Antigens I and i

  • Helmut Schenkel-Brunner


The antigens I and i(1) [144] are two genetically independent characters which are closely interrelated with each other chemically. Erythrocytes of adults normally show I activity; only in very few cases (in about 0.02% of Europids) is this antigen absent and the cells show i activity. The erythrocytes of newborns are always i specific.


Blood Group Erythrocyte Membrane Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Infectious Mononucleosis Carbohydrate Chain 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Adinolfi, M. (1965): Anti-i antibodies in normal human newborn infants. Immunology 9, 43–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Almeida, R., Amado, M., David, L., Levery, S. B., Holmes, E. H., Merkx, G., VanKessel, A. G., Rygaard, E., Hassan, H., Bennett, E. & Clausen, H. (1997): A family of human β4-galactosyltransferases. Cloning and expression of two novel UDP-galactose: β-N-acetylglucosamine β1,4-galactosyltransferases, β4Gal-T2 and β4Gal-T3. J. Biol. Chem. 272, 31979–31991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Augé, C., David, S. & Veyrières, A. (1977): Synthesis of a branched pentasaccharide: one of the core oligosaccharides of human blood group substances. Chem. Commun. 132, 449–450.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Augé, C., Mathieu, C. & Mérienne, C. (1986): The use of an immobilized cyclic multi-enzyme system to synthesize branched penta-and hexasaccharides associated with blood-group I epitopes. Carbohydr. Res. 151, 147–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Basu, M. & Basu, S. (1984): Biosynthesis in vitro of li core glycosphingolipids from neolactotetraosylceramide by β1-3-and β1-6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases from mouse T-lymphoma. J. Biol. Chem. 259, 12557–12562.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Basu, M. K., Lee, M. M., Maniatis, A. & Bertles, J. F. (1984): Characteristics of I and i antigen receptors on the membrane of erythrocytes in sickle cell anemia. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 103, 712–719.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bell, C. A., Zwicker, H. & Rosenbaum, D. L (1973): Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (P.C.H.) following mycoplasma infection: anti-l specificity of the biphasic hemolysin. Transfusion 13, 138–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bierhuizen, M. F. A., Mattei, M. G. & Fukuda, M. (1993): Expression of the developmental I antigen by a cloned human cDNA encoding a member of a β-1.β-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase gene family. Genes Develop. 7, 468–478.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Blanken, W. M., Hooghwinkel, G. J. M. & Van Den Eijnden, D. H. (1982): Biosynthesis of blood-group I and i substances. Specificity of bovine colostrum β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminide β1→4 galactosyltransferase. Eur. J. Biochem. 127, 547–552.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Booth, P. B. (1970): Anti-ITP1,: an antibody showing a further association between the I and P blood group systems. Vox Sang. 19, 85–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Booth, P. B., Jenkins, W. J. & Marsh, W. L (1966): Anti-IT: a new antibody of the I blood-group system occurring in certain Melanesian sera. Br. J. Haematol. 12, 341–344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Brockhausen, I., Matta, K. L., Orr, J., Schachter, H., Koenderman, A. H. L & Van Den Eijnden, D. H. (1986): Mucin synthesis. Conversion of R1,-β1-3Gal-R2 to R1β1-3(GlcNAcβ1-6)-Gal-R2 and of R1,-β1-3GalNAc-R2 to R1-β1-3(GlcNAcβ1-6)GalNAc-R2byaβ6-N-acetylglucosaminyltrans-ferase in pig gastric mucosa. Eur. J. Biochem. 157, 463–474.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Capra, J. D., Dowling, P., Cook, S. & Kunkel, H. G. (1969): An incomplete cold-reactive γg antibody with i specificity in infectious mononucleosis. Vox Sang. 16, 10–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chessin, L. N. & Mcginniss, M. (1968): Further evidence for the sérologic association of the O(H) and I blood groups. Vox Sang. 14, 194–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chiewsilp, P., Colledge, K. E. & Marsh, W. L. (1971): Water soluble I blood group substance in the secretions of rhesus monkeys. Vox Sang. 21, 30–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Childs, R. A. & Feizi, T. (1981): Differences in carbohydrate moieties of high molecular weight glycoproteins of human lymphocytes of T and B origins revealed by monoclonal autoantibodies with anti-l and anti-i specicities. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 102, 1158–1164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Childs, R. A., Feizi, T., Fukuda, M. & Hakomori, S. I. (1978): Blood-group-l activity associated with band 3, the major intrinsic membrane protein of human erythrocytes. Biochem. J. 173, 333–336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Childs, R. A., Kapadia, A. & Feizi, T. (1980): Expression of blood group I and i active carbohydrate sequences on cultured human and animal cell lines assessed by radioimmunoassays with monoclonal cold agglutinins. Eur. J. Immunol. 