Psychotic syndromes of cycloid psychoses have been described by both WIRNICKE (1900) and KLEIST (1928). My concept of these disorders is somewhat different. For WERNICKE anxiety-happiness psychosis appears in two separate forms: anxiety psychosis on the one hand, and “expansive autopsychosis with autochthonous ideas ”on the other. WERNICKE developed the concept of “motility psychosis”, but he did not separate periodic catatonia from it. Later Kleist and Fūnfgeld (1936) described the differential diagnosis from schizophrenic disorders. Wernicke denoted the two poles of the disorder as “cyclic motility psychosis”. Confusion psychosis appeared to him as either “periodic maniacal autopsychosis ”or “agitated confusion”, inhibited confusion psychosis as “intrapsychic akinesia”. In the latter KLEIST spoke of “confused stupor”. The concept “confusion ”comes from MEYNERT. KLEIST included anxiety psychosis and happiness psychosis which he considered as “inspiration psychosis ”in his “paranoid marginal psychoses”, while he grouped motility psychosis and confusion psychosis with “cycloid marginal psychoses”


Facial Expression Thought Inhibition Elevated Mood Reactive Movement Expressive Movement 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karl Leonhard
    • 1
  • Helmut Beckmann
    • 2
  1. 1.BerlinGermany
  2. 2.Psychiatrische Klinik und PoliklinikUniversitäts-NervenklinikWürzburgDeutschland

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