Karl Leonhard investigated systematically large numbers of patients over a long period of time, starting with the by now historic investigations at the district psychiatric hospital Gabersee in Upper Bavaria; he continued in Frankfurt at the Kleist University Clinic, and then in Berlin as Director of the Department of Psychiatry of the Charité. He also carried out extensive investigations in the district psychiatric hospitals of the former German Democratic Republic. In later years he paid special attention to the etiology of chronic schizophrenic disorders as well as the psychopathology and etiology of schizophrenias of childhood and early childhood. Leonhard never deliberately mixed together the findings of the various studies from the different groups of patients; instead he continued to try to replicate and extend his findings and his insights. Because of the political and economic situation in the former German Democratic Republic he was forced — in order to include more recent findings — to assume that the reader of the last edition of his book had a knowledge of his earlier results. For the sake of scientific discussion the latter are now being made available. In order to enable rapid orientation a synopsis of the investigative series with statistical findings follows: Regarding “Statistical Findings from Investigations before 1968”: The patients were seen in the university hospitals of Frankfurt and Berlin in the years 1938 to 1968. In the evaluation of one group from Frankfurt were included 117 manic-depressives, 187 patients with cycloid psychoses, 222 with pure depression or euphoria, as well as 337 with unsystematic or systematic schizophrenia (as well as 99 patients from the Research Institute for Psychiatry in Munich). The second group from Berlin included 176 patients with manic-depressive psychosis, 219 with monopolar phasic psychoses, 470 with cycloid psychoses, as well as 499 with schizophrenic psychoses. The findings in this section regarding age of onset, sex incidence, and course were derived from examinations of more than 2000 patients


Early Childhood Scientific Discussion Statistical Finding Chronic Schizophrenic Disorder German Democratic Republic 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karl Leonhard
    • 1
  • Helmut Beckmann
    • 2
  1. 1.BerlinGermany
  2. 2.Psychiatrische Klinik und PoliklinikUniversitäts-NervenklinikWürzburgDeutschland

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