305.
    Elujoba, A., F. Fell, P.A. Linley, and D.J. Maitland: Triterpenoid Saponins from Fruits of Legenaria breviflora. Phytochemistry, 29, 3281 (1990).Google Scholar
  306. 306.
    Mao, Q., and X.S. Jia: Chemical Constituents of Lonicera fulvotomentosa Hsu et S.C. Cheng. Yaoxue Xuebao, 24, 269 (1989).Google Scholar
  307. 307.
    Son, K.H., K.Y. Jung, H.W. Chang, H.P. Kim, and S.S. Kang: Triterpenoid Saponins from the Aerial Parts of Lonicera japonica. Phytochemistry, 35, 1005 (1994).Google Scholar
  308. 308.
    Hasan, M., D.K. Burdi, and V.U. Ahmad: Leucasin, a Triterpene Saponin from Leucas nutans. Phytochemistry, 30, 4181 (1991).Google Scholar
  309. 309.
    Nagao, T., R. Tanaka, Y. Iwase, H. Hanazono, and H. Okabe: Studies on the Constituents of Luffa acutangula Roxb.I. Structures of Acutosides A-G, Oleanane-type Triterpene Saponins Isolated from the Herb. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 39, 599 (1991).Google Scholar
  310. 310.
    Nagao, T., R. Tanaka, and H. Okabe: Studies on the Constituents of Luffa acutangula Roxb.II. Structures of Acutosides H and I, Oleanolic Acid Saponins isolated from the Seed. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 39, 889 (1991).Google Scholar
  311. 311.
    Yoshikawa, K., S. Arihara, J. Wang, T. Narui, and T. Okuyamo: Structures of Two New Fibrinolytic Saponins from the Seed of Luffa cylindrica Roem. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 39, 1185 (1991).Google Scholar
  312. 312.
    Kohda, H., O. Takeda, and S. Tanaka: Molluscicidal Triterpenoidal Saponin from Lysimachia sikokiana. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 37, 3304 (1989).Google Scholar
  313. 313.
    Nigam, S.K., X. Li, D. Wang, G. Misra, and C. Yng: Triterpenoid Saponins from Madhuca butyracea. Phytochemistry, 31, 3169 (1992).Google Scholar
  314. 314.
    Li, X., Y. Liu, D. Wang, C. Yang, S.K. Nigam, and G. Misra: Triterpenoid Saponins from Madhuca butyracea. Phytochemistry, 37, 827 (1994).Google Scholar
  315. 375.
    Sindambiwe, J.B., A.M. Balde, O. Bruyne, L. Pieters, H. Van Den Heuvel, M. Claeys, D.A. Van Den Berghe, and A.J. Vlietinck: Triterpenoid Saponins from Maesa lanceolata. Phytochemistry 41, 269 (1993).Google Scholar
  316. 316.
    Khan, M.N.I., S.S. Nizami, M.A. Khan, and Z. Ahmad: New Saponins from Mangifera indica. J. Nat. Prod., 56, 767 (1993).Google Scholar
  317. 317.
    De Tommasi, N.D., L. Rastrelli, J. Cumanda, G. Speranza, and C. Pizza: Aryl and Triterpenic Glycosides from Margyricarpus setosus. Phytochemistry, 42, 163 (1993).Google Scholar
  318. 318.
    Yaguchi, E., T. Miyase, and A. Ueno: Mazusaponins I-IV, Triterpene Saponins from Mazus miquelii. Phytochemistry, 39, 185 (1995).Google Scholar
  319. 319.
    Mahato, S.B.: Triterpenoid Saponins from Medicago hispida. Phytochemistry, 30, 3389 (1991).Google Scholar
  320. 320.
    Kinjo, J., H. Uemura, M. Nakamura, and T. Nohara: Leguminous Plants. XL. Two New Triterpenoidal Glycosides from Medicago polymorphe L. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 42, 1339 (1994).Google Scholar
  321. 321.
    Timbekova, A.E., A.L. Vereshchagin, A.A. Semenov, N.K. Abubakirov: Triterpene Glycosides of Alfalfa. VI. Medicoside L. Khim. Prir. Soedin. 221 (1990).Google Scholar
  322. 322.
    Oleszek, W., M. Jurzysta, M. Ploszynski, I.J. Colquhoun, K.R. Price, and G.R. Fenwick: Zahnic Acid Tridesmoside and Other Dominant Saponins from Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Aerial Parts. J. Agric. Food. Chem., 40, 191 (1992).Google Scholar
  323. 323.
    Janeczko, Z., J. Sendra, K. Kmiec, and C.H. Brieskorn: A Triterpenoid Glycoside from Menyanthes trifoliata. Phytochemistry, 29, 3885 (1990).Google Scholar
  324. 324.