10, 379–384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Claflin, A. J. (1963): Three members of one family with the phenotype i; one with an anti-l antibody. Transfusion 3, 216–219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cooper, A. G. (1970): Soluble blood group I substance in human amniotic fluid. Nature 227, 508–509.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cooper, A. G. & Brown, M. C. (1973): Serum i antigen: a new human blood-group glycoprotein. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 55, 297–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Costea, N., Yakulis, V. J. & Heller, P. (1965): Experimental production of cold agglutinin in rabbits. Blood 26, 323–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Curtain, C. C. (1969): Anti-l agglutinins in non-human sera. Vox Sang. 16, 161–171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Curtain, C. C. (1970): The occurrence of a substance with IA blood group activity in the body fluid of Ascaris. Int. Arch. Allergy 38, 449–456.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dabrowski, J., Dabrowski, U., Bermel, W., Kordowicz, M. & Hanfland, P. (1988): Structure elucidation of the blood group B like and blood group I active octaantennary ceramide tetracontasaccharide from rabbit erythrocyte membranes by two-dimensional 1H NMR spectroscopy at 600 MHz. Biochemistry 27, 5149–5155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dabrowski, U., Hanfland, P., Egge, H., Kuhn, S. & Dabrowski, J. (1984): Immunochemistry of l/i-active oligo-and polyglycosylceramides from rabbit erythrocyte membranes. Determination of branching patterns of a ceramide pentadecasaccharide by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance. J. Biol. Chem. 259, 7648–7651.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    David, S. & Veyrières, A. (1975): The synthesis of 3,6-di-O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-D-gluco-pyranosyl)-D-galactose. A branched trisaccharide reported as a hydrolysis product of blood group substances. Carbohydr. Res. 40, 23–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    De Boissezon, J. F., Marty, Y., Ducos, J. & Abbal, M. (1970): Présence constante d’une substance inhibitrice de l’anticorps anti-i dans le sérum humain normal. C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris 271,1448–1451.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Doinel, C., Ropars, C. & Salmon, C. (1974): Anti-I(A+B): an autoantibody detecting an antigenic determinant of I and a common part to A and B. Vox Sang. 27, 515–519.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Drachmann, O. (1968): An autoaggressive anti-BI(O) antibody. Vox Sang. 14, 185–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dube, V. E., Kallio, P. & Tanaka, M. (1986): Specificity of the monoclonal anti-l antibody (Hy). Mol. Immunol. 23, 217–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dunstan, R. A., Simpson, M. B. & Rosse, W. F. (1984): The presence of the li blood group system on human platelets. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 82, 74–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dzierzkowa-Borodej, W. (1971): HI and Is fractions in the expression of H activity in human erythrocytes. Ann. Immunol. 3, 85–107.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dzierzkowa-Borodej, W., Lisowska, E. & Seyfriedowa, H. (1970): The activity of glycoproteins from erythrocytes and protein fractions of human colostrum towards anti-l antibodies. Life Sci. 9, 111–120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dzierzkowa-Borodej, W., Seyfried, H. & Lisowska, E. (1975): Serological classification of anti-l sera. Vox Sang. 28, 110–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Dzierzkowa-Borodej, W., Seyfried, H., Nichols, M., Reid, M. & Marsh, W. L. (1970): The recognition of water-soluble I blood group substance. Vox Sang. 18, 222–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ebert, W., Roelcke, D. & Weicker, H. (1975): The I antigen of human red cell membrane. Eur. J. Biochem. 53, 505–515.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Egge, H., Kordowicz, M., Peter-Katalinic, J. & Hanfland, P. (1985): Immunochemistry of l/i-active oligo-and polyglycosylceramides from rabbit erythrocyte membranes. Characterization of linear, di-, and triantennary neolactoglycosphingolipids. J. Biol. Chem. 260, 4927–4935.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Feizi, T. (1967): Monotypic cold agglutinins in infection by Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Nature 215, 540–542.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Feizi, T. (1980): Structural and biological aspects of blood group I and i antigens on glycolipids and glycoproteins. Blood Transfus. Immunohaematol. 23, 563–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Feizi, T., Childs, R. A., Hakomori, S. I. & Powell, M. E. (1978): Blood-group-li-active gangliosides of human erythrocyte membranes. Biochem. J. 173, 245–254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Feizi, T, Childs, R. A., Watanabe, K. & Hakomori, S. I. (1979): Three types of blood group I specificity among monoclonal anti-l autoantibodies revealed by analogues of a branched erythrocyte glycolipid. J. Exp. Med. 149, 975–980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Feizi, T, Gooi, H. C., Loomes, L. M., Suzuki, Y, Suzuki, T. & Matsumoto, M. (1984): Cryptic I antigen activity and Mycoplasma pneumoniae-receptor activity associated with sialoglycoprotein GP-2 of bovine erythrocyte membranes. Biosci. Rep. 4, 743–749.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Feizi, T. & Hardisty, R. M. (1966): I antigen in leukaemic patients. Nature 210, 1066–1067.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Feizi, T, Hounsell, E. F., Alais, J., Veyrières, A. & David, S. (1992): Further definition of the size of the blood group-i antigenic determinant using a chemically synthesised octasaccharide of poly-N-acetyllactosamine type. Carbohydr. Res. 228, 289–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Feizi, T. & Kabat, E. A. (1972): Immunochemical studies on blood groups. LIV. Classification of anti-l and anti-i sera into groups based on reactivity patterns with various antigens related to the blood group A, B, H, Lea, Leb, and precursor substances. J. Exp. Med. 135, 1247–1258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Feizi, T. & Kabat, E. A. (1974): Immunochemical studies on blood groups. LVI. Purification of glycoproteins with different I determinants from hydatid cyst fluid and from human milk on insoluble anti-l immunoadsorbents. J. Immunol. 112, 145–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Feizi, T, Kabat, E. A., Vicari, G., Anderson, B. & Marsh, W. L. (1971): Immunochemical studies on blood groups. LXIX. The I antigen complex. Specificity differences among anti-l sera revealed by quantitative precipitin studies. Partial structure of the I determinant specific for one anti-l serum. J. Immunol. 106, 1578–1592.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Feizi, T., Kabat, E. A., Vicari, G., Anderson, B. & Marsh, W. L. (1971): Immunochemical studies on blood groups. XLVII. The I antigen complex — precursors in the A, B, H, Lea, and Leb blood group system — hemagglutination-inhibition studies. J. Exp. Med. 133, 39–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Feizi, T. & Marsh, W. L. (1970): Demonstration of I-anti-l interaction in a precipitin system. Vox Sang. 18, 379–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Franks, D. (1966): Antigenic markers on cultured human cells I. li, Tja, Donath-Landsteiner and “non-specific” autoantigens. Vox Sang. 11, 674–685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Fukuda, M., Dell, A. & Fukuda, M. N. (1984): Structure of fetal lactosaminoglycan. The carbohydrate moiety of band 3 isolated from human umbilical cord erythrocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 259, 4782–4791.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Fukuda, M., Dell, A., Oates, J. E. & Fukuda, M. N. (1984): Structure of branched lactosaminoglycan, the carbohydrate moiety of band 3 isolated from adult human erythrocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 259, 8260–8273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Fukuda, M., Fukuda, M. N. & Hakomori, S. I. (1979): Developmental change and genetic defect in the carbohydrate structure of band 3 glycoprotein of human erythrocyte membrane. J. Biol. Chem. 254, 3700–3703.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Fukuda, M. N., Dell, A., Oates, J. E. & Fukuda, M. (1985): Embryonal lactosaminoglycan. The structure of branched lactosaminoglycans with novel disialosyl (sialyl α2→9 sialyl) terminals isolated from PA1 human embryonal carcinoma cells. J. Biol. Chem. 260, 6623–6631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Gardas, A. (1976): Studies on the l-blood-group-active sites on macro-glycolipids from human erythrocytes. Eur. J. Biochem. 68, 185–191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Gardas, A. & Koscielak, J. (1974): Megaloglycolipids — unusually complex glycosphingolipids of human erythrocyte membrane with A, B, H, and I blood group specificity. FEBS Lett. 42, 101–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Giblett, E. Ft. & Crookston, M. C. (1964): Agglutinability of red cells by anti-i in patients with thlassaemia major and other haematological disorders. Nature 201, 1138–1139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Goldberg, L. S. & Barnett, E. V. (1967): Mixed yG-yM cold agglutinin. J. Immunol. 99, 803–809.