Gene Technology for Increased Rice Production in Developing Countries

  • Andreas Klöti
  • Ingo Potrykus
Part of the Plant Gene Research book series (GENE)


Together with two other cereals, wheat and maize, rice belongs to the three most important food crops Worldwide. Rice occupies one tenth of all the arable land. In humid and subhumid Asia, more than 90% of the world’s rice is grown and provides the major energy source for more than two billion people from Pakistan to Japan and is also an important crop in several countries of Africa, Latin America, and the Middle East. Rice provides 20% of global human per capita energy and 15% of per capita protein (IRRI, 1993).


Transgenic Rice Transgenic Rice Plant Glycine Betaine International Rice Research Institute Stem Borer 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bayer DE (1991) Weed management. In: Luh BS (ed) Rice, vol 1, production. AVI Publishing Co, New York, pp 287–309Google Scholar
  2. Beard JL, Burton JW, Theil EC (1996) Purified ferritin and soybean meal can be sources of iron for treating iron deficiency in rats. J Nutr 126: 154–160Google Scholar
  3. Bechtold N, Ellis J, Pelletier G (1993) In planta Agrobacterium-medmted gene transfer by infiltration of adult Arabidopsis thaliana plants. C R Acad Sci III 316: 1194–1199Google Scholar
  4. Bennett J, (1997) New Frontier Projects: beyond the pipeline. Forum on the Sustainable Development of Rice as a Primary Food,
  5. Burkhardt PK, Beyer P, Wünn J, Klöti A, Armstrong GA, Schledz M, von Lintig J, Potrykus I (1997) Transgenic rice (Oryza sativa) endosperm expressing daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus) phytoene synthase accumulates phytoene, a key intermediate of provitamin A biosynthesis. Plant J 11: 1071–1078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burrows PR, Barker ADP, Newell CA, Hamilton WDO (1998) Plant-derived enzyme inhibitors and lectins for resistance against plant-parasitic nematodes in transgenic crops. Pestic Sci 52: 176–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cao J, Duan X, McElroy D, Wu R (1992) Regeneration of herbicide resistant transgenic rice plants following microprojectile-mediated transformation of suspension culture cells. Plant Cell Rep 11: 586–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Causse MA, Fulton TM, Cho YG, Ahn SN, Chunwongse J, Wu K, Xiao J, Yu Z, Ronald PC, Harrington SE, Second G, McCouch SR, Tanksley SD (1994) Saturated molecular map of the rice genome based on an interspecific backcross population. Genetics 138: 1251–1274Google Scholar
  9. Chang TT, Li CC (1991) Genetics and breeding. In: Luh BS (ed) Rice, vol 1, production. AVI Publishing Co, New York, pp 23–101Google Scholar
  10. Chen X, Temnykh S, Xu Y, Cho YG, McCouch SR (1997) Development of a microsatellite framework map providing genome-wide coverage in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Theor Appl Genet 95: 553–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Christou P, Ford T, Kofron M (1991) Production of transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants from agronomically important indica and japonica varieties via electric discharge particle acceleration of exogenous DNA into immature zygotic embryos. BioTechnology 9: 957–962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Datta SK, Peterhans A, Datta K, Potrykus I (1990) Genetically engineered fertile indica-rice recovered from protoplasts. BioTechnology 8: 736–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Datta SK, Datta K, Soltanifar N, Donn G, Potrykus I (1992) Herbicide-resistant indica rice plants from IRRI breeding line IR72 after PEG-mediated transformation of protoplasts. Plant Mol Biol Int 20: 619–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Duan X, Li X, Xue Q, Abo-El-Saad M, Xu D, Wu R (1996) Transgenic rice plants harboring an introduced potato proteinase inhibitor II gene are insect resistant. Nat Biotechnol 14: 494–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. FAO (1988) Iron. In: Requirements of vitamin A, iron, folate and vitamin B12. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, pp 17–32 (FAO Food and Nutrition Series, vol 23)Google Scholar