    Jiang, Y., G. Massiot, C. Lavaud, J.-M. Teulon, C. Guéchot, M. Haag-Berrurier, and R. Anton: Triterpenoid Glycosides from the Bark of Mimosa tenuiflora. Phytochemisty, 30, 2357 (1991).Google Scholar
  325. 325.
    Jiang, Y., M. Haag-Berrurier, R. Anton, G. Massiot, C. Lavaud, J.M. Teulon, and C. Guéchot: Structure of a New saponin from the Bark of Mimosa tenuiflora. J. Nat. Prod., 54, 1247 (1991).Google Scholar
  326. 326.
    Sahu, N.P., K. Koike, Z. Jia, and T. Nikaido: Novel Triterpenoid Saponins from Mimusops elengi. Tetrahedron, 51, 13435 (1995).Google Scholar
  327. 327.
    Sahu, N.P.: Triterpenoid Saponins of Mimusops elengi. Phytochemistry, 41, 883 (1993).Google Scholar
  328. 328.
    Lavaud, C., G. Massiot, M. Becchi, G. Misra, and S.K. Nigam: Saponins from Three Species of Mimusops. Phytochemistry, 41, 887 (1993).Google Scholar
  329. 329.
    Xu, J., R. Xu, Z. Luo, and J. Dong: New Triterpenoidal Saponins from Folk Contraceptive Medicine, Mussaenda pubescens. Huaxue Xuebao, 49, 621 (1991).Google Scholar
  330. 330.
    Zhao, W., J. Xu, G. Qin, R. Xu, H. Wu, and G. Weng: New Triterpenoid Saponins from Mussaenda pubescens. J. Nat. Prod., 57, 1613 (1994).Google Scholar
  331. 331.
    Zhao, W., J. Xu, G. Qin, and R. Xu: Saponins from Mussaenda pubescens. Phytochemistry, 39, 191 (1995).Google Scholar
  332. 332.
    Zhao, W., R. Xu, G. Qin, T. Vaisar and M.S. Lee: Saponins from Mussaenda pubescens. Phytochemistry 42, 1131 (1993).Google Scholar
  333. 333.
    Bloor, S.J., and L. Qi: Cytotoxic Saponins from New Zealand Myrsine Species. J. Nat. Prod., 57, 1354 (1994).Google Scholar
  334. 334.
    Lamidi, M., E. Ollivier, R. Faure, L. Debrauwer, L. Nze-Ekekang, and G. Balansard: Quinovic Acid Glycosides from Nauclea diderrichii. Phytochemistry, 38, 209 (1995).Google Scholar
  335. 335.
    Fujita, S., R. Kasai, K. Ohtani, K. Yamasaki, M. Chiu, R. Nie, and O. Tanaka: Dammarane Glycosides from Aerial Parts of Neoalsomitra integrifoliola. Phytochemistry, 38, 465 (1995).Google Scholar
  336. 336.
    Fujita, S., R. Kasai, K. Ohtani, K. Yamasaki, M. Chiu, R. Nie, and O. Tanaka: Dammarane Glycosides from Aerial Part of Neoalsomitra integrifoliola. Phytochemistry, 39, 591 (1995).Google Scholar
  337. 337.
    Chiu, M., R. Nie, H. Nagasawa, A. Isogai, J. Zhou, and A. Suzuki: A Dammarane Saponin from Neoalsomitra integrifoliola. Phytochemistry, 31, 2451 (1992).Google Scholar
  338. 338.
    Yu, S., Z. Xiao, P. Cai, T. Jiang, and J.K. Snyder: A new Triterpenoid Saponin from the Chinese Traditional Medicine Nothopanax davidii Harms (Araliaceae). Tetrahedron, 50, 11601 (1994).Google Scholar
  339. 339.
    Yu, S.S., D.Q. Yu, and X.T. Liang: Triterpenoid Saponins from the Bark of Nothopanax davidii. Phytochemistry, 38, 695 (1995).Google Scholar
  340. 340.
    Crespin, F., E. Ollivier, C. Lavaud, A. Babadjamian, R. Faure, L. Debrauwer, G. Balansard, and G. Boudon: Triterpenoid Saponins from Opilia celtidifolia. Phytochemistry 33, 657 (1993).Google Scholar
  341. 341.
    Sun, R., and Z. Jia: A Triterpenoid Saponin from Oxytropis bicolor. Phytochemistry, 30, 3480 (1991).Google Scholar
  342. 342.
    Sun, R., and Z. Jia: Saponins from Oxytropis glabra. Phytochemistry, 29, 2032 (1990).Google Scholar
  343. 343.
    Sun, R., Z. Jia, and Z. Zhu: Chemical Constituents of Oxytropis glabra. Chin. Sci. Bull., 34, 609 (1989).Google Scholar
  344. 344.
