Advertisement

Methodological concerns in the study of the immune system in schizophrenia

  • D. P. van Kammen
  • C. G. McAllister-Sistilli
  • M. E. Kelley
  • J. A. Gurklis
  • J. K. Yao
Part of the Key Topics in Brain Research book series (KEYTOPICS)

Summary

Background. Studies of immune measures in schizophrenia have shown differences with control subjects on a number of measures. However, immune measures are often not detectable in the serum or CSF of human samples and in many studies it is not clear how this was dealt with in the analysis. Methods. CSF IL-6 was measured by ELIS A in 6l drug free male schizophrenic (DSM-IIIR) patients and 25 well-screened healthy male control subjects. Serum IL-6 was measured in 43 of the 61 patients, and in 16 control subjects. Data were analyzed with and without non-detectable values to determine if this affected the results. Results. Using a value of “0” for non-detectable values resulted in significant differences between patients and controls in plasma interleukin-6. However, if these values were treated as missing, the difference was not significant. Conclusions. The treatment of non-detectable immune measures has demonstrable effects on the analysis and interpretation of the results.

Keywords

Schizophrenic Patient Schizoaffective Disorder Methodological Concern York State Psychiatric Institute Phrenic Patient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association (1987) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 3rd edn, rev. American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  2. Baker I, Masserano J, Wyatt RJ (1996) Serum cytokine concentration in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 20: 199–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barak V, Barak Y, Levine J, Nisman B, Roisman I (1995) Changes in Interleukin-lβ and soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels in CSF and serum of schizophrenic patients. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 6: 61–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Frommberger UH, Bauer J, Haselbauer P, Fraulin A, Riemann D, Berger M (1997) Interleukin-6-(IL-6) plasma levels in depression and schizophrenia: comparison between the acute state and after remission. Eur Arch Psychiat Clin Neurosci 247: 228–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ganguli R, Yang Z, Shurin G, Chengappa RKN, Brar JS, Gubbi AV, Rabin BS (1994) Serum interleukin-6 concentration in schizophrenia: elevation associated with duration of illness. Psychiatry Res 51: 1–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Katila H, Hurme M, Wahlbeck K, Appelberg B, Rimon R (1994a) Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid interleukin-lβ and interleukin-6 in hospitalized schizophrenic patients. Neuropsychobiol 30: 20–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Katila H, Appelberg B, Hurme M, Rimon R (1994b) Plasma levels of interleukin-lβ and interleukin-6 in schizophrenia, other psychoses, and affective disorders. Schizophr Res 12: 29–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ledur A, Fitting C, David B, Hamberger C, Cavaillon J-M (1995) Variable estimates of cytokine levels produced by commercial ELISA kits: results using international cytokine standards. J Immunol Meth 186: 171–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Maes M, Meltzer HY, Buckley P, Bosmans E (1995a) Plasma-soluble interleukin-2 and transferrin receptor in schizophrenia and major depression. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 244: 325–329PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Maes M, Bosmans E, Calabrese J, Smith R, Meltzer H (1995b) Interleukin-2 and interleukin-6 in schizophrenia and mania: effects of neuroleptics and mood stablizers. J Psychiatr Res 29: 141–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Maes M, Bosmans E, Kenis G, De Jong R, Smith RS, Meltzer HY (1997) In vivo immunomodulatory effects of clozapine in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 26: 221–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. May LT, Viguet H, Kenney JS, Ida N, Allison AC, Sehgal PB (1992) High levels of “complexed” interleukin-6 in human blood. J Biol Chem 267: 19698–19704PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. McAllister CG, van Kammen DP, Rehn TJ, Miller AL, Gurklis J, Kelley ME, Yao J, Peters JL (1995) Increases in CSF levels of interleukin-2 in schizophrenia: effects of recurrence of psychosis and medication status. Am J Psychiatry 159: 1291–1297Google Scholar
  14. Naudin J, Mege JL, Azorin JM, Dassa D (1996) Elevated circulating levels of IL-6 in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 20: 269–273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Naudin J, Kapo C, Giusano B, Mege JL, Azorin JM (1997) A differential role for interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in schizophrenia? Schizophr Res 26: 227–233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ndubuisi MI, Patel K, Rayanade RJ, Mittelman A, May LT, Seghal PB (1998) Distinct classes of chaperoned IL-6 in human blood: differential immuno-logical and biological availability. J Immunol 160: 494–501PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Pollmacher T, Hinze-Selch D, Mullington J (1996) Effects of clozapine on plasma cytokine and soluble cytokine receptor levels. J Clin Psychopharmacol 16: 403–409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Shintani F, Shigenobu K, Maruo N, Nakaki T, Nibuya M, Suzuki E, Kinoshita N, Yagi G (1991) Serum interleukin-6 in schizophrenic patients. Life Sci 49: 661–664PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Spitzer RL, Endicott J (1979) The schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia-lifetime version, 3rd ed. New York State Psychiatric Institute, Biometrics Research, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. Spitzer RL, Williams JBW, Gibbon M, First MB (1989) Structured clinical interview for DSM-III-R (SCID). New York State Psychiatric Institute, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. van Kammen DP, Sternberg DE (1980) CSF studies in schizophrenia. In: Wood JH (ed) Neurobiology of cerbrospinal fluid, vol I. Plenum Press, New York, pp 719–742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. van Kammen DP, Peters JL, van Kammen WB, Nugent A, Goetz KL, Yao J, Linnoila M (1989) CSF norepinephrine in schizophrenia is elevated prior to relapse after haloperidol withdrawal. Biol Psychiatry 26: 176–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. van Kammen DP, Ågren H, Yao JK, O’Connor DT, Gurklis JA, Peters JL (1994) Noradrenergic activity and prediction of psychotic relapse following haloperidol withdrawal in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 151: 379–384PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. P. van Kammen
    • 1
    • 2
  • C. G. McAllister-Sistilli
  • M. E. Kelley
    • 1
  • J. A. Gurklis
    • 1
    • 2
  • J. K. Yao
    • 2
  1. 1.Global Clinical Research & DevelopmentThe R. W. Johnson Pharmaceutical Research Institute (PRI)RaritanUSA
  2. 2.Departments of PsychiatryUniversity of Pittsburgh School of MedicinePittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations