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Spinal cord bioelectrical activity, edema and cell injury following a focal trauma to the rat spinal cord. An experimental study using pharmacological and morphological approaches

  • T. Winkler
  • H. S. Sharma
  • E. Stålberg
  • J. Westman

Abstract

Trauma to the spinal cord is associated with problems of sensory and motor disturbances along with abnormalities of reflex activities (Faden, 1987; Tator and Fehlings, 1991 ; Faden and Salzman, 1992; Faden, 1993a; Schwab and Bartholdi, 1996). The prevalence of spinal cord injury is about 30 to 50 cases per million population per year in the United States of America which is quite comparable to Europe and other continents (Tator and Edmonds, 1979; Schwab and Bartholdi, 1996) (Table 1). The victims of cord trauma are mainly young men in their early 20 to 30 years of age and only 20 to 30% of spinal cord injury cases involves women. The major cause of spinal cord injury is motor vehicle accidents followed by fall, penetrating injuries like gun shot, knife wounds or sports injuries (Tator and Fehlings, 1991; Schwab, and Bartholdi, 1996). The cervical spinal cord and thoracolumbar junctions are mostly affected following such injuries (Kakulas, 1984; Kakulas and Taylor, 1991). About half of the patients with cord trauma have complete injuries without any signs of voluntary motor or sensory perception below the level of the lesion (Schwab and Bartholdi, 1996). The symptoms of spinal cord injury includes quadruplegia that involves paralysis of the upper and lower extremities followed by paraplegia involving only the lower extremity. The other leading causes of paralysis involving spinal cord are multiple sclerosis, ischemia and tumours (Kakulas, 1984; Ducker, 1976).

Keywords

Spinal Cord Spinal Cord Injury Somatosensory Evoke Potential Spinal Trauma Spinal Cord Trauma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Winkler
    • 1
  • H. S. Sharma
    • 2
  • E. Stålberg
    • 1
  • J. Westman
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Clinical NeurophysiologyUniversity HospitalSweden
  2. 2.Laboratory of Neuroanatomy, Department of Medical Cell BiologyBiomedical Centre, Uppsala UniversityUppsalaSweden

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