    Sun, R., Z. Jia, and D. Cheng: Three Saponins from Oxytropis Species. Phytochemistry, 30, 2707 (1991).Google Scholar
  345. 345.
    Lee, S.S., W.C. Su, and K.C. Liu: Two New Triterpene Glucosides from Paliurus ramosissimus. J. Nat. Prod., 54, 615 (1991).Google Scholar
  346. 346.
    Zhao, Y.Q., L.J. Wu, C.L. Yuan, X. Li, and Y.J. Chen: A New Triterpene Saponin from the Stems and Leaves of Panax ginseng. Chin. Chem. Lett., 3, 887 (1992).Google Scholar
  347. 347.
    Kim, D., Y. Cheng, U. Zedk, P. Zhao, Y Liu, and . Yang: Dammarane Saponins from Panax ginseng. Phytochemistry, 40, 1493 (1995).Google Scholar
  348. 348.
    Zhao, P., Y. Liu, and C. Yang: Minor Constituents from the Roots of Panax notoginseng. Yunnan Zhiwu Yanjiu, 15, 409 (1993).Google Scholar
  349. 349.
    Zhao, P., Y.Q. Liu, and C. Yang: Minor Dammarane saponins from Panax notoginseng. Phytochemistry, 41, 1419 (1993).Google Scholar
  350. 350.
    Kohda, H., S. Tanaka, Y. Yamaoka, H. Izumi, M. Nuno, S. Isoda, K. Gotoh, T. Watanabe, S. Katsuki, and M. Satake: Chikusetsusaponin. VI. A New Saponin from the Rhizome of Panax pseudo-ginseng var. angustatus. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 39, 1588 (1991).Google Scholar
  351. 351.
    Shukla, Y.N., and R.S. Thakur: Studies on Indian ginseng. Part 9. A Triterpenoid Saponin from Panax pseudoginseng subsp. hemalaicus var. angustifolium. Phytochemistry, 29, 239 (1990).Google Scholar
  352. 352.
    Shukla, Y.N., R.S. Thakur, and P. Pachaly: Studies on Indian Ginseng. Part 13. A Bidesmosidic Oleanolic Acid Saponin from Panax pseudo-ginseng. Phytochemistry, 31, 1046 (1992).Google Scholar
  353. 353.
    Nguyen, M.D., T.N. Nguyen, R. Kasai, A. Ito, K. Yamasaki, and O. Tanaka: Saponins from Vietnamese Ginseng Panax vietnamensis Ha et Grushv. Collected in Central Vietnam. I. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 41, 2010 (1993).Google Scholar
  354. 354.
    Nguyen, M.D., R. Kasai, K. Ohtani, A. Ito, T.N. Nguyen, K. Yamasaki, and O. Tanaka: Saponins from Vietnamese Ginseng Panax vietnamensis Ha et Grushv. Collected in Central Vietnam. II. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 42, 115 (1994).Google Scholar
  355. 355.
    Nguyen, M.D., R. Kasai, K. Ohtani, A. Ito, T. Nguyen, K. Yamasaki, and O. Tanaka: Saponins from Vietanamese Ginseng Panax vietnamensis Ha et Grushv. Collected in Central Vietnam. III. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 42, 634 (1994).Google Scholar
  356. 356.
    Ikeda, Y., M. Sugiura, C. Fukaya, K. Yokoyama, Y. Hashimoto, K. Kawa-Nishi, and M. Moriyasu: Poriandradulcins A,B and C: Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors from Periandra dulcis Mart. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 39, 566 (1991).Google Scholar
  357. 357.
    Massiot, G., X.-F. Chen, C. Lavaud, L. Le Men-Olivier, C. Delaude, A. Viari, P. Vigny, and J. Duval: Saponins from Stem Bark of Petersianthus macrocarpus. Phytochemistry, 31, 3571 (1992).Google Scholar
  358. 358.
    Jain, D.C., P.K. Agrawal, and R.S. Thakur: Phaseoluside-A, a New Soyasapogenol B Triglucoside from Phaseolus vulgaris Seeds. Planta Med., 57, 94 (1991).Google Scholar
  359. 359.
    Yoshiki, Y., J. Kim, and K. Okubo: Saponins Conjugated with 2,3,-Dihydro-2,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one from Phaseolus cocineus. Phytochemistry, 36, 1009 (1994).Google Scholar
  360. 360.
    Spengel, S., and W. Schaffner: Esculentoside S, a New Saponin from the Leaves of Phytolacca acinosa. Nat. Prod. Lett., 2, 243 (1993).Google Scholar
  361. 361.
    Nielsen, S.E., U. Anthoni, C. Christophersen, and C. Cornett: Triterpenoid Saponins from Phytolacca rivinoides and Phytolacca bogotensis: Phytochemistry, 39, 625 (1995).Google Scholar
  362. 362.