  16. FAO (1993) Rice in human nutrition. Food and Agriculture Organization, RomeGoogle Scholar
  17. FAOSTAT (1998) Agriculture Statistics Database,
  18. Fauquet CM, Huet H, Ong CA, Sivamani E, Chen L, Viegas P, Marmey P, Wang J, Mat Daud H, de Kochko A, Beachy RN (1997) Control of the rice tungro disease by genetic engineering is now a reality! In: General Meeting of the International Programm on Rice Biotechnology, September 1997, Malacca, Malaysia, p 59Google Scholar
  19. Fujimoto H, Itoh K, Yamamoto M, Kyozuka J, Shimamoto K (1993) Insect resistant rice generated by introduction of a modified δ-endotoxin gene of Bacillus thuringiensis. BioTechnology 11: 1151–1155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fukuoka S, Hosaka K, Kamijima O (1992) Use of random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) for identification of rice accessions. Jpn J Genet 67: 243–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ghareyazie B, Alinia F, Menguito CA, Rubia LG, de Plama JM, Liwanag EA, Cohen MB, Khush GS, Bennett J (1997) Enhanced resistance to two stem borers in an aromatic rice containing a synthetic cryIA(b) gene. Mol Breed 3: 401–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Glaszmann JC (1987) Isozymes and classification of Asian rice varieties. Theor Appl Genet 74: 21–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gould F, Anderson A, Jones A, Sumerford D, Heckel DG, Lopez J, Micinski S, Leonard R, Laster M (1997) Initial frequency of alleles for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins in field populations of Heliothis virescens. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94: 3519–3523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Harushima Y, Yano M, Shomura A, Sato M, Shimano T, Kuboki Y, Yamamoto T, Lin SY, Antonio BA, Parco A, Kajiya H, Huang N, Yamamoto K, Nagamura Y, Kurata N, Khush GS, Sasaki T (1998) A high-density rice genetic linkage map with 2275 markers using a single F2 population. Genetics 148: 479–494Google Scholar
  25. Hayakawa T, Zhu Y, Itoh K, Kimura Y, Izawa T, Shimamoto K, Toriyama S (1992) Genetically engineered rice resistant to rice stripe virus, an insect transmitted virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89: 9865–9869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hibino H (1996) Biology and epidemiology of rice viruses. Annu Rev Phytopathol 34: 249–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hiei Y, Ohta S, Komari T, Kumashiro S (1994) Efficient transformation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) imediated by Agrobacterium and sequence analysis of the boundaries of the T-DNA. Plant J 6: 271–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Humphrey JH, West KP Jr, Sommer A (1992) Vitamin A deficiency and attributable mortality among under-5-year-olds. WHO Bull 70: 225–232Google Scholar
  29. Hurrell RF, Juillerat MA, Reddy MB, Lynch SR, Dassenko SA, Cook JD (1992) Soy protein, phytate, and iron absorption in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 56: 573–578Google Scholar
  30. IRRI (1983) Field problems of tropical rice. International Rice Research Institute, ManilaGoogle Scholar
  31. IRRI (1989) IRRI toward 2000 and beyond. International Rice Research Institute, ManilaGoogle Scholar
  32. IRRI (1993) IRRI rice almanac. International Rice Research Institute, ManilaGoogle Scholar
  33. IRRI (1996) Brrice: research and policy issues. IRRI Inf Ser 5: 17–18Google Scholar
