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Exkurs: Die Behandlung von Dystonien

  • M. Naumann

Zusammenfassung

Der Begriff Dystonie wurde erstmals von Oppenheim im Jahre 1911 eingeführt, ausführliche klinische Beschreibungen dieses Krankheitsbildes finden sich jedoch schon im 19. Jahrhundert und früher (Gowers 1888, Thompson 1896). Definitionsgemäß handelt es sich bei Dystonien um anhaltende unwillkürliche Muskelkontraktionen, die den Körper oder bestimmte Körperteile in abnorme teils bizarre Positionen zwingen (Fahn 1988). Diese Bewegungen können tonischen oder phasischen Charakter haben. Dystone Bewegungsstörungen können nach Ätiologie, Erkrankungsalter und klinischem Befund klassifiziert werden. Ätiologisch kann man idiopathische Dystonien von symptomatischen Formen abgrenzen. Bei letzteren ist in der Regel die Ursache, die zur dystonen Bewegungsstörung führte, faßbar. Den weitaus häufigeren idiopathischen Dystonien liegt zumindest teilweise eine genetische Prädisposition zugrunde.

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  • M. Naumann

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