    Thiiborg, S.T., S. Broegger Christensen, C. Cornett, C.E. Olsen, and E. Lemmich: Molluscicidal Saponins from a Zimbabwean Strain of Phytolacca dodecandra. Phytochemistry 36, 753 (1994).Google Scholar
  363. 363.
    Yi, Y: A Triterpenoid Saponin from Phytolacca esculenta. Phytochemistry, 31, 2552 (1992).Google Scholar
  364. 364.
    Yi, Y: Two New Saponins from the Roots of Phytolacca esculenta. Planta Med., 58, 99 (1992).Google Scholar
  365. 365.
    Yi, Y., and F. Dai: A New Triterpenoid and Its Glycoside from Phytolacca esculenta. Planta. Med., 57, 162 (1991).Google Scholar
  366. 366.
    Yi, Y.: Esculentoside L and K: Two New Saponins from Phytolacca esculenta. Planta. Med., 56, 301 (1990).Google Scholar
  367. 367.
    Yi, Y.H., and X. Huang: Isolation and Identification of Three New Saponins from Shanglu (Phytolacca esculenta). Yaoxue Xuebao, 25, 745 (1991).Google Scholar
  368. 368.
    Seiji, T., T. Takagi, and T. Hashimoto: A γ-Pyronyl-triterpenoid Saponin from Pisum sativum. Phytochemistry, 31, 2435 (1992).Google Scholar
  369. 369.
    Reznicek, G., H. Schroeder, M. Schubert-Zsilavecz, T.H. Schöpke, S. Lehrkinder, E. Haslinger, K. Hiller, J. Jurenitsch, and W. Kubelka: Polemonium caeruleum L.; the Main Saponins of Lower Polarity. Pharmazie, 49, 58 (1994).Google Scholar
  370. 370.
    Bhandari, S.P.S., P.K. Agarwal, and H.S. Garg: A Triterpenoid Saponin from Polycarpone Loeflingiae. Phytochemistry, 29, 3889 (1990).Google Scholar
  371. 371.
    Zhang, D., T. Miyase, M. Kuroyanagi, K. Umehara, and A. Ueno: Studies on the Constituents of Polygala japonica Houtt. I. Structures of Polygalasaponins I-X. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 43, 115 (1995).Google Scholar
  372. 372.
    Zhang, D., T. Miyase, M. Kuroyanago, K. Umehara, and A. Ueno: Studies on the Constituents of Polygala japonica. Houtt.II. Structures of Polygalasaponins XI-XIX. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 43, 966 (1995).Google Scholar
  373. 373.
    Miyase, T., H. Saitoh, K. Shiokawa, and A. Ueno: Six New Presenegenin Glycosides, Reiniosides A-F, from Polygala reini Root. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 43, 466 (1995).Google Scholar
  374. 374.
    Gopal Samy, N., J. Gueho, H.R. Julien, A.W. Owadally, and K. HOSTETTMANN: Molluscicidal Saponins of Polyscias dichroostachya. Phytochemistry, 29, 793 (1990).Google Scholar
  375. 375.
    Paphassarang, S., J. Raynaud, M. Lussignol, and M. Becchi: Triterpenic Glycosides from Polyscias Scutellaria. Phytochemistry 28, 1539 (1989).Google Scholar
  376. 376.
    Paphassarang, S., J. Raynaud, M. Lussignol, and M. Becchi: Triterpenoid Saponins from Polyscias Scutellaria. J. Nat. Prod., 52, 239 (1989).Google Scholar
  377. 377.
    Bilia, A.R., E. Palme, S. Catalano, G. Flamine, and I. Morelli: New Triterpenoid Saponins from the Roots of Potentilla tormentilla. J. Nat. Prod., 57, 333 (1994).Google Scholar
  378. 378.
    Ahmad, V.U., V. Sultana, and Q.N. Saqib: Triterpenoid Saponins from Primula denticulata. Planta. Med., 56, 94 (1990).Google Scholar
  379. 379.
    Ahmad, V. U., M.G. Shah, F.V. Mohammad, and F.T. Baqai: Macrophyllicin, a Saponin from Primula macrophylla. Phytochemistry, 32, 1543 (1993).Google Scholar
  380. 380.
    Ahmad, V.U., and M.G. Shah: Macrophyllicinin, a Saponin from Primula macrophylla. J. Nat. Prod., 56, 1580 (1993).Google Scholar
  381. 381.
    Calis, I., A. Yuruker, H. Ruegger, A.D. Wright, and O. Sticher: Triterpene Saponins from Primula veris subsp. macrocalyx and Primula elatior subsp. meyeri. J. Nat. Prod., 55, 1299 (1992).Google Scholar
  382. 382.
