Imaging Studies

  • F. Postacchini
  • G. Gualdi


Numerous studies have shown that plain radiographs of the lumbar spine are of little diagnostic value in patients with low back and/or radicular pain, since most of the radiographic changes that may be observed are found, with similar frequency, in asymptomatic subjects. This holds for many radiographic findings, such as decreased disc height and spondylotic changes (119, 199, 212, 235), degree of lumbar lordosis (70, 91, 212), retrolisthesis of L5 (72), scoliosis (235), pelvic obliquity (198), spina bifida occulta and vertebral transitional anomalies (71, 199).


Nerve Root Spinal Canal Nucleus Pulposus Disc Herniation Lumbar Disc 
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  • F. Postacchini
  • G. Gualdi

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