Generation of magnetic evoked spinal cord potentials

  • H. Kitagawa
  • Y. Kawaguchi
  • H. Nakamura
  • S. Nakatoh
  • H. Tsuji


Patton and Amassian (1954) elucidated the physiological nature of multiple descending volleys through the pyramidal tract after a single shock of direct electrical stimulation of the motor cortex: the first volley stimulated at the initial segment or the first node of the pyramidal tract neurons was labelled the direct (D) wave, and later volleys activated trans-synaptically were labelled indirect (I) waves. Merton and Morton (1980) introduced the technique of corticospinal tract activation using high-voltage transcranial stimulation. Later, Barker et al (1985) introduced painless activation of the motor tract using transcranial magnetic stimulation, which achieved widespread acceptance. These methods produce evoked responses that have different characteristics, as discussed in this chapter. Experimental studies of the conducting pathways following transcranial magnetic stimulation, and the clinical application of magnetic stimulation in intraoperative neuromonitoring is also discussed.


Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Magnetic Stimulation Transcranial Electrical Stimulation Motor Cortex Stimulation Spinal Cord Monitoring 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Kitagawa
    • 1
  • Y. Kawaguchi
    • 1
  • H. Nakamura
    • 1
  • S. Nakatoh
    • 1
  • H. Tsuji
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryToyama Medical and Pharmaceutical UniversityToyama CityJapan

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