    Tian, J., F. Wu, M. Qiu, and R. NIE: TWO Triterpenoid Saponins from Pterocephalus bretschneidri. Phytochemistry, 32, 1539 (1993).Google Scholar
  383. 383.
    Tian, J., F. Wu, M. Qiu, and R. Nie: Triterpenoid Saponins from Pterocephalus hookeri. Phytochemistry, 32, 1535 (1993).Google Scholar
  384. 384.
    Kang, S.S.: Saponin from the Roots of Pulsatilla koreana. Arch. Pharmacol. Res., 12, 42 (1989).Google Scholar
  385. 385.
    Sotheesawaran, S., M. Bokel, and W. Kraus: A Hemolytic Saponin, Randianin, from Randia dumetorum. Phytochemistry, 28, 1544 (1989).Google Scholar
  386. 386.
    Dubois, M.A., S. Benze, and H. Wagner: New Biologically Active Triterpene Saponins from Randia dumetorum. Planta. Med., 56, 451 (1990).Google Scholar
  387. 387.
    Ohtani, K., C. Miyajima, T. Takahasi, R. Kasai, O. Tanaka, D.R. Hahn, and N. Naruhashi: A Dimeric Triterpene Glycoside from Rubus coreanus. Phytochemistry, 29, 3275 (1990).Google Scholar
  388. 388.
    Kinjo, J., F. Kishida, K. Watanabe, F. Hashimoto, and T. Nohara. Leguminous plants. XLII. Five New Triterpene Glycosides from Russell Lupine. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 42, 1874 (1994).Google Scholar
  389. 389.
    Jia, Z., X. Liu, and Z. Liu: Triterpenoids from Sanguisorba alpina. Phytochemistry, 32, 155 (1993).Google Scholar
  390. 390.
    Pancharoen, O., P. Tuntiwachwuttikul, W.C. Taylor, and K. Picker: Triterpenoid Glycosides from Schefflera lucantha. Phytochemistry, 35, 987 (1994).Google Scholar
  391. 391.
    Maeda, C., K. Ohtani, R. Kasai, K. Yamasaki, N.M. Due, N.T. Nham, and G.K.Q. Cu: Oleanane and Ursane Glycosides from Schefflera octophylla. Phytochemistry, 37, 1131 (1994).Google Scholar
  392. 392.
    Sung, T.V., C. Lavaud, A. Porzel, W. Steglich, and G. Adam: Triterpenoids and their Glycosides from the Bark of Schefflera octophylla. Phytochemistry, 31, 227 (1992).Google Scholar
  393. 393.
    Sung, T.V., W. Steglich, and G. Adam: Triterpene Glycosides from Schefflera octophylla. Phytochemistry, 30, 2349 (1991).Google Scholar
  394. 394.
    Sung, T.V., and G. Adam: A Sulfated Triterpenoid Saponin from Schefflera octophylla. Phytochemistry, 30, 2717 (1991).Google Scholar
  395. 395.
    Sung, T.V., J. Peter-Katalinic, and G. Adam: A Bidesmosidic Triterpenoid Saponin from Schefflera octophylla. Phytochemistry, 30, 3717 (1991).Google Scholar
  396. 396.
    Tran, V.S., and G. Adam: An Acetylated Bidesmosidic Saponin from Schefflera octophylla. J. Nat. Prod., 55, 503 (1992).Google Scholar
  397. 397.
    Purohit, M.C., G. Pant, and M.S.M. Rawat: A Betulinic Acid Glycoside from Schefflera venulosa. Phytochemistry, 30, 2419 (1991).Google Scholar
  398. 398.
    Calis, I., M. Zor, A.A. Basaran, A.D. Wright, and O. Sticher: Ilwensisaponins A, B, C and D: Triterpene Saponins from Scrophularia ilwensis. Helv. Chim. Acta., 76, 1352 (1993).Google Scholar
  399. 399.
    Bhandari, S.P.S., R. Roy, P.K. Agrawal, and H.S. Garg: Scrokoelziside A, a Triterpene Glycoside from Scrophularia koelzii. Phytochemistry, 41, 879 (1993).Google Scholar
  400. 400.
    Potterat, O., K. Hostettmann, H. Stoeckli-Evang, and M. Saadou: Saponins with an Unusual Secoursene Skeleton from Sesamum alatum Thonn. Helv. Chim. Acta, 75, 883 (1992).Google Scholar
  401. 401.
    Jiang, Y., A.O. Ali, D. Guillaume, B. Weniger, and R. Anton: Triterpenoid Saponins from the Root of Sideroxylon cubense. Phytochemistry, 35, 1013 (1994).Google Scholar
  402. 402.
    Nicolas, G., A. Ouland-Ali, D. Guillaume, A. Lobstein, B. Weniger, and R. Anton: Triterpenoid Saponins from the Root of Sideroxylon foetidissimum. Phytochemistry, 38, 225 (1995).Google Scholar
  403. 403.