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Gooi, H. C., Uemura, K., Edwards, P. A. W., Foster, C. S., Pickering, N. & Feizi, T. (1983): Two mouse hybridoma antibodies against human milk-fat globules recognize the l(Ma) antigenic determinant α-D-Galp-(1→4)-β-D-GlcpNAc-(1→6). Carbohydr. Res. 120, 293–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Gooi, H. C., Veyrières, A., Alais, J., Scudder, P., Hounsell, E. F. & Feizi, T. (1984): Further studies of the specificities of monoclonal anti-i and anti-l antibodies using chemically synthesized, linear oligosaccharides of the poly-N-acetyllactosamine series. Mol. Immunol. 21, 1099–1104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Gu, J., Nishikawa, A., Fujii, S., Gasa, S. & Taniguchi, N. (1992): Biosynthesis of blood group I and i antigens in rat tissues. Identification of a novel β-1-6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 267, 2994–2999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hanfland, P., Egge, H., Dabrowski, U., Kuhn, S., Roelcke, D. & Dabrowski, J. (1981): Isolation and characterization of an l-active ceramide decasaccharide from rabbit erythrocyte membranes. Biochemistry 20, 5310–5319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hanfland, P., Kordowicz, M., Peter-Katalinic, J., Egge, H., Dabrowski, J. & Dabrowski, U. (1988): Structure elucidation of blood group B-like and l-active ceramide eicosa-and pentacosasaccharides from rabbit erythrocyte membranes by combined gas chromatography — mass spectromerty, electron-impact and fast-atom-bombardment mass spectrometry, and two-dimensional correlated, relayed-coherence transfer, and nuclear Overhauser effect 500-MHz 1H-N.M.R. spectroscopy. Carbohydr. Res. 178, 1–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Helin, J., Penttila, L., Leppanen, A., Maaheimo, H., Lauri, S., Costello, C. E. & Renkonen, O. (1997): The β1,6-GlcNAc transferase activity present in hog gastric mucosal microsomes catalyses site-specific branch formation on a long polylactosamine backbone. FEBS Lett. 412, 637–642.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hirohashi, S., Clausen, H., Nudelman, E., Inoue, H., Shimosato, Y. & Hakomori, S. I. (1986): A human monoclonal antibody directed to blood group i antigen: heterohybridoma between human lymphocytes from regional lymph nodes of a lung cancer patient and mouse myeloma. J. Immunol. 736, 4163–4168.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hosomi, O., Takeya, A. & Kogure, T. (1984): Human serum contains N-acetyllactosamine: β1-3 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity. J. Biochem. 95, 1655–1659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hounsell, E. F., Wood, E., Feizi, T, Fukuda, M., Powell, M. E. & Hakomori, S. I. (1981): Structural analysis of hexa-to octa-saccharide fractions isolated from sheep gastric-glycoproteins having blood-group I and i activities. Carbohydr. Res. 90, 283–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Imai, Y., Lasky, L. A. & Rosen, S. D. (1993): Sulphation requirement for GlyCAM-1, an endothelial ligand for L-selectin. Nature 361, 555–557.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Issitt, P. D., Tegoli, J., Jackson, V., Sanders, C. W. & Allen, F. H. (1968): Anti-IP,: antibodies that show an association between the I and P blood group systems. Vox Sang. 14, 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Jackson, V. A., Issitt, P. D., Francis, B. J., Garris, M. L. & Sanders, C. W. (1968): The simultaneous presence of anti-l and anti-i in sera. Vox Sang. 15, 133–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Jefferies, L. C., Carchidi, C. M. & Silberstein, L. E. (1993): Naturally occurring anti-i/l cold agglutinins may be encoded by different VH3 genes as well as the VH4.21 gene segment. J. Clin. Invest. 92, 2821–2833.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Jenkins, W. J., Koster, H. G., Marsh, W. L. & Carter, R. L. (1965): Infectious mononucleosis: an unsuspected source of anti-i. Br. J. Haematol. 11, 480–483.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Jenkins, W. J., Marsh, W. L., Noades, J., Tippett, P., Sänger, R. & Race, R. R. (1960): The I antigen and antibody. Vox Sang. 5, 97–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kabat, E. A., Liao, J., Burzynska, M. H., Wong, T. C., Thogersen, H. & Lemieux, R. U. (1981): Immunochemical studies on blood groups. LXIX. The conformation of the trisaccharide determinant in the combining site of anti-l Ma (group 1). Mol. Immunol. 18, 873–881.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kabat, E. A., Liao, J. & Lemieux, R. U. (1978): Immunochemical studies on blood groups. LXVIII. The combining site of anti-l Ma (group 1). Immunochemistry 15, 727–731.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kapadia, A., Feizi, T. & Evans, M. J. (1981): Changes in the expression and polarization of blood group I and i antigens in post-implantation embryos and teratocarcinomas of mouse associated with cell differentiation. Exp. Cell Res. 131, 185–195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kapadia, A., Feizi, T, Jewell, D., Keeling, J. & Slavin, G. (1981): Immunocytochemical studies of blood group A, H, I, and i antigens in gastric mucosae of infants with normal gastric histology and of patients with gastric carcinoma and chronic benign peptic ulcération. J. Clin. Pathol. 34, 320–337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Koenderman, A. H. L., Koppen, P. L & Van Den Eijnden, D. H. (1987): Biosynthesis of polylactosaminoglycans — Novikoff ascites tumor cells contain two UDP-GlcNAc:β-galactoside β1→-6 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activities. Eur. J. Biochem. 166, 199–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Koscielak, J., Miller-Podraza, H., Krauze, R. & Piasek, A. (1976): Isolation and characterization of poty(glycosyl)ceramides (megaloglycolipids) with A, H, and I blood group activities. Eur. J. Biochem. 71, 9–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Koscielak, J., Zdebska, E., Wilczynska, Z., Miller-Podraza, H. & Dzierzkowa-Borodej, W. (1979): Immunochemistry of li-active glycosphingolipids of erythrocytes. Eur. J. Biochem. 96, 331–337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Kuhns, W., Rutz, V., Paulsen, H., Matta, K. L., Baker, M. A., Barner, M., Granovsky, M. & Brockhausen, I. (1993): Processing of O-glycan core 1, Gal β1-3GalNAac α-R — specificities of core 2, UDP-GlcNAc:gal β1-3GalNAc-R (GlcNAc to GalNAc) β6-N-acetyl-glucosaminyltransferase and CMP-Sialic Acid — Gal β1-3GalNAc-R α3-sialyltransferase. Glycoconj. J. 10, 381–394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Lemieux, R. U., Wong, T. C., Liao, J. & Kabat, E. A. (1984): The combining site of anti-l Ma (group 1). Mol. Immunol. 21, 751–759.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Leppänen, A., Niemelä, R. & Renkonen, O. (1997): Enzymatic midchain branching of polylactosamine backbones is restricted in a site-specific manner in α1,3-fucosylated chains. Biochemistry 36, 13729–13735.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Leppänen, A., Penttilä, L., Niemelä, R., Helin, J., Seppo, A., Lusa, S. & Renkonen, O. (1991): Human serum contains a novel β1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity that is involved in midchain branching of oligo(N-acetyllactosaminoglycans). Biochemistry 30, 9287–9296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Leppänen, A., Zhu, Y., Maaheimo, H., Helin, J., Lehtonen, E. & Renkonen, O. (1998): Biosynthesis of branched polylactosaminoglycans. Embryonal carcinoma cells express midchain β1,6-N-acetyl-glucosaminyltransferase activity that generates branches to preformed linear backbones. J. Biol. Chem. 273, 17399–17405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Lind, K. (1973): Production of cold agglutinins in rabbits induced by Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes or Streptococcus MG. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 81B, 487–496.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Lodge, T. W. & Voak, D. (1968): An example of inhibitable anti-HI in a group B donor. Vox Sang. 14, 60–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Loomes, L. M., Uemura, K. & Feizi, T. (1985): Interaction of Mycoplasma pneumoniae with erythrocyte glycolipids of I and i antigen types. Infect. Immun. 47, 15–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Loomes, L. M., Uemura, K. I., Childs, R. A., Paulson, J. C., Rogers, G. N., Scudder, P. R., Michalski, J. C., Hounsell, E. F., Taylor-Robinson, D. & Feizi, T. (1984): Erythrocyte receptors for Mycoplasma pneumoniae are sialylated oligosaccharides of li antigen type. Nature 307, 560–563.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Lopez, M., Gerbal, A. & Salmon, C. (1972): Excès d’antigène I dans les érythrocytes de phénotypes Oh, Ah et Bh. Rev. Fr. Transf. 15, 187–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Maaheimo, H., Rabina, J. & Renkonen, O. (1997): H1 and C13 NMR analysis of the pentasaccharide Gal β(1→4)GlcNAc β(1→3)-[GlcNAcβ(1→)] Galβ(→4)GlcNAc synthesized by the mid-chain beta-(1→6)-D-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase of rat serum. Carbohydr. Res. 297, 145–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Maniatis, A., Frieman, B. & Bertles, J. F. (1977): Increased expression in erythrocyte li antigens in sickle cell disease and sickle cell trait. Vox Sang. 33, 29–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Maranduba, A. & Veyrières, A. (1986): Glycosylation of lactose: synthesis of branched oligosaccharides involved in the biosynthesis of glycolipids having blood-group I activitiy. Carbohydr. Res. 151, 105–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Marcus, D. M., Kabat, E. A. & Rosenfield, R. E. (1963): The action of enzymes from Clostridium tertium on the I antigenic determinant of human érythrocytes. J. Exp. Med. 118, 175–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Marsh, W. L (1961): Anti-i: a cold antibody defining the li relationship in human red cells. Br. J. Haematol. 