  34. Ishii T, Brar DS, Multani DS, Khush GS (1994) Molecular tagging of genes for brown planthopper resistance and earliness introgressed from Oryza australiensis into cultivated rice, O. sativa. Genome 37: 217–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Iwata N, Omura T (1984) Studies on the trisomics in rice plants VI: an accomplishment of a trisomie series in japonica rice plants. Jpn J Genet 59: 199–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jain RK, Jain S, Wang B, Wu R (1996) Optimization of biolistic method for transient gene expression and production of agronomically useful transgenic Basmati rice plants. Plant Cell Rep 15: 963–968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Khush GS (1997) Origin, dispersai, cultivation and variation of rice. Plant Mol Biol 35: 25–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Khush GS, Singh RJ, Sur SC, Librojo AL (1984) Primary trisomics of rice: origin, morphology, cytology and use in linkage mapping. Genetics 107: 141–163Google Scholar
  39. Kinoshita T (1995) Report of committee on gene symbolization. Rice Genet Newsl 12: 9–153Google Scholar
  40. Koziel MG, Beland GL, Bowman C, Carozzi NB, Crenshaw R, Crossland L, Dawson J, Desai N, Hill M, Kadwell S, Launis K, Lewis K, Maddox D, McPherson K, Meghji MR, Merlin E, Rhodes R, Warren GW, Wright M, Evola SV (1993) Field performance of elite transgenic maize plants expressing an insecticidal protein derived form Bacillus thuringiensis. BioTechnology 11: 194–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Krattiger AF (1997) Insect-resistant crops: a case study of Bacillus thuringiensis and its transfer to developing countries. ISAAA Briefs 2Google Scholar
  42. Kurata N, Umehara Y, Tanoue H, Sasaki T (1997) Physical mapping of the rice genome with YAC clones. Plant Mol Biol 35: 101–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Layrisse M, Martinez-Torres C, Leets I, Taylor PG, Ramirez J (1984) Effect of histidine, cysteine, glutathione or beef on iron absorption in humans. J Nutr 114: 217–223Google Scholar
  44. Lentini Z, Calvert L, Tabares E, Lozano I, Cuervo M, Roca W, Ramirez BC (1997) The development of resistance to rice hoja blanca virus using the N gene in transgenic rice. In: General Meeting of the International Programm on Rice Biotechnology, September 1997, Malacca, Malaysia, p 61Google Scholar
  45. Li L, Qu R, de Kochko A, Fauquet C, Beachy RN (1993) An improved rice transformation System using the biolistic method. Plant Cell Rep 12: 250–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lin W, Anuratha CS, Datta K, Potrykus I, Muthukrishnan S, Datta SK (1995) Genetic engineering of rice for resistance to sheath blight. BioTechnology 13: 686–691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. McCouch SR, Kochert G, Yu YH, Wang ZY, Khush GS, Coffman WR, Tanksley SD (1988) Molecular mapping of rice chromosomes. Theor Appl Genet 76: 815–829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. McCouch SR, Nelson RJ, Tohme J, Zeigler RS (1994) Mapping of blast resistance genes in rice. In: Zeigler RS, Leong SA, Teng PS (eds) Rice blast disease. CAB International and IRRI, Wallingford, pp 167–186Google Scholar
  49. McGaughey WH, Whalon ME (1992) Managing insect resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins. Science 258: 1451–1455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mew TW (1991) Rice diseases. In: Luh BS (ed) Rice, vol 1, production. AVI Publishing Co, New York, pp 187–236Google Scholar
  51. Nagao S, Takahashi T (1963) Trial construction of twelve linkage groups in Japanese rice: genetical studies on rice plant, XXVII. J Fac Agric Hokkaido Univ 53: 72–130Google Scholar
  52. Nayak P, Basu D, Das S, Basu A, Ghosh D, Ramakrishnan NA, Ghosh M, Sen SK (1997) Transgenic elite indica rice plants expressing CryIAc δ-endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis are resistant against yellow stem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94: 2111–2116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Nguyen HT, Babu RC, Blum A (1997) Breeding for drought resistance in rice: physiology and molecular genetics considerations. Crop Sci 37: 1426–1434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Oard JH, Linscombe SD, Braverman MP, Jodari F, Blouin DC, Leech M, Kohli A, Vain P, Cooley JC, Christou P (1996) Development, field evaluation, and agronomie performance of transgenic herbicide resistant rice. Mol Breed 2: 359–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Olofsdotter M, Watson A, Piggin C (1997) Weeds: an increasing problem of modern rice production. Forum on the Sustainable Development of Rice as a Primary Food,