    Lacille-Dubois, M., B. Hanquet, Z. Cui, Z. Lou, and H. Wagner: Acylated Triterpene Saponins from Silene jenisseensis. Phytochemistry, 40, 509 (1995).Google Scholar
  404. 404.
    Reznicek, G., J. Jurenitsch, M. Plasun, S. Korhammer, E. Haslinger, K. Hiller, and W. Kubelka: Four Major Saponins from Solidago canadensis. Phytochemistry, 30, 1629 (1991).Google Scholar
  405. 405.
    Reznicek, G., W. Kubelka, J. Jurenitsch, G. Michl, and E. Haslinger: Structure elucidation of a Saponin from Solidago gigantea. Bull. Magn. Reson., 11, 402 (1989).Google Scholar
  406. 406.
    Reznicek, G., J. Jurenitsch, G. Michl, and E. Haslinger: The First Structurally Confirmed Saponin from Solidago gigantea. Structure Elucidation by Modern NMR Techniques. Tetrahedron Lett., 30, 4097 (1989).Google Scholar
  407. 407.
    Bader, G., V. Wray, and K. Hiller: Virgaureasaponin 3, a 3,28-Bisdesmosidic Triterpenoid Saponin from Salidago virgaurea. Phytochemistry, 31, 621 (1992).Google Scholar
  408. 408.
    Inose, Y., T. Miyase, and A. Ueno: Studies on the Constituents of Solidago virgaaurea L. II. Structures of Solidagosaponins X-XX. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 40, 946 (1992).Google Scholar
  409. 409.
    Miyase, T., Y. Inose, and A. Ueno: Studies on the Constituents of Solidago Virgaurea L. III. Structures of Solidagosaponins XXI-XXIX. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 42, 617 (1994).Google Scholar
  410. 410.
    Ding, Y., R. Tian, J. Kinjo, T. Nohara, and I. Kitagawa: Constituents of Leguminous Plants. XXXIII. Three New Oleanene Glycosides from Sophora flavescens. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 40, 2990 (1992).Google Scholar
  411. 411.
    Bilia, A.R., F. Flamini, G. Flamini, I. Morelli, and A. Marsili: Flavonoids and a Saponin from Apartium junceum. Phytochemistry, 34, 847 (1993).Google Scholar
  412. 412.
    Yamamoto, R., T. Miyase, and A. Ueno: Stachyssaponins I-VIII, New Oleanane-type Triterpene Saponins from Stachys riederichamisso. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 42, 1291 (1994).Google Scholar
  413. 413.
    Wang, H.B., D.Q. Yu, and X. Liang: Yemuoside I, a New Nor-triterpenoid glycoside from Stauntonia chinensis. J. Nat. Prod., 54, 1097 (1991).Google Scholar
  414. 414.
    Wang, H., D. Yu, X. Liang, N. Watanabe, M. Tamai, and S. Omura: Yemuoside YM7, YM11, YM13 and YM14: Four Nortriterpenoid Saponins from Stauntonia chinensis. Planta. Med., 55, 303 (1989).Google Scholar
  415. 415.
    Wang, H., D. Yu, X. Liang, N. Watanabe, M. Tamai, and S. Omura: Structures of Two Nortriterpenoid Saponins from Stauntonia chinensis. J. Nat. Prod., 53, 313 (1990).Google Scholar
  416. 416.
    Wang, H.B., D.Q. Yu, X.T. Liang, N. Watanabe, M. Tamai, and S. Omura: The Structures of Yamuoside YM10 and YM12 from Stauntonia chinensis. Yaoxue Xuebao, 24, 444 (1989).Google Scholar
  417. 417.
    Wang, H.B., R. Mayer, and G. Ruecker: Triterpenoid Glycosides from Stauntonia hexaphylla. Phytochemistry, 33, 1496 (1993).Google Scholar
  418. 418.
    Wang, H.B., R. Mayer, and G. Ruecker: Triterpenoid Glycosides from Stauntonia hexaphylla. Phytochemistry, 34, 1389 (1993).Google Scholar
  419. 419.
    Lavaud, C., G. Massiot, L. Le Men-Olivier, A. Viari, P. Vigny, and C. Delaude: Saponins from Steganotaenia araliacea. Phytochemistry, 31, 3177 (1992).Google Scholar
  420. 420.
    Yoshikawa, K., H. Taninaka, Y. Kan, and S. Arihara: Antisweet Natural Products. X. Structures of Sitakisoside I-V from Stephanotis lutchuensis Koidz, var. japonica. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 42, 2023 (1994).Google Scholar
  421. 421.
