A Grasp-based Motion Planning Algorithm for Character Animation

  • Maciej Kalisiak
  • Michiel van de Panne
Part of the Eurographics book series (EUROGRAPH)


The design of autonomous characters capable of planning their own motions continues to be a challenge for computer animation. We present a novel kinematic motion planning algorithm for character animation which addresses some of the outstanding problems. The problem domain for our algorithm is as follows: given a constrained environment with designated handholds and footholds, plan a motion through the environment towards a desired goal. Our algorithm is based on a stochastic search procedure which is guided by a combination of geometric constraints, posture heuristics, and distance-to-goal measures. The method provides a single framework for the use of multiple modes of locomotion in planning motions through constrained, unstructured environments. We illustrate our results with demonstrations of a human character using walking, swinging, climbing, and crawling in order to navigate through complex environments.


Motion Planning Finite State Machine Motion Planner Unstructured Environment Locomotion Mode 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    Kenji Amaya, Armin Bruderlin, and Tom Calvert. Emotion from motion. In Graphics Interface’ 96, pages 222-229, May 1996.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Norman I. Badler, Cary B. Phillips, and Bonnie L. Webber. Simulating Humans: Computer Graphics Animation and Control. Oxford University Press, 1993.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Jérôme Barraquand and Jean-Claude Latombe. Robot motion planning: A distributed representation approach. The Internationaljournal of Robotics Research, 10(6): 628–649, December 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    R. Boulic, N. M. Thalmann, and D. Thalmann. A global human walking model with realtime kinematic personification. The Visual Computer, 6: 344–358, 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    A. Bruderlin and T. W. Calvert. Goal-directed animation of human walking. Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH, 23(4): 233–242, 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Armin Bruderlin and Tom Calvert. Knowledge-driven, interactive animation of human running. In Graphics Interface’ 96, pages 213-221, May 1996.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Armin Bruderlin and Lance Williams. Motion signal processing. In Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, pages 97-104. SIGGRAPH, 1995.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Motion Factory. Motivate 3D Game Development System, Scholar
  9. [9]
    M. Girard. Interactive design of computer-animated legged animal motion. IEEE Comptuer Graphics and Applications, 7(6): 39–51, June 1987.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Michael Gleicher. Retargeting motion to new characters. In Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, pages 33-42. SIGGRAPH, 1998.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    J. K. Hodgins. Simulation of human running. Proceedings, IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pages 1320-1325, 1994.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Maciej Kalisiak. A grasp-based motion planning algorithm for intelligent character animation. Master’s thesis, University of Toronto, 1999. Available online at http:/ / Scholar
  13. [13]
    Hyeongseok Ko and Norman I. Badler. Straight line walking animation based on kinematic generalization that preserves the original characteristics. In Proceedings of Graphics Interface’ 92, pages 273-281, 1992.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Yoshihito Koga, Koichi Kondo, James Kuffner, and Jean-Claude Latombe. Planning motions with intentions. In Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, pages 395-108. SIGGRAPH, 1994.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Yotto Koga, Geoff Annesley, Craig Becker, Mike Svihura, and David Zhu. On intelligent digital actors. http:/ / /whppr_imagina.htm.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    James Kuffner, Jr. Autonomous Agents for Real-Time Animation. PhD thesis, Stanford University, 1999.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Joseph Laszlo, Michiel van de Panne, and Eugene Fiume. Limit cycle control and its application to the animation of balancing and walking. In Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, pages 155-162. SIGGRAPH, 1996.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    Jean-Claude Latombe, Cary B. Phillips, and Bonnie L. Webber. Robot Motion Planning. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Philip Lee, Susanna Wei, Jianmin Zhao, and Norman I. Badler. Strength guided motion. In Computer Graphics, volume 24, pages 253–262. SIGGRAPH, 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    Cary B. Phillips and Norman I. Badler. Interactive behaviors for bipedal articulated figures. In Computer Graphics, volume 25, pages 359–362. SIGGRAPH, July 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    Zoran Popovic and Andrew Witkin. Physically based motion transformation. Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 99, pages 11-20, August 1999.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    Marc H. Raibert and Jessica K. Hodgins. Animation of dynamic legged locomotion. In Computer Graphics, volume 25, pages 349–358. SIGGRAPH, July 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    Charles F. Rose, Brian Guenter, Bobby Bodenheimer, and Michael F. Cohen. Efficient generation of motion transitions using spacetime constraints. Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 96, pages 147-154, August 1996. ISBN 0-201-94800-1. Held in New Orleans, Louisiana.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Nick Torkos and Michiel van de Panne. Footprint-based quadruped motion synthesis. In Proceedings of Graphics Interface’ 98, pages 151-160, 1998.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    Transom Technologies. Ann Arbor, Michigan, http:/ / Scholar
  26. [26]
    Munetoshi Unuma, Ken Anjyo, and Ryozo Takeuchi. Fourier principles for emotion-based human figure animation. In Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, pages 91-95. SIGGRAPH, 1995.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    Michiel van de Panne. From footprints to animation. In COMPUTER GRAPHICS forum, volume 16, pages 211–223, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    A. Witkin and M. Kass. Spacetime constraints. In Computer Graphics, volume 22, pages 159–168. SIGGRAPH, August 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    Andrew Witkin and Zoran Popović. Motion warping. In Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, pages 105-108. SIGGRAPH, 1995.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maciej Kalisiak
    • 1
  • Michiel van de Panne
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of TorontoUSA

Personalised recommendations