• F. Postacchini
  • W. Rauschning


Pathomorphologic studies on lumbar discs in individuals of varying ages have led to the identification of various stages of disc degeneration. The grading proposed by Friberg and Hirsch (27), and later adopted by Nachemson (57), identifies four types of disc morphology, whilst that of Thompson et al. (81) distinguishes five types. Adams et al. (2), based on pathomorphologic and discographic studies, have identified five types of disc: cottonball, lobular, irregular, fissured and ruptured (Fig. 5.1).


Vertebral Body Spinal Canal Nucleus Pulposus Disc Herniation Disc Degeneration 
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  • F. Postacchini
  • W. Rauschning

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