7, 200–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Marsh, W. L., Jensen, L., Decary, F. & Colledge, K. (1972): Water-soluble I blood group substance in the secretions of i adults. Transfusion 12, 222–226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Marsh, W. L., Nichols, M. E. & Allen, F. H. (1970): Inhibition of anti-l sera by human milk. Vox Sang. 18, 149–154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Marsh, W. L., Nichols, M. E. & Reid, M. E. (1971): The definition of two I antigen components. Vox Sang. 20, 209–217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Matsuzaki, Y., Ito, Y. & Ogawa, T. (1992): Stereoselective total synthesis of the blood group l-active biantennary neolacto-glycodecaosyl ceramide. Tetrahedron Lett. 33, 4025–4028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Matsuzaki, Y., Ito, Y. & Ogawa, T. (1992): Synthesis of triantennary blood group I antigens: neolactoglycopentadecaosyl ceramide. Tetrahedron Lett. 33, 6343–6346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Mcever, R. P., Mooore, K. L. & Cummings, R. D. (1995): Leukocyte trafficking mediated by selectin-carbohydrate interactions. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 11025–11028.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Nagatsuka, Y., Watarai, S., Yasuda, T., Higashi, H., Yamagata, T. & Ono, Y. (1995): Production of human monoclonal antibodies to i blood group by EBV-induced transformation: possible presence of a new glycolipid in cord red cell membranes and human hematopoietic cell lines. Immunol. Lett. 46, 93–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Niemann, H., Watanabe, K., Hakomori, S. I., Childs, R. A. & Feizi, T. (1978): Blood group i and I activities of “lacto-N-norhexaosylceramide” and its analogues: the structural requirements for i-specificities. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 81, 1286–1293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Niemelä, R., Rabina, J., Leppanen, A., Maaheimo, H., Costello, C. E. & Renkonen, O. (1995): Site-directed enzymatic alpha-(1→3)-l-fucosylation of the tetrasaccharide Gal beta(→4)GlcNAc beta(1→3)Gal beta(1→4)GlcNAc at the distal N-acetyllactosamine unit. Carbohydr. Res. 279, 331–338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Okada, Y., Kannagi, R., Levery, S. B. & Hakomori, S. I. (1984): Glycolipid antigens with blood group I and i specificities from human adult and umbilical cord érythrocytes. J. Immunol. 133, 835–842.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Oppenheim, J. D., Nachbar, M. S. & Blank, M. (1983): The distribution of and the biochemical and serological relationships between the l/i and ABH blood-group antigens of the human erythrocyte membrane as determined by immunoelectrophoretic techniques. Electrophoresis 4, 53–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Pascual, V., Kimberly, V., Lelsz, D., Spellerberg, M. B., Hamblin, T. J., Thompson, K. M., Randen, I., Natvig, J., Capra, J. D. & Stevenson, F. K. (1991): Nucleotide sequence analysis of the V regions of two IgM cold agglutinins. Evidence that the VH4-21 gene segment is responsible for the major cross-reactive idiotype. J. Immunol. 146, 4385–4391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Picard, J., Waldron-Edward, D. & Feizi, T. (1978): Changes on the expression of the blood-group A, B, H, Lea and Leb antigens and the blood-group precursor associated I (Ma) antigen in glycoprotein-rich extracts of gastric carcinomas. J. Clin. Lab. Immunol. 1, 119–128.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Picard, J. K. & Feizi, T. (1983): Peanut lectin and anti-li antibodies reveal structural differences among human gastrointestinal glycoproteins. Mol. Immunol. 20, 1215–1220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Piller, F. & Cartron, J. P. (1983): Biosynthesis of i-antigenic structures. In: Red Cell Membrane Glycoconjugates and Related Genetic Markers (J. P. Cartron, P. Rouger, and C. Salmon, eds.). Librairie Arnette, Paris, pp. 175–182.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Piller, F. & Cartron, J. P. (1983): UDP-GlcNAc:Galβ1-4Glc(NAc)β1-3 N-acetylglucosaminyl-transferase. Identification and characterization in human serum. J. Biol. Chem. 258, 12293–12299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Piller, F., Cartron, J. P., Maranduba, A., Veyrieres, A., Leroy, Y. & Fournet, B. (1984): Biosynthesis of blood group I antigens. Identification of a UDP-GlcNAc: GlcNAcβ1-3Gal(-R) β1-6(GlcNAc to Gal) N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase in hog gastric mucosa. J. Biol. Chem. 259, 13385–13390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Pruzanski, W., Farid, N., Keystone, E. & Armstrong, M. (1975): The influence of homogeneous cold agglutinins on polymorphonuclear and mononuclear phagocytes. Clin. Immunol. Immunopathoi. 4, 277–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Pruzanski, W. & Shumak, K. H. (1977): Biological activity of cold-reacting autoantibodies (Part 1). N. Engl. J. Med. 297, 538–542.