    Ahmad, V.U., M. Noorwala, F.V. Mohammad, B. Sener, A.H. Gilani, and K. Aftab: Symphytoxide A, a Triterpenoid Saponin from the Roots of Symphytum officinale. Phytochemistry, 32, 10003 (1993).Google Scholar
  422. 422.
    Mohammad, F.V., M. Noorwala, V.U. Ahmad, and B. Sener: A Bidesmosidic Hederagenin Hexasaccharide from the Roots of Symphytum officinale. Phytochemistry, 40, 213 (1995).Google Scholar
  423. 423.
    Ahmad, V.U., M. Noorwala, F.V. Mohammad, and B. Sener: A New Triterpene Glycoside from the Roots of Symphytum officinale. J. Nat. Prod., 56, 329 (1993).Google Scholar
  424. 424.
    Noorwala, M., F.V. Mohammad, V.U. Ahmad, and B. Sener: A Bidesmosidic Triterpene Glycoside from the Roots of Symphytum officinale. Phytochemistry, 36, 439 (1994).Google Scholar
  425. 425.
    Ahmad, V.U., F.V. Mohammad, M. Noorwala, and B. Sener: A New Bidesmosidic Triterpenoidal Saponin from the Roots of Symphytum officinale. Planta Med., 59, 461 (1993).Google Scholar
  426. 426.
    Mahato, S.B., A.K. Nandy, and A.P. Kundu: Pentacyclic Triterpenoid Sapogenols and Their Glycosides from Terminalia bellerica. Tetrahedron, 48, 2483 (1992).Google Scholar
  427. 427.
    Nandy, A.K., G. Podder, N.P. Sahu, and S.B. Mahato: Triterpenoids and Their Glucosides from Terminalia bellerica. Phytochemistry, 28, 2769 (1989).Google Scholar
  428. 428.
    Kundu, A.P., and S.B. Mahato: Triterpenoids and Their Glycosides from Terminalia chebula. Phytochemistry, 32, 999 (1993).Google Scholar
  429. 429.
    Maillard, M., C.O. Adewunmi, and K. Hostettmann: A Triterpene Glycoside from the Fruits of Tetrapleura tetraptera. Phytochemistry, 31, 1321 (1992).Google Scholar
  430. 430.
    Yoshimitsu, H., K. Hayashi, M. Kumabe, and T. Nohara: Cycloartane Type Glycosides from Thalictri herba. Phytochemistry, 38, 939 (1995).Google Scholar
  431. 431.
    Yi, Y., and Z. Wu: A New Triterpene Glycoside of Thalictrum foeniculaceum. Zhongguo Yaoxue Daxue Xuebao, 22, 270 (1991).Google Scholar
  432. 432.
    Yoshimitsu, H., K. Hayashi, K. Shingu, J. Kinjo, S. Yahara, K. Nakano, K. Murakami, T. Tomimatsu, and T. Nohara: TWO New Cycloartane Glycosides, Thalictoside A and C from Thalictrum thunbergii D.C. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 40, 2465 (1992).Google Scholar
  433. 433.
    Schenkel, E.P., W. Werner, and K.E. Schulte: Saponins from Thinouia coriaceae. Planta. Med., 57, 463 (1991).Google Scholar
  434. 434.
    Nagao, T., H. Okabe, K. Mihashi, and T. Yamauchi: Studies on the Constituents of Thladiantha dubia Bunge. I. The Structures of Dubiosides A, B and C, the Quillaic Acid Glucuronide Saponins Isolated From the Tuber. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 37, 925 (1989).Google Scholar
  435. 435.
    Nagao, T., R. Tanaka, H. Okabe, and T. Yamauchi: Studies on the Constituents of Thladiantha dubia Bunge. II. Structures of Dubiosides D, E, and F, Neutral Saponins of Quillaic acid Isolated from the Tuber. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 38, 378 (1990).Google Scholar
  436. 436.
    Nie, R., T. Tanaka, M. Miyakoshi, R. Kasai, T. Morita, J. Zhou, and O. Tanaka: A Triterpenoid Saponin from Thladiantha hookeri var. pentadactyla. Phytochemistry, 28, 1711 (1989).Google Scholar
  437. 437.
    Miyase, T., H. Kohsaka, and A. Ueno: Tragopogonosides A-I, Oleanane Saponins from Tragopogon pratensis. Phytochemistry, 31, 2087 (1992).Google Scholar
  438. 438.
    Massiot, G., C. Lavaud, C. Delaude, G. Van Binst, S.P.F. Miller, and H.M. Fales: Saponins from Tridesmostemon claessenssi. Phytochemistry, 29, 3291 (1990).Google Scholar
  439. 439.
    Mohamed, K.M., K. Ohtani, R. Kasai, and K. Yamasaki: Oleanene Glycosides from Seeds of Trifolium alexandrium. Phytochemistry, 40, 1237 (1995).Google Scholar
  440. 440.
