Per-Object Image Warping with Layered Impostors

  • Gernot Schaufler
Part of the Eurographics book series (EUROGRAPH)


Image warping is desirable in the context of image-based rendering because it increases the set of viewpoints for which a single image can be used. This paper proposes a method for image warping with adaptive accuracy compatible with current texture-mapping hardware. It is based on the observation that pixels at similar depth move in a similar way during warping. The method also generates approximate depth values at each pixel so that polygonal and image-based rendering can be applied in a mixed fashion.


Computer Graphic Object Image Final Image Error Angle Graphic Hardware 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    Aliaga, Daniel G., “Visualization of Complex Models Using Dynamic Texture-based Simplification”, IEEE Visualization’ 96, pp 101–106, Oct 28-Nov 1, 1996.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Chen, Shenchang Eric and Lance Williams, “View Interpolation for Image Synthesis”, Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH’ 93) 27 (August 1993) pp 279–288.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Chen, Shenchang Eric, “Quicktime VR — An Image-Based Approach to Virtual Environment Navigation”, Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH’ 95) (August 1995) pp 29–38.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Dally, William J., Leonard McMillan, Gary Bishop, and Henry Fuchs, “The Delta Tree: An Object-Centered Approach to Image-Based Rendering”, MIT AI Lab Technical Memo 1604, May 1996.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Darsa, Lucia, Bruno Costa and Amitabh Varshney, “Navigating Static Environments Using Image-Space Simplification and Morphing”, Proceedings of the Symposium on 3D Interactive Graphics, April 27 — 30, 1997, Providence, RI, pp 25–34.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Debevec, Paul E., Camillo J. Taylor and Jitendra Malik, “Modeling and Rendering Architecture from Photographs: A Hybrid Geometry-and Image-Based Approach”, Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH’ 96) (August 1996) pp 11–20.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Dorsey, Julie, Jim Arvo, and Donald Greenberg, “Interactive Design of Complex Time-Dependent Lighting”, IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. 15(2) (1995), 26–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Duff, Tom, “Compositing 3-D Rendered Images”, Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH’ 85) 193 (July 1985) pp 155–162.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Gortler, Steven J., Li-wei He and Michael F. Cohen, “Rendering Layered Depth Images”, Microsoft Technical Report MSTR-TR-97-09, March 1997.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Laveau, Stéphane and Olivier Faugeras, “3-D Scene Representation as a Collection of Images and Fundamental Matrices”, INRIA Technical Report No2205, February 1994.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Maciel, Paulo W. and Peter Shirley, “Visual Navigation of Large Environments Using Textured Clusters”, Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics (April 1995) pp 95–102.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Mark, William R., Leonard McMillan and Gary Bishop, “Post-Rendering 3D Warping”, Proceedings of the 1997 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics (Providence, RI), April 27–30, 1997, pp 7–16.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Mark, William R., Gary Bishop, “Memory Access Patterns of Occlusion-Compatible 3D Image Warping”, Proceedings of the 1997 SIGGRAPH / Eurographics Workshop on Graphics Hardware (Los Angeles, California), August 3–4 1997, pp 35–44.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Max, Nelson, “Hierarchical Rendering of Trees from Precomputed Multi-Layer Z-Buff-ers”, Proceedings of the 7th Eurographics Workshop on Rendering’ 96, Porto, Portugal, pp165–174.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Mazuryk, Thomasz and Michael Gervautz, “Two-Step Prediction and Image Deflection for Exact Head Tracking in Virtual Environments”, Computer Graphics Forum (EUROGRAPHICS’ 95) 143 pp 29–41.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    McMillan, Leonard and Gary Bishop, “Plenoptic Modelling: An Image-Based Rendering System”, Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH’ 95), (August 1995) pp 39–46.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Pulli, Kari, Michael Cohen, Tom Duchamp, Hugues Hoppe, Linda Shapiro, and Werner Stuetzle, “View-based Rendering: Visualizing Real Objects from Scanned Range and Color Data”, Proceedings of 8th Eurographics Workshop on Rendering, St. Etienne, France, June 1997, pp 23–34.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    Regan, Matthew and Ronald Post, “Priority Rendering with a Virtual Reality Address Recalculation Pipeline”, Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH’ 94) (July 1994) pp 155–162.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Schaufler, Gemot, “Exploiting Frame to Frame Coherence in a Virtual Reality System”, VRAIS’ 96, Santa Cruz, California (April 1996) pp 95–102.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Schaufler, Gemot and Wolfgang Stürzlinger, “A Three-Dimensional Image Cache for Virtual Reality”, EUROGRAPHICS’ 96, (August 1996), 153, pp 227–236.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Schaufler, Gemot, “Nailboards: A Rendering Primitive for Image Caching in Dynamic Scenes”, Proceedings of the 8th Eurographics Workshop on Rendering’ l97, St. Etienne, France, June 16–18, 1997, pp 151–162.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    Shade, Jonathan, Dani Lischinski, David H. Salesin, Tony DeRose and John Snyder, “Hierarchical Image Caching for Accelerated Walkthroughs of Complex Environments”, Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH’ 96), (August 1996) pp 75–82.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    Sillion, François X., George Drettakis and Benoit Bodelet, “Efficient Impostor Manipulation for Real-Time Visualization of Urban Scenery”, Proceedings of Eurographics’97, September 4–8, 1997, pp 207–218.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Torborg, Jay and James T. Kajiya, “Talisman: Commodity Real-time 3D Graphics for the PC”, Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH’ 96), (August 1996) pp 353–363.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gernot Schaufler
    • 1
  1. 1.GUPLinzAustria

Personalised recommendations