Keyframe interpolation with self-collision avoidance

  • Jean-Christophe Nebel
Part of the Eurographics book series (EUROGRAPH)


3D-keyframe animation is a popular method for animating articulated figures. It allows artistic expressiveness by providing control to the animator. The drawback of this process is that it requires significant effort from the animator. Recently, work has focused on high level techniques such as adapting reference movements. However, whatever the way the animation is produced, the final process is an interpolation between keyframes. Our problem is that these interpolations do not deal with the avoidance of collisions between the limbs of an articulated figure, either an animator has to add new keyframes or the motion produced contains unrealistic positions. In this paper we present a new interpolation method producing self-collision free paths based on geometrical properties. Our method is a high level interpolation in which any classical interpolation method can be used. Experimental results using a human model show that the animator can reduce the level of detail needed for describing a movement and still get realistic results at interactive speeds.


Inverse Kinematic Interpolation Curve Reference Motion Virtual Reality Application Collision Detection Algorithm 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    Yoga, the Iyengar way, pages 54–55. Dorling Kindersley, 1990.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    K. Arai. Keyframe animation of articulated figures using partial dynamics. In N. Magnenat-Thalmann and D. Thalmann, editors, Models and techniques in computer animation, pages 243–256. Springer-Verlag, 1993.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    S. Bandi and D. Thalmann. An adaptive spatial subdivision of the object space for fast collision of animated rigid bodies. In Eurographics’95, pages 259–270, 1995.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    J. Barraquand, L. Kavraki, J-C. Latombe, T-Y. Li, R. Motwani, and P. Raghavan. A random sampling scheme for path planning. Journal of robotics research, 16(6):759–774, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    M. F. Cohen C. Rose and B. Bodenheimer. Verbs and adverbs: Multidimensional motion interpolation. IEEE Comp. Graphics and application, 18(5):32–40, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    J.F. Canny. The complexity of robot motion planning. MIT Press, 1988.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    J. Lopez D. Rodriguez D. Meziat M. Carbajo A. Casillas and J. L. Bosque. A user interface for the design of human figures multimedia animations. In HIM97. Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    D. J. Densley and P. J. Willis. Emotional posturing: A method towards achieving emotional figure animation. In Computer Animation 97, pages 8–14, 1997.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    S. Etienne. Positioning articulated figures. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow, 1998.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    S. Guo and J. Roberge. A high-level control mechanism for human locomotion based on parametric frame space interpolation. In Computer animation and simulation’96, pages 95–107. Springer Computer Science, 1996.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Z. Huang. Motion control for human animation. PhD thesis, EPFL-DI-LIG, 1996.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    H. Ko and N. I. Badler. Animating human locomotion with inverse dynamics. IEEE Computer Graphics and application, 16:50–59, 1996.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Z. Liu and M. F. Cohen. Keyframe motion imization by relaxing speed and timing. In 1995 Eurographics Workshop on Animation, Maastrich, Holland, 1995.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    J.-C. Nebel. Keyframe animation of articulated figures using autocollision-free interpolation. In 17th Eurographics UK Conference’99, 1999.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    X. Pintado and E. Fiume. Grafield: Field-directed dynamic splines for interactive motion control. In Eurographics’88, pages 43–54, 1988.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    S. N. Steketee and N. I. Badler. Parametric keyframe interpolation incorporating kinetic adjustement and phrasing control. In Siggraph’85, volume 19, pages 255–262, San Francisco, 1985.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    N. Magnenat Thalmann and D. Thalmann. Complex models for animating synthetic actors. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 11, September 1991.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    P. Volino, N. Magnenat-Thalmann, S. Jianhua, and D. Thalmann. Collision and self-collision detection: Robust and efficient techniques for highly deformable surfaces. Eurographics Workshop on Animation and Simulation, 1995.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    D. J. Wiley and J.K. Hahn. Interpolation synthesis of articulated figure motion., IEEE Computer Graphics and application, 17(6):39–45, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    J. Kuffner Y. Koga, K. Kongo and J.-C. Latombe. Planning motions with intensions. In SIGGRAPH’94, pages 395–408, 1994.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    J. Zhao and N. I. Badler. Interactive body awareness. Computer-aided design, 26(12):861–867, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    W. Zhongke and E. C Prakash. Visible human walk: Bringing life back to the dead body. In International Workshop on Volume Graphics, pages 247–356, Swansea, UK, 1999.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean-Christophe Nebel
    • 1
  1. 1.Computer Science DepartmentUniversity of GlasgowGlasgowUK

Personalised recommendations