Tapestry: A Dynamic Mesh-based Display Representation for Interactive Rendering

  • Maryann Simmons
  • Carlo H. Séquin
Part of the Eurographics book series (EUROGRAPH)


This paper presents a new method for interactive viewing of dynamically sampled environments. We introduce a 3D mesh-based reconstruction called a tapestry that serves both as the display representation and as a cache that supports the re-use of samples across views. As the user navigates through the environment, the mesh continuously evolves to provide an appropriate image reconstruction for the current view. In addition, the reconstruction process provides feedback to the renderer to guide adaptive sampling.

We present our implementation of an interactive application utilizing the RADIANCE lighting and simulation system to generate the samples. Our approach offers several advantages. The 3D mesh supports an extended cache life for samples and generates a complete image, even with a sparse sampling density. Through efficient use of ubiquitous OpenGL hardware, we provide smooth progressive refinement and resolution-independent viewing. With this framework, we achieve interactive performance on a two-processor machine running a single ray tracing process, even at a resolution of 3000 × 1000 pixels.


Delaunay Triangulation Adaptive Sampling Height Field Global Illumination Spherical Triangle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    G. Bishop, H. Fuchs, L. McMillan, and E. J. S. Zagier. Frameless rendering: double buffering considered harmful. In Computer Graphics (Proceedings ACM SIGGRAPH), pages 175–176, July 1994.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    L. Darsa and B. Costa. Multi-resolution representation and reconstruction of adaptively sampled images. In SIBGRAPI, pages 321–328, 1996.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    L. Darsa, B. Costa, and A. Varshney. Navigating static environments using image-space simplification and morphing. In Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics, pages 25–34, 1997.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Paul Haeberli. Paint by numbers: Abstract image representations. In Computer Graphics (Proceedings ACM SIGGRAPH), pages 207–214, 1990.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Henrik Wann Jensen. Global illumination using photon maps. In Eurographics Rendering Workshop 1996, pages 21–30, New York City, NY, June 1996. Eurographics, Springer Wien.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. T. Kajiya. The rendering equation. In Computer Graphics (Proceedings ACM SIGGRAPH), pages 143–150, August 1986.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Greg Ward Larson. The holodeck: A parallel ray-caching rendering system. In Proceedings Eurographics Workshop on Parallel Graphics and Visualization, September 1998.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dani Lischinski. Incremental Delaunay Triangulation, pages 47–49. A P Professional, 1994.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    W. R. Mark, L. McMillan, and G. Bishop. Post-rendering 3d warping. In Proceedings Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics, pages 7–16, April 1997.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    D. P. Mitchell. Generating antialiased images at low sampling densities. In Computer Graphics (Proceedings ACM SIGGRAPH), pages 65–72, July 1987.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    James Painter and Kenneth Sloan. Antialiased ray tracing by adaptive progressive refinement. In Computer Graphics (Proceedings ACM SIGGRAPH), pages 281–288, July 1989.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    S. Parker, W. Martin, P. J. Sloan, P. Shirley, B. Smits, and C. Hansen. Interactive ray tracing (color plate S. 229). In Proceedings of the Conference on the 1999 Symposium on interactive 3D Graphics, pages 119–126, New York, April 26–28 1999. ACM Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Frederic Pighin, Dani Lischinski, and David Salesin. Progressive previewing of ray-traced images using image-plane discontinuity meshing. In Proceedings 8th Eurographics Workshop on Rendering, pages 115–124, June 1997.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    F. P. Preparata and M.I. Shamos. Proximity: Fundamental Algorithms, pages 204–223. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY, 1985.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery. Quasi-(that is sub-)random sequences, pages 309–314. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, 1992.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    K. Pulli, M. Cohen, T. Duchamp, H. Hoppe, L. Shapiro, and W. Stuetzle. View-based rendering: Visualizing real objects from scanned range and color data. In Rendering Techniques (Proceedings of the Eurographics Workshop), pages 23–34, June 1997.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    François Sillion, G. Drettakis, and B. Bodelet. Efficient impostor manipulation for real-time visualization of urban scenery. In Computer Graphics Forum (Proceedings Eurographics), pages 207–218, 1997.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    M. Simmons. A dynamic mesh display representation for the holodeck ray cache system. Technical Report CSD-00–1090, University of California, Berkeley, January 13, 2000.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Seth Teller, Kavita Bala, and Julie Dorsey. Conservative radiance interpolants for ray tracing. In Eurographics Rendering Workshop1996, pages 257–268, June 1996.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    P. J. L. van Beek and A. M. Tekalp. Object-based video coding using forward tracking 2-d mesh layers. In Proceedings SPIE Visual Communications and Image Processing, pages 699–710, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Walter, G. Drettakis, and S. Parker. Interactive rendering using the render cache. In Rendering Techniques 99: Proceedings 10th Eurographics Workshop on Rendering, pages 19–30, June 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    G. Ward. The RADIANCE lighting simulation and rendering system. In Computer Graphics (Proceedings ACM SIGGRAPH), pages 459–472, 1994.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Greg Ward and Maryann Simmons. The holodeck interactive ray cache, to appear: ACM Transactions on Graphics, 2000.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Michael Wimmer, Markus Giegl, and Dieter Schmalstieg. Fast walkthroughs with image caches and ray casting. In Virtual Environments ’99. Proceedings of the Eurographics Workshop in Vienna, Austria, pages 73–84, 1999.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maryann Simmons
    • 1
  • Carlo H. Séquin
    • 1
  1. 1.U.C. BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations