Levels of soluble adhesion molecules in schizophrenia: relation to psychopathology

  • M. J. Schwarz
  • M. Riedel
  • M. Ackenheil
  • N. Müller
Part of the Key Topics in Brain Research book series (KEYTOPICS)


The intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and the vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) are involved in the penetration of lymphocytes through the blood-brain-barrier (BBB). Since a BBB disturbance has been observed in some schizophrenic patients, but also a lack of the CNS/peripheral immune system has been hypothesized to be involved in schizophrenia, we measured the serum levels of soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble VCAM-1 (sVCAM-1) in unmedicated schizophrenic patients and the relationship to psychopathology. The results show lower levels of sICAM-1 in schizophrenics, but no difference between schizophrenics and controls regarding the sVCAM-1 levels. Patients with more pronounced negative symptoms showed higher levels of sICAM-1 and lower levels of sVCAM-1. These results point out that the ICAM-1 related adhesion system is involved in schizophrenia, while the VCAM-1 system plays a minor role. The regulatory process of antigen recognition and cellular immune activation and/or the regulation of the BBB is impaired at least in a subgroup of schizophrenic patients.


Schizophrenic Patient Soluble Adhesion Molecule Cerebral Endothelial Cell Peripheral Immune System Bioi Psychiatry 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. J. Schwarz
    • 1
  • M. Riedel
    • 1
  • M. Ackenheil
    • 1
  • N. Müller
    • 1
  1. 1.Psychiatric HospitalLudwig-Maximilian UniversityMunichFederal Republic of Germany

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