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Race, R. R. & Sänger, R. (1975): The I and i antigens. In: Blood Groups in Man. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp. 447–462.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Renouf, D. V. & Hounsell, E. F. (1993): Conformational studies of the backbone (poly-N-acetyllactosamine) and the core region sequences of O-linked carbohydrate chains. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 15, 37–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Roelcke, D. (1974): Cold agglutination. Antibodies and antigens. A review. Clin. Immunol. Immunopathoi. 2, 266–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Ropp, P. A., Little, M. R. & Cheng, P. W. (1991): Mucin biosynthesis: purification and characterization of a mucin β 6N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 266, 23863–23871.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Rosenfield, R. E., Schmidt, P. J., Calvo, R. C. & Mcginniss, M. H. (1965): Anti-i, a frequent cold agglutinin in infectious mononucleosis. Vox Sang. 10, 631–634.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Sasaki, K., Kurata-Miura, K., Ujita, M., Angata, K., Nakagawa, S., Sekine, S., Nishi, T. & Fukuda, M. (1997): Expression cloning of cDNA encoding a human α-1,3-N-acetylglucos-aminyltransferase that is essential for poly-N-acetyllactosamine synthesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 14294–14299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Schenkel-Brunner, H., Kabat, E. A. & Liao, J. (1979): Biosynthesis of a blood-group-l determinant reacting with anti-l Ma serum (group 1). Eur. J. Biochem. 98, 573–575.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Schutte, M. E., VanEs, J. H., Silberstein, L E. & Logtenberg, T. (1993): VH4.21-encoded natural autoantibodies with anti-i specificity mirror those associated with cold hemagglutinin disease. J. Immunol. 151, 6569–9576.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Seppo, A., Penttilä, L., Niemelä, R., Maaheimo, H., Renkonen, O. & Keane, A. (1995): Enzymatic synthesis of octadecameric saccharides of multiply branched blood group l-type, carrying four distal α,3-galactose or β1,3-GlcNAc residues. Biochemistry 34, 4655–4661.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Shumak, K. H., Rachkewich, R. A. & Greaves, M. F. (1975): I and i antigens on normal human T and B lymphocytes and on lymphocytes from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Clin. Immunol. Immunopathoi. 4, 241–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Silberstein, L. E., Jefferies, L C., Goldman, J., Friedman, D., Moore, J. S., Nowell, P. C, Roelcke, D., Pruzanski, W., Roudier, J. & Silverman, G. J. (1991): Variable region gene analysis of pathologic human autoantibodies to the related i and I red blood cell antigens. Blood 78, 2372–2386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Smith, G., Spellerberg, M., Boulton, F., Roelcke, D. & Stevenson, F. (1995): The immunoglobulin VH gene, VH4-21, specifically encodes autoanti-red cell antibodies against the I or i antigens. Vox Sang. 68, 231–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Suzuki, Y., Hirabayashi, Y., Suzuki, T. & Matsumoto, M. (1985): Occurrence of O-glycosidically peptide-linked oligosaccharides of poly-N-acetyllactosamine type (erythroglycan II) in the l-antigenically active Sendai virus receptor sialoglycoprotein GP-2. J. Biochem. 98, 1653–1659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Suzuki, Y., Nagao, Y., Kato, H., Matsumoto, M., Nerome, K. & Nakajima, K. (1986): Human influenza A virus hemagglutinin distinguishes sialyloligosaccharides inmembrane-associated gangliosides as its receptor which mediates the adsorption and fusion processes of virus infection. J. Biol. Chem. 261, 17057–17061.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Tang, P. W., Scudder, P., Mehmet, H., Hounsell, E. F. & Feizi, T. (1986): Sulphate groups are involved in the antigenicity of keratan sulphate and mask i antigen expression on their poly-N-acetyllactosamine backbones. An immunochemical and Chromatographic study of keratan sulphate oligosaccharides after desulphation or nitrosation. Eur. J. Biochem. 160, 537–545.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Tegoli, J., Harris, J. P., Issitt, P. D. & Sanders, C. W. (1967): Anti-IB, an expected’ new’ antibody detecting a joint product of the I and B genes. Vox Sang. 13, 144–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Thomas, D. B. (1974): The i antigen complex: a new specificity unique to dividing human cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 4, 819–824.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Tlppett, P., Noades, J., Sanger, Ft., Race, R. R., Sausais, L., Holman, C. A. & Buttimer, R. J. (1960): Further studies of the I antigen and antibody. Vox Sang. 5, 107–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Toh, B. H., Diggle, T. A. & Koh, S. H. (1979): li blood group antigens on fibroblast cell surfaces. Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 12, 177–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Tsuboi, S., Isogai, Y., Hada, N., King, J. K., Hindsgaul, O. & Fukuda, M. (1996): 6′-Sulfo sialyl Lex but not 6-sulfo sialyl Lex expressed on the cell surface supports L-selectin-mediated adhesion. J. Biol. Chem. 271, 27213–27216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Ujita, M., Mcauliffe, J., Suzuki, M., Hindsgaul, O., Clausen, H., Fukuda, M. N. & Fukuda, M. (1999): Regulation of l-branched poly-N-acetyllactosamine synthesis. Concerted actions by i-extension enzyme, l-branching enzyme, and β 1,4-galactosyltransferase I. J. Biol. Chem. 274, 9296–9304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Van Den Eijnden, D. H., Koenderman, A. H. L. & Schiphorst, W. E. C. M. (1988): Biosynthesis of blood group i-active polylactosaminoglycans. Partial purification and properties of an UDP-GlcNAc: N-acetyllactosaminide β1→3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase from Novikoff tumor cell ascites fluid. J. Biol. Chem. 263, 12461–12471.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Van Den Eijnden, D. H., Winterwerp, H., Smeeman, P. & Schiphorst, W. E. C. M. (1983): Novikoff ascites tumour cells contain N-acetyllactosaminide β1-3 and β1-6 N-acetylglucos-aminyltransferase activity. J. Biol. Chem. 258, 3435–3437.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Vilalta-Castel, E., Guerra-Vales, J. M., Gonzalez-Gamarra, A., Abarca-Costalago, M., Alonso-Navas, F. & Lopez-Pascual, J. J. (1986): Hemolytic anemia caused by cryoagglutinins associated with an influenza A virus infection. Rev. Clin. Esp. 179, 22–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Vllkman, A., Nlemelä, R., Penttilä, L., Helin, J., Leppänen, A., Seppo, A., Maaheimo, H., Lusa, S. & Renkonen, O. (1992): Elongation of both branches of biantennary backbones of oligo-(N-acety llactosamino)glycans by human serum (1 → 3)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyltransferase. Carbohydr. Res. 226, 155–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Watanabe, K., Hakomori, S. I., Childs, R. A. & Feizi, T. (1979): Characterization of a blood group I-active ganglioside. Structural requirements for I and i specificities. J. Biol. Chem. 254, 3221–3228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Watanabe, K., Laine, R. A. & Hakomori, S. I. (1975): On neutral fucoglycolipids having long, branched carbohydrate chains: H-active and I-active glycosphingolipids of human erythrocyte membranes. Biochemistry 14, 2725–2733.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Wiener, A. S., Moor-Jankowski, J., Gordon, E. B. & Davis, J. (1965): The blood factors I and i in primates including man, and in lower species. Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol. 23, 389–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Wiener, A. S., Unger, L J., Cohen, L & Feldman, J. (1956): Type-specific cold auto-antibodies as a cause of acquired hemolytic anamia and hemolytic transfusion reactions: biologic test with bovine red cells. Ann. Int. Med. 44, 221–240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Wood, E. & Feizi, T. (1979): Blood group I and i activities of straight chain and branched synthetic oligosaccharides related to the precursors of the major blood group antigens. FEBS Lett. 104, 135–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Wood, E., Hounsell, E. F., Langhorne, J. & Feizi, T. (1980): Sheep gastric mucins as a source of blood-group-l and-i antigens. Biochem. J. 187, 711–718.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Yates, A. D. & Watkins, W. M. (1983): Enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of glycoconjugates. A UDP-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose:β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-saccharide (1→ 3)-2-acet-amido-2-deoxy-β-D-glucopyranosyltransferase in human serum. Carbohydr. Res. 120, 251–268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Zdebska, E., Magnuska, A., Kusnierz, G., Seyfried, H. & Koscielak, J. (1980): Both polyglycosylceramides and polyglycosylpeptides are unbranched in i erythrocytes. FEBS Lett. 120, 33–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Zhou, D. P., Dinter, A., Gutierrez-Gallego, R. G., Kamerling, J. P., Vliegenthart, J. F. G., Berger, E. G. & Hennet, T. (1999): A p-I.S-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase with poly-N-acetyllactosamine synthase activity is structurally related to α-1,3-galactosyltransferases. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 406–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Zielenski, J. & Koscielak, J. (1983): Sera of i subjects have the capacity to synthesize the branched GlcNAc(β1→6)[GlcNAc(β1→3)]Gal… structure. FEBS Lett. 163, 114–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helmut Schenkel-Brunner
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Medizinische BiochemieUniversität WienViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations