Increased levels of 14-3-3 gamma and epsilon proteins in brain of patients with Alzheimer’s disease and Down Syndrome

  • M. Fountoulakis
  • N. Cairns
  • G. Lubec
Conference paper


The 14-3-3 family consists of homo- and heterodimeric proteins representing a novel type of “adaptor proteins” modulating the interaction between components of signal transduction pathways. 14-3-3 isoforms interact with phosphoserine motifs on many proteins as kinases, phosphatases, apoptosis related proteins etc. Performing protein mapping by 2D electrophoresis in human brain we identified two isoforms, 14-3-3 gamma and epsilon and decided to determine these two multifunctional proteins in several brain regions of aged patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Down Syndrome (DS) with AD neuropathology in comparison with control brains.

14-3-3 gamma and 14-3-3 epsilon proteins were increased in several brain regions of AD and DS patients.

These changes may contribute to the complex pathomechanisms of AD and AD in DS, evolving inevitably from the fourth decade of life. Deranged 14-3-3 isoforms gamma and epsilon may reflect impaired signaling and / or apoptosis in the brain as several kinases (protein kinase C, Ras, mitogen activated kinase MEK) involved in signaling and apoptotic factors as bcl-2 related proteins BAD and BAG-1 are binding to 14-3-3 motifs.


Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Down Syndrome Protein Spot Down Syndrome Patient Colloidal Coomassie Blue 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Fountoulakis
    • 1
  • N. Cairns
    • 2
  • G. Lubec
    • 3
  1. 1.F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.BaselSwitzerland
  2. 2.Brain Bank, Institute of PsychiatryUniversity of LondonUK
  3. 3.Department of PediatricsUniversity of ViennaWienAustria

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