Advertisement

White matter changes in human spinal cord injury

  • B. A. Kakulas
  • R. L. Lorimer
  • A. D. Gubbay

Abstract

The neurological disability in human spinal cord injury (SCI) is not determined by the local gray matter changes but by the interruption of the long white matter pathways. Typically in flexion, rotation or extension injuries of the cervical spine there is central haemorrhagic necrosis of the gray matter and a variable degree of disruption of the surrounding white matter depending on the severity of the trauma. Although the central gray matter is destroyed at the level of the lesion it does not usually cause a serious clinical problem due to the overlapping segmentai innervation of myotomes and dermatomes. Within the white matter there may be involvement only of the propriospinal pathways or the lesion may extend more widely and affect the long tracts. However it is unusual for the spinal cord to be completely transected in road trauma, industrial or sporting accidents, the usual causes of SCI. More often there is some preservation of the white matter in human SCI.

Keywords

White Matter Spinal Cord Injury Schwann Cell Myelin Sheath White Matter Change 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams JH, Graham DI, Gernarealli TA, Maxwell WL (1991) Diffuse axonal injury in non-missle head injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 54: 481–583PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aguayo AJ, Bray GM, Perkins GS, Duncan ID (1979) Axon-sheath cell interactions in peripheral and central nervous system transplants. In: Ferrendelli JA (ed) Aspects of developmental neurobiology 4: 361–383Google Scholar
  3. Ahlgren S, Li GL, Olsson Y (1996) Accumulation of β-amyloid precursor protein and ubiquitin in axons after spinal cord trauma in humans: immunohistochemical observations on autopsy material. Acta Neuropathol 92: 49–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blight AR (1985) Delayed demyelination and macrophage invasion: a candidate for secondary cell damage in spinal cord injury. Cent Nerv Syst Trauma 2: 299–315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Blight AR, Young W (1989) Central axons in injured cat spinal cord recover electro-physiological function following remyelination by Schwann cells. J Neurol Sci 91: 15–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bunge BP, Puckett WR, Becerra JL, Marcillo A, Quencer RM (1993) Observations on the pathology of human spinal cord injury: a review and classification of 22 new cases with details from a case of chronic cord compression with extensive focal demyelination. Adv Neurol 59: 75–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Dimitrijevic MR, Faganel J, Lehmkuhl D, Sherwood A (1983) Motor control mechanisms in health and diseases. Raven Press, New York, pp 915–926Google Scholar
  8. Feigin I, Cravioto H (1961) A histochemical study of myelin: A difference in the solubility of the glycolipid components in the central and peripheral nervous systems. J Neuropath Exp Neurol 20: 245–253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Feigin I, Popoff N (1966) Regeneration of myelin in multiple sclerosis: the role of mesenchymal cells in such regeneration and in myelin formation in the peripheral nervous system. Neurology 16(4): 364–372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gentleman SM, Roberts GW, Gennarelli TA, Maxwell WL, Adams JH, Kerr S, Graham DI (1995) Axonal injury: a universal consequence of fatal closed head injury. Acta Neuropathol 89: 537–543PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gledhill RF, Harrison BM, McDonald WI (1973) Demyelination after acute spinal cord compression. Exp Neurol 38: 472–487PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kaelan C (1993) Neuropathology and clinical neurobiology of human spinal cord injury (SCI): Quantitation of tissue elements in human SCI and the comparison of experimental animal SCI and human SCI. Thesis presented for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Department of Pathology, University of Western AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  13. Kaelan C, Jacobsen PF, Kakulas BA (1988) An investigation of possible transynaptic neuronal degeneration in human spinal cord injury. J Neurol Sci 86: 231–237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kakulas BA, Bedbrook GM (1976) Chapter 3: Pathology of injuries of the vertebral column with emphasis on the macroscopical aspects. In: Vinken PJ, Bruyn GW (eds) Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Chapter 25. Injuries of the Spine and Spinal Cord, Part 1. North-Holland, Amsterdam/Elsevier, New York, pp 27–42Google Scholar
  15. Kakulas BA, Taylor JR (1992) Chapter n2: Pathology of injuries of the vertebral column and spinal cord. In: Frankel HL (ed) Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Vol 17. Spinal Cord Trauma. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 21–51Google Scholar
  16. Maggio JE, Mantyh PW (1996) Brain amyloid — a physiochemical perspective. Brain Pathol 6: 147–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Nathan PW (1994) Effects on movement of surgical inclusions into the human spinal cord. Brain 117: 337–346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ohgami T, Kitamoto T, Tateishi J (1993) Alzheimer’s amyloid precursor protein accumulates within axonal swelling in human brain lesions. Neurosci Lett 160: 139–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sherrif FE, Bridges LR, Sivaloganathian S (1994) Early detection of axon injury after human head trauma using immunohistochemistry for beta-amyloid precursor protein. Acta Neuropathol 87: 55–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sherwood AM, Dimitrijevic MR, McKay WB (1992) Evidence of subclinical brain influence in clinically complete spinal cord injury: discomplete SCI. J Neurol Sci 110: 90–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Strich SJ (1961) Shearing of nerve fibers as a cause of brain damage due to head injury. Lancet 2: 443–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Tator CH (1995) Update on the pathophysiology and pathology of acute spinal cord injury. Brain Pathol 5: 407–413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Waxman SG (1989) Demyelination of spinal cord injury. J Neurol Sci 91: 1–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Windle WF (1980) Neurotropism. Editorial commentary. Exp Neurol 67: 251–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Woods A, Gaekwad UH, Kakulas BA, Smith ER (1991) Establishment of a clinicopathological database for traumatic human spinal injury. Paraplegia 29: 149–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. A. Kakulas
    • 1
  • R. L. Lorimer
    • 1
  • A. D. Gubbay
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeuropathologyRoyal Perth Hospital and the Australian Neuromuscular Research Institute and the University of Western AustraliaPerthAustralia

Personalised recommendations