  56. Peng S, Khush GS, Cassman KG (1994) Evolution of the new plant ideotype for increased yield potential. In: Cassman KG (ed) Breaking the yield barrier. IRRI, Manila, pp 5–20Google Scholar
  57. Peng S, Senadhira D (1997) Genetic enhancement of rice yields. Forum on the Sustainable Development of Rice as a Primary Food,
  58. Pham JL, Glaszmann JC, Sano R, Barbier P, Ghesquiere A, Second G (1990) Isozyme markers in rice: genetic analysis and linkage relationships. Genome 33: 348–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rashid H, Yokoi S, Toriyama K, Hinata K (1996) Transgenic plant production mediated by Agrobacterium in indica rice. Plant Cell Rep 15: 727–730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Reichardt W, Dobermann A, George T (1997) Intensification of rice production Systems: opportunities and limits. Forum on the Sustainable Development of Rice as a Primary Food,
  61. Ronald PC, Albano B, Tabien R, Abenes L, Wu KS, McCouch S, Tanksley SD (1992) Genetic and physical analysis of the rice bacterial blight resistance locus, Xa-21 Mol Gen Genet 236: 113–120Google Scholar
  62. Sakamoto A, Alia P, Deshnium P, Hayashi H, Murata N (1996) Genetic engineering of salt tolerance in rice. Plant Cell Physiol 37: 71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Sankuia S, Braverman MP, Jodari F, Linscombe SD, Oard JH (1997) Evaluation of glufosinate on rice (Oryza sativa) transformed with the bar gene and red rice (Oryza sativa). Weed Technol 11: 70–75Google Scholar
  64. Sardana R, Dukiandjiev S, Giband M, Cheng X, Cowan K, Sauder R, Altosaar I (1996) Construction and rapid testing of synthetic and modified toxin gene sequences cryIA (b & c) by expression in maize endosperm culture. Plant Cell Rep 15: 677–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sebastian LS, Ikeda R, Huang N, Imbe T, Coffman WR, McCouch SR (1996) Molecular mapping of resistance to rice tungro spherical virus and green leafhopper. Phytopathology 86: 25–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Shimada H, Tada Y, Kawasaki T, Fujimura T (1993) Antisense regulation of the rice waxy gene expression using a PCR-amplified fragment of the rice genome reduces the amylose content in grain starch. Theor Appl Genet 86: 665–672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sommer A (1988) New imperatives for an old vitamin (A). J Nutr 119: 96–100Google Scholar
  68. Song WY, Wang GL, Chen LL, Kim HS, Pi LY, Holsten T, Gardner J, Wang B, Zhai WX, Zhu LH, Fauquet C, Ronald P (1995) A receptor kinase-like protein encoded by the rice disease resistance gene, Xa21. Science 270: 804–806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Stark-Lorenzen P, Nelke B, Hänssler G, Mühlbach HP, Thomzik JE (1997) Transfer of a grapevine stilbene synthase gene to rice (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Cell Rep 16: 668–673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Tabashnik BE (1994) Evolution of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis. Annu Rev Entomol 39: 47–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tada Y, Nakase M, Adachi T, Nakamura R, Shimada H, Takahashi M, Fujimura T, Matsuda T (1996) Reduction of 14–16 kDa allergenic proteins in transgenic rice plants by antisense gene. FEBS Lett 391: 341 345Google Scholar
  72. Toriyama K, Arimoto Y, Uchimiya H, Hinata K (1988) Transgenic rice plants after direct gene transfer into protoplasts. BioTechnology 6: 1072–1074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Upadhyaya NM, Li Z, Ramm K, Gaudron J, Kositratana W, Gong ZX, Datta SK, Waterhouse PM (1997) Transgenic rice with rice ragged stunt virus derived resistance genes. In: General Meeting of the International Programm on Rice Biotechnology, September 1997, Malacca, Malaysia, p 98Google Scholar
