Image-Based Rendering for Non-Diffuse Synthetic Scenes

  • Dani Lischinski
  • Ari Rappoport
Part of the Eurographics book series (EUROGRAPH)


Most current image-based rendering methods operate under the assumption that all of the visible surfaces in the scene are opaque ideal diffuse (Lambertian) reflectors. This paper is concerned with image-based rendering of non-diffuse synthetic scenes. We introduce a new family of image-based scene representations and describe corresponding image-based rendering algorithms that are capable of handling general synthetic scenes containing not only diffuse reflectors, but also specular and glossy objects. Our image-based representation is based on layered depth images. It represents simultaneously and separately both view-independent scene information and view-dependent appearance information. The view-dependent information may be either extracted directly from our data-structures, or evaluated procedurally using an image-based analogue of ray tracing. We describe image-based rendering algorithms that recombine the two components together in a manner that produces a good approximation to the correct image from any viewing position. In addition to extending image-based rendering to non-diffuse synthetic scenes, our paper has an important methodological contribution: it places image-based rendering, light field rendering, and volume graphics in a common framework of discrete raster-based scene representations.


Light Field Parallel Projection Volume Graphic Scene Representation Volumetric Representation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Stephen J. Adelson and Larry F. Hodges. Generating exact ray-traced animation frames by reprojection. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 15(3):43–52, May 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sig Badt, Jr. Two algorithms taking advantage of temporal coherence in ray tracing. The Visual Computer, 4(3): 123–132, September 1988.MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M.O. Benouamer and D. Michelucci. Bridging the gap between CSG and Brep via a triple ray representation. In Proc. Fourth ACM/Siggraph Symposium on Solid Modeling and Applications, pages 68–79. ACM Press, 1997.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shenchang Eric Chen. QuickTime VR — an image-based approach to virtual environment navigation. In Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series (Proc. SIGGRAPH’ 95), pages 29–38, 1995.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Shenchang Eric Chen and Lance Williams. View interpolation for image synthesis. In Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series (Proc. SIGGRAPH’ 93), pages 279–288, 1993.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Christine Chevrier. A view interpolation technique taking into account diffuse and specular inter-reflections. The Visual Computer, 13:330–341, 1997.MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Daniel Cohen and Amit Shaked. Photo-realistic imaging of digital terrains. Computer Graphics Forum, 12(3):363–373, 1993. Proceedings of Eurographics’ 93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Michael F. Deering. Geometry compression. In Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series (Proc. SIGGRAPH’ 95), pages 13–20. Addison Wesley, August 1995.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Robert A. Drebin, Loren Carpenter, and Pat Hanrahan. Volume rendering. In John Dill, editor, Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH’ 88 Proceedings), volume 22, pages 65–74, August 1988.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. L. Ellis, G. Kedem, T C. Lyerly, D. G. Thielman, R. J. Marisa, J. P. Menon, and H. B. Voelcker. The ray casting engine and ray representations: a technical summary. Internat. J. Comput. Geom. Appl., 1(4):347–380, 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Steven J. Gortler, Radek Grzeszczuk, Richard Szeliski, and Michael F. Cohen. The Lumi-graph. In Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series (Proc. SIGGRAPH’ 96), pages 43–54, 1996.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Steven J. Gortler, Li-Wei He, and Michael F. Cohen. Rendering layered depth images. Technical Report MSTR-TR-97-09, Microsoft Research, Redmond, WA, March 1997.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Arie Kaufman, Daniel Cohen, and Roni Yagel. Volume graphics. IEEE Computer, 26(7):51–64, July 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Craig E. Kolb. Ray shade User’s Guide and Reference Manual, 1992. Available at Scholar
  15. 15.
    Philippe Lacroute and Marc Levoy. Fast volume rendering using a shear-warp factorization of the viewing transformation. In Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series (Proc. SIGGRAPH’ 94), pages 451–458, July 1994.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    David Laur and Pat Hanrahan. Hierarchical splatting: A progressive refinement algorithm for volume rendering. In Thomas W. Sederberg, editor, Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH’ 91 Proceedings), volume 25, pages 285–288, July 1991.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Stephane Laveau and Olivier Faugeras. 3-D scene representation as a collection of images and fundamental matrices. In Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Pattern Recognition, pages 689–691, Jerusalem, Israel, October 1994.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Marc Levoy. Display of surfaces from volume data. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 8(3):29–37, May 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Marc Levoy. Efficient ray tracing of volume data. ACM Transactions on Graphics, 9(3):245–261, July 1990.MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Marc Levoy and Pat Hanrahan. Light field rendering. In Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series (Proc. SIGGRAPH’ 96), pages 31–42, 1996.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    William E. Lorensen and Harvey E. Cline. Marching cubes: A high resolution 3D surface construction algorithm. In Maureen C. Stone, editor, Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH’ 87 Proceedings), volume 21, pages 163–169, July 1987.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    William R. Mark, Leonard McMillan, and Gary Bishop. Post-rendering 3D warping. In Proceedings of the 1997 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics. ACM SIGGRAPH, April 1997.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nelson Max. Hierarchical rendering of trees from precomputed multi-layer Z-buffers. In Xavier Pueyo and Peter Schröder, editors, Rendering Techniques’ 96, pages 165–174. Eurographics, Springer-Verlag Wien New York, 1996. ISBN 3-211-82883-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Nelson Max, Curtis Mobley, Brett Keating, and En-Hua Wu. Plane-parallel radiance transport for global illumination in vegetation. In Julie Dorsey and Philipp Slusallek, editors, Rendering Techniques’ 97, pages 239–250. Eurographics, Springer-Verlag Wien New York, 1997. ISBN 3-211-83001-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Leonard McMillan. A list-priority rendering algorithm for redisplaying projected surfaces. UNC Technical Report 95-005, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 1995.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Leonard McMillan and Gary Bishop. Plenoptic modeling: An image-based rendering system. In Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series (Proc. SIGGRAPH’ 95), pages 39–46, 1995.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    J. Menon, R.J. Marisa, and J. Zagajac. More powerful solid modeling through ray representations. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 14(3):22–35, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Steven M. Seitz and C. R. Dyer. Physically-valid view synthesis by image interpolation. In IEEE Computer Society Workshop: Representation of Visual Scenes, pages 18–27, Los Alamitos, CA, June 1995. IEEE Computer Society Press.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jonathan Shade, Dani Lischinski, David H. Salesin, Tone De Rose, and John Snyder. Hierarchical image caching for accelerated walkthroughs of complex environments. In Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series (Proc. SIGGRAPH’ 96), pages 75–82, August 1996.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Tim Van Hook. Real-time shaded NC milling display. In David C. Evans and Russell J. Athay, editors, Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH’ 86 Proceedings), volume 20, pages 15–20, August 1986.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sidney Wang and Arie E. Kaufman. Volume-sampled 3D modeling. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 14(5):26–32, September 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lee Westover. Footprint evaluation for volume rendering. In Forest Baskett, editor, Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH’ 90 Proceedings), volume 24, pages 367–376, August 1990.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Roni Yagel, Daniel Cohen, and Arie Kaufman. Discrete ray tracing. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 12(5): 19–28, September 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dani Lischinski
    • 1
  • Ari Rappoport
    • 1
  1. 1.The Hebrew UniversityIsrael

Personalised recommendations