    Sakamoto, S., S. Kofuji, M. Kuroyanagi, A. Ueno, and S. Sekita: Saponins from Trifolium repens. Phytochemistry, 31, 1773 (1992).Google Scholar
  441. 441.
    Ma, W., D. Wang, Y. Zeng, and C. Yang: Three Triterpenoid Saponins from Triplostegia grandiflora. Phytochemistry, 30, 3401 (1991).Google Scholar
  442. 442.
    Yepez P.A.M., O.L. De Ugaz, C.M. Alvarez A, V. De Feo, R. Aquino, F. De Simone, and C. Pizza: Quinovic Acid Glycosides from Uncaria guianensis. Phytochemistry, 30, 1635 (1991).Google Scholar
  443. 443.
    Klimek, B., C. Lavaud, and G. Massiot: Saponins from Verbascum nigrum. Phytochemistry, 31, 4368 (1992).Google Scholar
  444. 444.
    Seiferi, K., A. Preiss, S. Johne, N.T. Juergen Lien, C. Lavaud, and G. Massiot: Triterpene Saponins from Verbascum songaricum. Phytochemistry, 30, 3395 (1991).Google Scholar
  445. 445.
    Hartleb, I., and K. Seifert: Songarosaponin D — a Triterpenoid Saponin from Verbascum songaricum. Phytochemistry, 35, 1009 (1994).Google Scholar
  446. 446.
    Hartleb, I., and K. Seifert: Triterpenoid Saponins from Verbascum songaricum. Phytochemistry, 38, 221 (1995).Google Scholar
  447. 447.
    Vasanth, S., A.B. Kundu, S.K. Panda, and A. Patra: Vicoside A, a 28-Nortriterpenoid Glucoside from Vicoa indica. Phytochemistry, 30, 3053 (1991).Google Scholar
  448. 448.
    Govindachari, T.R., and M.S. Premila: Triterpenoid Saponins from Wedelia calendulaceae Less. Indian J. Chem. Sect. B., 30B, 466 (1991).Google Scholar
  449. 449.
    Konoshima, T., M. Kozuka, M. Haruna, K. Ito, T. Kimura, and H. Tokuda: Studies on the Constituents of Leguminous Plants XII. The Structures of New Triterpenoid Saponins from Wistaria brachybotrys Sieb. et Zucc. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 37, 2731 (1989).Google Scholar
  450. 450.
    Kinjo, J., Y. Fujishima, K. Saino, R. Tian, and T. Nohara: Leguminous Plants. XLV. Five New Triterpene Glycosides from Wistaria brachybotrys (Leguminosae). Chem. Pharm. Bull., 43, 636 (1995).Google Scholar
  451. 451.
    Konoshima, T., M. Kozuka, M. Haruna, and K. Ito: Constituents of Leguminous Plants, XIII. New Triterpenoid Saponins from Wistaria brachybotrys. J. Nat. Prod., 54, 830 (1991).Google Scholar
  452. 452.
    Yoshikawa, K., N. Shimono, and S. Arihara: Antisweet Natural Products, VI. Jujubasaponins IV, V and VI from Zizyphus jujuba Mill. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 40, 2275 (1992).Google Scholar
  453. 453.
    Hassanean, H.A., M.M.A. El-Hamouly, S.A. El-Moghazy, and D.W. Bishay: 14-Decarboxyquinovic and Quinovic Acid Glycosides from Zygophyllum album. Phytochemistry, 33, 667 (1993).Google Scholar
  454. 454.
    Hassanean, H.H., E.K. Desoky, and M.M.A. El-Hamouly: Quinovic Acid Glycosides from Zygophyllum album. Phytochemistry, 33, 663 (1993).Google Scholar
  455. 455.
    Elgamal, M.H.A., K.H. Shaker, K. Poellmann, and K. Seifert: Triterpenoid Saponins from Zygophyllum Species. Phytochemistry, 40, 1233 (1995).Google Scholar
  456. 456.
    Ahmad, V.U., U.S. Ghazala, and S. Bano: Saponins from Zygophyllum propinquum. J. Nat. Prod., 53, 1193 (1990).Google Scholar
  457. 457.
    Ahmad, V.U., and U.S. Ghazala: A Triterpenoid Saponin from Zygophyllum propinquum. Phytochemistry, 31, 1051 (1992).Google Scholar
  458. 458.
    Ahmad, V.U., U.S. Ghazala, and S.M. Aki: Saponins from Zygophyllum propinquum. Phytochemistry, 33, 453 (1993).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. B. Mahato
    • 1
  • S. Garai
    • 1
  1. 1.Indian Institute of Chemical BiologyJadavpur, CalcuttaIndia

Personalised recommendations