  74. Vain P, Worland B, Clarke MC, Richard G, Beavis M, Liu H, Hohli A, Leech M, Snape J, Christou P, Atkinson H (1998) Expression of an engineered cysteine proteinase inhibitor (Oryzacystatin-IAD86) for nematode resistance in transgenic rice plants. Theor Appl Genet 96: 266–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Virmani SS (1996) Hybrid rice. Adv Agron 57: 377–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Wang GL, Song WY, Ruan DL, Sideris S, Ronald PC (1996) The cloned gene, Xa21, confers resistance to multiple Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae isolates in transgenic plants. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 9: 850–855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Way MO, Bowling CC (1991) Insect pests of rice. In: Luh BS (ed) Rice, vol 1, production. AVI Publishing Co, New York, pp 237–285Google Scholar
  78. Woodburn AT (1990) The current rice agrochemicals market. In: Grayson BT, Green MB, Copping LG (eds) Pest management in rice. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 15–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Wu R, Su J, Cheng W, Zhu B, Jayaprakash TL, Ramanathan V, Garg A, Kuan XL, Kim JK (1997) Production of transgenic rice plants that are resistant to insect pests and fungal diseases or to water and salt stress. In: General Meeting of the International Programm on Rice Biotechnology, September 1997, Malacca, Malaysia, p 113Google Scholar
  80. Wiinn J, Klöti A, Burkhardt PK, Ghosh Biswas GC, Launis K, Iglesias VA, Potrykus I (1996) Transgenic indica rice breeding line IR58 expressing a synthetic cryIA(b) gene from Bacillus thuringiensis provides effective insect pest control. BioTechnology 14: 171–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Xu D, Duan X, Wang B, Hong B, Ho THD, Wu R (1996a) Expression of a late embryogenesis abundant protein gene, HVA1, from barley confers tolerance to water deficit and salt stress in transgenic rice. Plant Physiol 110: 249–257Google Scholar
  82. Xu D, Xue Q, McElroy D, Mawal Y, Hilder VA, Wu R (1996b) Constitutive expression of a cowpea trypsin inhibitor gene, CpTi, in transgenic rice plants confers resistance to two major rice insect pests. Mol Breed 2: 167–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Xu X, Li B (1994) Fertile transgenic indica rice plants obtained by electroporation of the seed embryo cells. Plant Cell Rep 13: 237–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Yamamoto K, Sasaki T (1997) Large-scale EST sequencing in rice. Plant Mol Biol 35: 135–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Yoshida S (1981) Fundamentals of rice crop sciences. International Rice Research Institute, ManilaGoogle Scholar
  86. Zhang HB, Wing RA (1997) Physical mapping of the rice genome with BACs. Plant Mol Biol 35: 115–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Zhang HM, Yang H, Recg EL, Golds TJ, Davis AS, Mulligan BJ, Cocking EC, Davey MR (1988) Transgenic rice plants produced by electroporation-mediated plasmid uptake into protoplasts. Plant Cell Rep 7: 379Google Scholar
  88. Zhang S, Chen L, Qu R, Marmey P, Beachy R, Fauquet C (1996) Regeneration of fertile transgenic indica (group 1) rice plants following microprojectile transformation of embryogenic suspension culture cells. Plant Cell Rep 15: 465–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Zhang W, Wu R (1988) Efficient regeneration of transgenic plants from rice protoplasts and correctly regulated expression of the foreign genes in the plants. Theor Appl Genet 76: 835–840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Zheng Z, Sumi K, Tanaka K, Murai N (1995) The bean seed storage protein β-phaseolin is synthesized, processed and accumulated in the vacuolar type-II protein bodies of transgenic rice endosperm. Plant Physiol 109: 777–786CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andreas Klöti
  • Ingo Potrykus

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations