Advertisement

ABO(H) System

  • Helmut Schenkel-Brunner

Abstract

The ABO system was discovered in 1900 by Karl Landsteiner. Based on his assumption of two erythrocyte antigens, A and B, Landsteiner found it possible to classify human individuals into four blood groups depending whether one, both, or neither of these antigenic characters were present on the cells [272,273]. He also recognised that the sera of individuals lacking one or both antigens usually contain anti-A and/or anti-B isoagglutinins (see Table 5.1).

Keywords

Blood Group Erythrocyte Membrane Carbohydrate Chain Acceptor Substrate Human Erythrocyte Membrane 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Abe, K., Levery, S. B. & Hakomori, S. I. (1984): The antibody specific to type 1 chain blood group A determinant. J. Immunol. 132, 1951–1954.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alter, A. A. & Rosenfield, R. E. (1964): The nature of some subtypes of A. Blood 23, 605–620.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anstee, D. J., Holt, P. D. J. & Pardoe, G. I. (1973): Agglutinins from fish ova defining blood groups B and P. Vox Sang. 25, 347–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Arcilla, M. B. & Sturgeon, P. (1972): Lewis and ABH substances in amniotic fluid obtained by amniocentesis. Pediatr. Res. 6, 853–858.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Badet, J., Huet, M., Mulet, C., Lopez, M., Ropars, C. & Salmon, C. (1980): B-gene specified 3-α-D galactosyltransferase activity in human B blood group variants. FEBS Lett. 122, 25–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Badet, J., Ropars, C., Cartron, J. P., Doinel, C. & Salmon, C. (1976): Groups of a-D-galactosyltransferase activity in sera of individuals with normal B phenotype. II. Relationship between transferase activity and red cell agglutinability. Vox Sang 30, 105–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Badet, J., Ropars, C., Cartron, J. P. & Salmon, C. (1974): Groups of α-galactosyl transferase activity in sera of individuals with normal B phenotype. Biomedicine 21, 230–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Badet, J., Ropars, C. & Salmon, C. (1978): α-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-and a-D-galactosyltransferase activities in sera of cis AB blood group individuals. J. Immunogenet. 5, 221–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Baker, A. P., Griggs, L. J., Munro, J. R. & Finkelstein, J. A. (1973): Blood-group A active glycoproteins of respiratory mucus and their synthesis by an N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 248, 880–883.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Baldus, S. E., Thiele, J., Park, Y. O., Hanisch, F. G., Bara, J. & Fischer, R. (1996): Characterization of the binding specificity of Anguilla anguilla agglutinin (AAA) in comparison to Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I). Glycoconj. J. 13, 585–590.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ball, S. P., Tongue, N., Gibaud, A., Le Pendu, J., Mollicone, R., Gérard, G. & Oriol, R. (1991): The human chromosome 19 linkage group FUT1 (H), FUT2 (SE), LE, LU, PEPD, C3, APOC2, D19S7, and D19S9. Ann. Hum. Genet. 55, 225–233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Barbolla, L., Mojena, M. & Bosca, L. (1988): Presence of antibody to A-and B-transferases in minor incompatible bone marrow transplants. Brit. J. Haematol. 70, 471–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Barbolla, L., Mojena, M., Cienfuegos, J. A. & Escartin, P. (1988): Presence of an inhibitor of glycosyltransferase activity in a patient following an ABO incompatible liver transplant Brit. J. Haematol. 69, 93–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Basu, S., Basu, M. & Chien, J. L (1975): Enzymatic synthesis of a blood group H-related glycosphingolipid by an α-fucosyltransferase from bovine spleen. J. Biol. Chem. 250, 2956–2962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Beck, M. L., Yates, A. D., Hardman, J. T. & Kowalski, M. A. (1987): Consequences of overlapping substrate specificity of glycosyltransferases. (Abstract). Transfusion 27, 535.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bella, A. & Kim, Y. S. (1971): Biosynthesis of intestinal glycoprotein: a study of an a(1→2) fucosyttransferase in rat small intestinal mucosa. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 147, 753–761.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bennett, E. P., Steffensen, R., Clausen, H., Weghuis, D. O. & VanKessel, A. G. (1995): Genomic cloning of the human histo-blood group ABO locus. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 206, 318–325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Berneman, Z. N., VanBockstaele, W. M., VanZaelen, C., Cole-Dergent, J., Muylle, L. & Peetermans, M. E. (1991): Flow-cytometric analysis of erythrocytic blood group A antigen density profile. Vox Sang. 61, 265–274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bernoco, M., Danilovs, J., Terasaki, P. I., Cartron, J. P., Mollicone, R., Le Pendu, J. & Oriol, R. (1985): Detection of combined ABH and Lewis glycosphingolipids in sera of H-deficient donors. Vox Sang. 49, 58–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bernstein, F. (1924): Ergebnisse einer biostatistischen zusammenfassenden Betrachtung über die erblichen Blutstrukturen des Menschen. Klin. Wochenschr. 3, 1495–1497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Betteridge, A. & Watkins, W. M. (1983): Two α-3-D-galactosyltransferases in rabbit stomach mucosa with different acceptor substrate specificities. Eur. J. Biochem. 132, 29–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Betteridge, A. & Watkins, W. M. (1985): Variant forms of α-2-L-fucosyltransferase in human submaxillary glands from blood group ABH “secretor” and “non-secretor” individuals. Glycoconj. J. 2, 61–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Beyer, T. A. & Hill, R. L. (1980): Enzymatic properties of the ß-galactoside α1 → 2 fucosyltransferase from porcine submaxillary gland. J. Biol. Chem. 255, 5373–5379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Beyer, T. A., Sadler, J. E. & Hill, R. L. (1980): Purification to homogeneity of the H blood group α-galactoside α1 → 2 fucosyltransferase from porcine submaxillary gland. J. Biol. Chem. 255, 5364–5372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bhatia, H. M. (1964): Serological specificity of anti-H blood group antibodies. Ind. J. Med. Res. 52, 5–14.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bhatia, H. M. (1977): Serologic reactions of ABO and Oh (Bombay) phenotypes due to variations in H antigens. Human Blood Groups — Proceedings of the 5th International Convocation on Immunologty, Buffalo 1976. S. Karger, Basel, pp. 296–305.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bhatia, H. M. & Sathe, M. S. (1974): Incidence of ‘bombay’ (Oh) phenotype and weaker variants of A and B antigen in Bombay (India). Vox Sang. 27, 524–532.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bhatia, H. M. & Solomon, J. m. (1967): Further observations on Ah m and Oh m phenotypes. Vox Sang. 12, 457–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bhende, Y. M., Deshpanoe, C. K., Bhatia, H. M., Sanger, Ft., Race, R. R., Morgan, W. T. J. & Watkins, W. M. (1952): A “new” blood-group character related to the ABO system. Lancet i, 903–904.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bird, G. W. G. (1951): Specific agglutinating activity for human red blood corpuscles in extracts of Dolichos biflorus. Curr. Sci. 20, 298–299.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bird, G. W. G. (1952): Relationship of the blood sub-groups A1,, A2and A1B,A2B to haemagglutinins present in the seeds of Dolichos biflorus. Nature 170, 674.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bird, G. W. G. & Wingham, J. (1970): Agglutinins for antigens of two different human blood group systems in the seeds of Moluccella laevis. Vox Sang. 18, 235–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bird, G. W. G. (1977): Lectins. In: CRC Handbook Series in Clinical Laboratory Science. Section D, Blood Banking. (D. Seligson, T. J. Greenwalt, and E. A. Steane, eds.). CRC Press Inc., Cleveland, Ohio, Vol. 1, pp. 459–473.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Björk, S., Breimer, M. E., Hansson, G. C., Karlsson, K. A. & Leffler, H. (1987): Structures of blood group glycosphingolipids of human small intestine. A relation between the expression of fucolipids of epithelial cells and the ABO, Le, and Se phenotype of the donor. J. Biol. Chem. 262, 6758–6765.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Blaszczyk-Thurin, M., Sarnesto, A., Thurin, J., Hidsgaul, O. & Koprowski, H. (1988): Biosynthetic pathways for the Leb; and Y glycolipids in the gastric carcinoma cell line KATO III as analyzed by a novel assay. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 151, 100–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bouhours, D., Hansson, G. C. & Bouhours, J. F. (1995): Structure and genetic polymorphism of blood group A-active glycosphingolipids of the rat large intestine. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1255, 131–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Boyd, W. C. & Reguera, R. (1949): Hemagglutinating substances for human cells in various plants. J. Immunol. 62, 333–339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Brain, P. (1966): Subgroups of A in the South African Bantu. Vox Sang. 11, 686–698.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Breimer, M. E. (1984): Tissue specificity of glycosphingolipids as expressed in pancreas and small intestine of blood group A and B human individuals. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 228, 71–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Breimer, M. E., Falk, K. E., Hansson, G. C. & Karlsson, K. A. (1982): Structural identification of two ten-sugar branched chain glycosphingolipids of blood group H type present in epithelial cells of rat small intestine. J. Biol. Chem. 257, 50–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Breimer, M. E., Hansson, G. C., Karlsson, K. A. & Leffler, H. (1982): Isolation and partial characterization of blood group A and H active glycosphingolipids of rat small intestine. J. Biol. Chem. 257, 906–912.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Breimer, M. E. & Jovall, P. A. (1985): Structural characterization of a blood group A heptaglycosylceramide with globoseries structure: the major glycolipid based blood group A antigen of human kidney. FEBS Lett. 179, 165–172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Breimer, M. E., Karlsson, K. A., Larson, G. & Mckibbin, J. M. (1983): Chemical characterization of a blood group H type pentaglycosylceramide of human small intestine. Chem. Phys. Lipids 33, 135–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Breimer, M. E., Karlsson, K. A. & Samuelsson, B. E. (1981): Characterization of a blood group H type pentaglycosylceramide of human pancreas based on a type 1 carbohydrate chain. J. Biol. Chem. 256, 3810–3816.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Breimer, M. E. & Samuelsson, B. E. (1986): The specific distribution of glycolipid-based blood group A antigens in human kidney related to A1/A2, Lewis, and secretor status of single individuals. Transplantation 42, 88–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bremer, E. G., Levery, S. B., Sonnino, S., Ghidoni, R., Canevari, F., Kannagi, R. & Hakomori, S. I. (1984): Characterization of a glycosphingolipid antigen defined by the monoclonal antibody MBr1 expressed in normal and neoplastic epithelial cells of human mammary gland. J. Biol. Chem. 259, 14773–14777.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bundle, D. R., Gidney, M. A. J., Kassam, N. & Rahman, A. F. R. (1982): Hybridomas specific for carbohydrates; synthetic human blood group antigens for the production, selection, and characterization of monoclonal typing reagents. J. Immunol. 129, 678–682.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bush, C. A., Yan, Z. Y. & Rao, B. N. N. (1986): Conformational energy calculations and proton nuclear Overhauser enhancements reveal a unique conformation for blood group A oligosaccharides. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 108, 6168–6173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Byrne, U., Brown, A., Ropars, C. & Moore, B. P. L. (1979): Acquired B antigen, Tk activation and A, destroying enzyme activity in a patient with septicaemia. Vox Sang. 36, 208–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Cahan, A., Jack, J. A., Scudder, J., Sargent, M., Sänger, R. & Race, R. R. (1957): A family in which Ax is transmitted through a person of the blood group A2B. Vox Sang. 2, 8–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Cameron, C., Graham, F., Dunsford, I., Sickles, G., Macpherson, C. R., Cahan, A., Sanger, R. & Race, R. R. (1959): Acquisition of a B-like antigen by red blood cells. Brit. Med. J. ii, 29–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Carne, L. R. & Watkins, W. M. (1977): Human blood-group B specified α-3-galactosyltransferase: purification of the enzyme in serum by biospecific adsorption onto blood-group O erythrocyte membranes. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 77, 700–707.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Cartron, J. P. (1976): Etude des propriétés α-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransférasiques des sérums de sujets A et “a faible”. Rev. Fr. Transfus. 19, 67–88.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Cartron, J. P. (1976): Etude quantitative et thermodynamique des phénotypes érythrocytaires “a faible”. Rev. Fr. Transfus. 19, 35–54.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Cartron, J. P., Badet, J., Mulet, C. & Salmon, C. (1978): Study of the α-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases in sera and red cell membranes of human A subgroups. J. Immunogenet. 5, 107–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Cartron, J. P., Gerbal, A., Badet, J., Ropars, C. & Salmon, C. (1975): Assay of a-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases in human sera. Further evidence for several types of Am individuals. Vox Sang. 28, 347–365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Cartron, J. P., Mulet, C., Bauvois, B., Rahuel, C. & Salmon, C. (1980): ABH and Lewis glycosyltransferases in human red cells, lymphocytes, and platelets. Blood Transfus. Immunohaematol. 23, 271–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Cartron, J. P., Reyes, F., Gourdin, M. F., Garretta, M. & Salmon, C. (1977): Antigen site distribution among ‘weak A’ red cell populations. A study of A3, Ax, and Aend variants. Immunology 32, 233–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Cartron, J. P., Ropars, C., Calkovska, Z. & Salmon, C. (1976): Detection of A1A2 and A2Am A1 hétérozygotes among human A blood group phenotyes. J. Immunogenet. 3, 155–161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Cazal, P. & Lalaurie, M. (1952): Recherches sur quelques phyto-agglutinines spécifiques des groupes sanguins ABO. Acta Haematol. 8, 73–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Ceppellini, R. (1959): Physiological genetics of human blood factors. In: Ciba Foundation Symposium on Biochemistry of Human Genetics (G. E. W. Wolstenholme, and C. M. O’connor, eds.). Churchill, London, pp. 242–261.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Chandrasekaran, E. V., Jain, R. K., Rhodes, J. M., Srnka, C. A., Larsen, R. D. & Matta, K. L. (1995): Expression of blood group Lewis b determinant from Lewis a: association of this novel α(1,2)-L-fucosylating activity with the Lewis type α(1,3/4)-L-fucosyltransferase. Biochemistry 34, 4748–4756.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Chen, H. T. & Kabat, E. A. (1985): Immunochemical studies on blood groups. The combining site specificities of mouse monoclonal hybridoma anti-A and anti-B. J. Biol. Chem. 260, 13208–13217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Cheng, P. W. (1986): Mucin biosynthesis: enzymic properties of human-tracheal epithelial GDP-L-fucose:α-D-galactosidea-(1→2)-L-fucosyltransferase. Carbohydr. Res. 149, 253–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Chessin, L. N. & Mcginniss, M. (1968): Further evidence for the sérologic association of the O(H) and I blood groups. Vox Sang. 14, 194–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Chester, M. A. & Watkins, W. m. (1969): α-L-Fucosyltransferases in human submaxillary gland and stomach tissues associated with the H, Lea and Leb blood group characters and ABH secretor status. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 34, 835–842.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Chester, M. A., Yates, A. D. & Watkins, W. M. (1976): Phenyl α-D-galactopyranoside as an acceptor substrate for the blood-group H gene-associated guanosine diphosphate-L-fucose: α-D-galactosyl α-2-L-fucosyltransferase. Eur. J. Biochem. 69, 583–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Chou, T. H., Murphy, C. & Kessel, D. (1977): Selective inhibition of a plasma fucosyltransferase by N-ethylmaleinimide. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 74, 1001–1006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Clausen, H. & Hakomori, S. I. (1989): ABH and related histo-blood group antigens; immunochemical differences in carrier isotypes and their distribution. Vox Sang. 56, 1–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Clausen, H., Hakomori, S. I., Graem, N. & Dabelsteen, E. (1986): Incompatible A antigen expressed in tumors of blood group O individuals: Immunochemical, immunohistologic, and enzymatic characterization. J. Immunol. 136, 326–330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Clausen, H., Holmes, E. & Hakomori, S. I. (1986): Novel blood group H glycolipid antigens exclusively expressed in blood group A and AB erythrocytes (type 3 chain H). II. Differential conversion of different H substrates by A1, and A2 enzymes, and type 3 chain H expression in relation to secretor status. J. Biol. Chem. 261, 1388–1392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Clausen, H., Levery, S. B., Dabelsteen, E. & Hakomori, S. I. (1987): Blood group ABH antigens. A new sereis of blood group A-associated structures (genetic regulation and tissue distribution). Transplant. Proc. 19, 4408–4412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Clausen, H., Levery, S. B., Kannagi, R. & Hakomori, S. I. (1986): Novel blood group H glycolipid antigens exclusively expressed in blood group A and AB erythrocytes (type 3 chain H). I. Isolation and chemical characterization. J. Biol. Chem. 261, 1380–1387.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Clausen, H., Levery, S. B., Mckibbin, J. M. & Hakomori, S. I. (1985): Blood group A determinants with mono-and difucosyl type 1 chain in human erythrocyte membranes. Biochemistry 24, 3578–3586.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Clausen, H., Levery, S. B., Nudelman, E., Baldwin, M. & Hakomori, S. I. (1986): Further characterization of type 2 and type 3 chain blood group A glycosphingolipids from human erythrocyte membranes. Biochemistry 25, 7075–7085.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Clausen, H., Levery, S. B., Nudelman, E., Tsuchiya, S. & Hakomori, S. I. (1985): Repetitive A epitope (type 3 chain A) defined by blood group A1-specific monoclonal antibody TH-1: chemical basis of qualitative A, and A2 distinction. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82, 1199–1203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Clausen, H., Levery, S. B., Nudelman, E. D., Stroud, M., Salyan, M. E. K. & Hakomori, S. I. (1987): Isolation and characterization of novel glycolipids with blood group A-related structures: galactosyl-A and sialosylgalactosyl A. J. Biol. Chem. 262, 14228–14234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Clausen, H., Watanabe, K., Kannagi, R., Levery, S. B., Nudelman, E., Arao-Tomono, Y. & Hakomori, S. I. (1984): Blood group A glycolipid (Ax) with globo-series structure which is specific for blood group A, erythrocytes: one of the chemical bases for A1 and A2 distinction. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 124, 523–529.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Clausen, H., White, T., Takio, K., Titani, K., Stroud, M., Holmes, E., Karkov, J., Thim, L. & Hakomori, S. I. (1990): Isolation to homogeneity and partial characterization of a histo-blood group A defined Fucα1→2Galα1→3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase from human lung tissue. J. Biol. Chem. 265, 1139–1145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Constandoulakis, M. & Kay, H. E. M. (1962): A and B antigens of the human foetal erythrocyte. Brit. J. Haematol. 8, 57–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Cook, G. A., Greenwell, P. A. & Watkins, W. M. (1982): A rabbit antibody to the blood-group-A-gene-specified α-S-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 10, 446–447.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Coombs, R. R. A. & Bedford, D. (1955): The A and B antigens on human platelets demonstrated by means of mixed erythrocyte-platelet agglutination. Vox Sang. 5, 111–115.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Craigen, W. J. & Caskey, C. T. (1987): Translational frameshifting: where will it stop?. Cell 50, 1–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Dabelsteen, E., Graem, N., Clausen, H. & Hakomori, S. I. (1988): Structural variations of blood group A antigens-in human normal colon and carcinomas. Cancer Res. 48, 181–187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Darnborough, J., Voak, D. & Pepper, R. M. (1973): Observations on a new example of the Am phenotype which demonstrates reduced A secretion. Vox Sang. 24, 216–227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    David, L., Leitao, D., Sobrinho-Simoes, M., Bennett, E. P., White, T., Mandel, U., Dabelsteen, E. & Clausen, H. (1993): Biosynthetic basis of incompatible histo-biood group A antigen expression: anti-A transferase antibodies reactive with gastric cancer tissue of type O individuals. Cancer Res. 53, 5494–5500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Dejter-Juszynski, M., Harpaz, N., Flowers, H. M. & Sharon, N. (1978): Blood-group ABH specific macroglycolipids of human erythrocytes: isolation in high yield from a crude membrane glycoprotein fraction. Eur. J. Biochem. 83, 363–373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Dekker, J., Aelmans, P. H. & Strous, G. J. (1991): The oligomeric structure of rat and human gastric mucins. Biochem. J. 277, 423–427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Dodd, B. E. & Gilbey, B. E. (1957): An unusual variant of group A. Vox Sang. 2, 390–398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Dodd, B. E. & Lincoln, P. J. (1978): Serological studies of the H activity of Oh red cells with various anti-H reagents. Vox Sang. 35, 168–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Dodd, B. E., Lincoln, P. J. & Boorman, K. E. (1967): The cross-reacting antibodies of group O sera: immunological studies and possible explanation of the observed facts. Immunology 12, 39–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Doinel, C. (1976): Antigenicité I des hématies Bombay. Rev. Fr. Transfus. 19, 185–191.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Domino, S. E., Hiraiwa, N. & Lowe, J. B. (1997): Molecular cloning, chromosomal assignment, and tissue-specific expression of a murine α(1,2)fucosyltransferase expressed in thymic and epididymal epithelial cells. Biochem. J. 327, 105–115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Donald, A. S. R. (1973): The products of pronase digestion of purified blood-group specific glycoproteins. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 317, 420–436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Donald, A. S. R. (1981): A-active trisaccharides isolated from A1 and A2 blood group specific glycoproteins. Eur. J. Biochem. 120, 243–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Dua, V. K., Rao, B. N. N., Wu, S. S., Dube, V. E. & Bush, C. A. (1986): Characterization of the oligosaccharide alditols from ovarian cyst mucin glycoproteins of blood group A using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and high field 1H NMR spectroscopy. J. Biol. Chem. 261, 1599–1608.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Ducos, J., Marty, Y. & Ruffie, J. (1975): A case of Ax phenotype transmitted by an A2B parent. Vox Sang. 29, 390–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Ducos, J., Marty, Y. & Ruffie, J. (1975): A family with one child of phenotype Am providing further evidence for the existence of the modifyer genes Yy. Vox Sang. 28, 456–459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Duk, M., Mitra, D., Lisowska, E., Kabat, E. A., Sharon, N. & Lis, H. (1992): Immunochemical studies on the combining site of the A + N blood type specific Moluccella laevis lectin. Carbohydr. Res. 236, 245–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Düngern, E. & Hirszfeld, L (1910): Über Vererbung gruppenspezifischer Strukturen des Blutes. Z. Immun.-Forsch. 6, 284–292.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Dungern, E. & Hirszfeld, L. (1911): Über gruppenspezifische Strukturen des Blutes. III. Z. Immun.-Forsch. 8, 526–562.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Dunstan, R. A., Simpson, M. B., Knowles, R. W. & Rosse, W. F. (1985): The origin of ABH antigens on human platelets. Blood 65, 615–619.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Dzierzkowa-Borodej, W., Meinhard, W., Nestorowicz, S. & Pirog, J. (1972): Successful elution of anti-A and certain anti-H reagents from two “bombay” (OA h blood samples and investigation of isoagglutinins in their sera. Arch. Immunol. Ther. Exp. 20, 841–849.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Economidou, J., Hughes-Jones, N. C. & Gardner, B. (1967): Quantitative measurements concerning A and B antigen sites. Vox Sang. 12, 321–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Elo, J., Estola, E. & Malmstrom, N. (1951): On phytagglutinins present in mushrooms. Ann. Med. Exp. Biol. Fenn. 29, 297–308.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Ernst, L. K., Rajan, V. P., Larsen, R. D., Ruff, M. M. & Lowe, J. B. (1989): Stable expression of blood group H determinants and GDP-L-fucose:β-D-galactoside 2-α-L-fucosyltransferase in mouse cells after transfection with human DNA. J. Biol. Chem. 264, 3436–3447.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Etienne-Decerf, J., Malaise, M., Mahieu, P. & Winand, R. (1987): Elevated anti-α-galactosyl antibody titres. A marker of progression in autoimmune thyroid disorders and in endocrine ophthalmopathy?. Acta Endocrinol. 115, 67–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Etzler, M. E. & Kabat, E. A. (1970): Purification and characterization of a lectjn (plant hemagglutinin) with blood group A specificity from Dolichos biflorus. Biochemistry 9, 869–877.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Fawcett, K. J., Eckstein, E. G., Innella, F. & Yokoyama, M. (1970): Four examples of Bh m blood in one family. Vox Sang. 19, 457–467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Feizi, T. (1985): Demonstration by monoclonal antibodies that carbohydrate structures of glycoproteins and glycolipids are onco-developmental antigens. Nature 314, 53–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Feng, C. S., Cook, J. L., Beattie, K. M., Kao, Y. S., Wallace, M. E. & De Jongh, D. S. (1984): Variant of type B blood in an El Salvador family. Expression of a variant B gene enhanced by the presence of an A2 gene. Transfusion 24, 264–266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Fernandez-Mateos, P., Cailleau, A., Henry, S., Costache, M., Elmgren, A., Svensson, L., Larson, G., Samuelsson, B. E., Oriol, R. & Mollicone, R. (1998): Point mutations and deletion responsible for the Bombay Hnull, and the Reunion Hweak blood groups. Vox Sang. 75, 37–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Finne, J. (1980): Identification of the blood group ABH-active glycoprotein components of human erythrocyte membrane. Eur. J. Biochem. 104, 181–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Finne, J., Breimer, M. E., Hansson, G. C., Karlsson, K. A., Leffler, H., Vliegenthart, J. F. G. & Van Halbeek, H. (1989): Novel polyfucosylated N-linked glycopeptides with blood group A, H, X, and Y determinants from human small intestinal epithelial cells. J. Biol. Chem. 264, 5720–5735.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Finne, J., Krusius, T., Rauvala, H., Kekomäki, R. & Myllylä, G. (1978): Alkali-stable blood group A-and B-active poly(glycosyl)-peptides from human erythrocyte membrane. FEBS Lett. 89, 111–115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Fiori, A., Panari, G., Rossi, G. & De Mercurio, D. (1978): Polymorphism of A, B, and H substances in human urine. J. Chromat. 145, 41–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Fischer, W. & Hahn, F. (1935): Über auffallende Schwäche der gruppenspezifischen Reaktionsfähigkeit bei einem Erwachsenen. Z Immun.-Forsch. 84, 177–188.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Flsher, N. & Cahan, A. (1962): An addition to the family in which Ax is transmitted through a person of the blood group A2B. Vox Sang. 7, 484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 118.
    Franco, R. F., Simoes, B. P. & Zago, M. A. (1995): Relative frequencies of the two O alleles of the histo-blood ABH system in different racial groups. Vox Sang. 69, 50–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 119.
    Fredman, P., Richert, N. D., Magnani, J. L., Willingham, M. C., Pastan, I. & Ginsburg, V. (1983): A monoclonal antibody that precipitates the glycoprotein receptor for epidermal growth factor is directed against the human blood group H type 1 antigen. J. Biol. Chem. 258, 11206–11210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 120.
    Fredrick, J., Hunter, J., Greenwell, P., Winter, K. & Gottschall, J. L. (1985): The A1B genotype expressed as A2B on the red cells of individuals with strong B gene-specific transferases. Results from two paternity cases. Transfusion 25, 30–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 121.
    Friedenreich, V. (1931): Über die Serologie der Untergruppen A1, und A2. Z Immun.-Forsch. 71, 283–313.Google Scholar
  123. 122.
    Friedenreich, V. (1936): Eine bisher unbekannte Blutgruppeneigenschaft (A3). Z. Immun.-Forsch. 89, 409–422.Google Scholar
  124. 123.
    Friedhoff, F. & Kuhns, W. J. (1968): Detection and characterization of blood group antigens on untransformed human amnion cells. Transfusion 8, 244–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 124.
    Fukuda, M., Dell, A. & Fukuda, M. N. (1984): Structure of fetal lactosaminoglycan. The carbohydrate moiety of band 3 isolated from human umbilical cord erythrocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 259,4782–4791.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 125.
    Fukuda, M., Dell, A., Oates, J. E. & Fukuda, M. N. (1984): Structure of branched lactosaminoglycan, the carbohydrate moiety of band 3 isolated from adult human erythrocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 259, 8260–8273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 126.
    Fukuda, M. N., Fukuda, M. & Hakomori, S. I. (1979): Cell surface modification by endo-ß-galactosidase. Change of blood group activities and release of oligosaccharides from glycoproteins and glycosphingolipids of human erythrocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 254, 5458–5465.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 127.
    Fukuda, M. N. & Hakomori, S. I. (1982): Structures of branched blood group A-active glycosphingolipids in human erythrocytes and polymorphism of A-and H-glycolipids in A1, and A2 subgroups. J. Biol. Chem. 257, 446–455.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 128.
    Fukuda, M. N. & Levery, S. B. (1983): Glycolipids of fetal, newborn, and adult erythrocytes. Glycolipid pattern and structural study of H3-glycolipid from newborn erythrocytes. Biochemistry 22, 5034–5040.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 129.
    Fukumori, Y., Ohnoki, S., Shibata, H. & Nishimukai, H. (1996): Suballeles of the ABO blood group system in a Japanese population. Hum. Hered. 46, 221–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 130.
    Furukawa, K., Clausen, H., Hakomori, S. I., Sakamoto, J., Look, K., Lundblad, A., Mattes, M. J. & Lloyd, K. O. (1985): Analysis of the specificity of five murine anti-blood group A monoclonal antibodies, including one that identifies type 3 and type 4 A determinants. Biochemistry 24, 7820–7826.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 131.
    Furukawa, K., Mattes, M. J. & Lloyd, K. O. (1985): A1, and A2 erythrocytes can be distinguished by reagents that do not detect structural differences between the two cell types. J. Immunol. 135, 4090–4094.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 132.
    Furukawa, K., Ying, Ft., Nakajima, T. & Matsuki, T. (1995): Hemagglutinins in fungus extracts and their blood group specificity. Exp. Clin. Immunogenet. 12, 223–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 133.
    Galili, U. (1988): The natural anti-Gal antibody, the B-like antigen, and human red cell aging. Blood Cells 14, 205–228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 134.
    Galili, U., Clark, M. R., Shohet, S. B., Buehler, J. & Macher, B. A. (1987): Evolutionary relationship between the natural anti-Gal antibody and the Galα1 → 3Gal epitope in primates. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84, 1369–1373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 135.
    Galili, U., Flechner, I., Knyszynski, A., Danon, D. & Rachmilewitz, E. A. (1986): The natural anti-α-galactosyl IgG on human normal senescent red blood cells. Brit. J. Haematol. 62, 317–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 136.
    Galili, U., Macher, B. A., Buehler, J. & Shohet, S. B. (1985): Human natural anti-alpha-galactosyl IgG. II. The specific recognition of alpha (1 →3)-linked galactose residues. J. Exp. Med. 162, 573–582.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 137.
    Galili, U., Mandrell, R. E., Hamadeh, R. M., Shohet, S. B. & Griffiss, J. M. (1988): Interaction between human natural anti-α-galactosyl immunoglobulin G and bacteria of the human flora. Infect. Immun. 56, 1730–1737.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 138.
    Galili, U., Shohet, S. B., Kobrin, E., Stults, C. L. M. & Macher, B. A. (1988): Man, apes, and Old World monkeys differ from other mammals in the expression of α-galactosyl epitopes on nucleated cells. J. Biol. Chem. 263, 17755–17762.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 139.
    Galili, U. & Swanson, K. (1991): Gene sequences suggest inactivation of a-1,3-galactosyltransferase in catarrhines after the divergence of apes from monkeys. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 7401–7404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 140.
    Gardas, A. & Koscielak, J. (1973): New form of A-, B-, and H-blood-group active substances extracted from erythrocyte membranes. Eur. J. Biochem. 32, 178–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 141.
    Gardas, A. & Koscielak, J. (1974): Megaloglycolipids — unusually complex glycosphingolipids of human erythrocyte membrane with A, B, H, and I blood group specificity. FEBS Lett. 42,101–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 142.
    Garratty, G., Willbanks, E. & Petz, L D. (1971): An acquired B antigen associated with Proteus vulgaris infection. Vox Sang. 21, 45–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 143.
    Gassner, C., Schmarda, A., Nussbaumer, W. & Schonitzer, D. (1996): ABO glycosyltransferase genotyping by polymerase chain reaction using sequence-specific primers. Blood 88,1852–1856.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 144.
    Gerard, G., Vitrac, D., Le Pendu, J., Muller, A. & Oriol, R. (1982): H-deficient blood groups (Bombay) of Reunion Island. Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 34, 937–947.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 145.
    Gerbal, A., Liberge, G., Cartron, J. P. & Salmon, C. (1970): Les phénotypes Aend: étude immunologique et génétique. Rev. Fr. Transfus. 13, 243–250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 146.
    Gerbal, A., Maslet, C. & Salmon, C. (1975): Immunological aspects of the acquired B antigen. Vox Sang. 28, 398–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 147.
    Gerbal, A. & Ropars, C. (1976): L’antigène B acquis. Rev. Fr. Transfus. 19, 127–133.Google Scholar
  149. 148.
    Gerbal, A., Ropars, C., Gerbal, R., Cartron, J. P., Maslet, C. & Salmon, C. (1976): Acquired B antigen disappearance by in vitro acetylation associated with A, activity restoration. Vox Sang. 31, 64–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 149.
    Gibbons, R. A., Creeth, J. M. & Denborough, M. A. (1970): Biophysical characteristics of the blood group substances. In: Blood and Tissue Antigens (D. Aminoff, ed.). Academic Press, New York — London, pp. 307–324.Google Scholar
  151. 150.
    Gibbs, M. B., Akeroyd, J. H. & Zapf, J. J. (1961): Quantitative subgroups of the antigen B in man and their occurrence in three racial groups. Nature 192, 1196–1197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 151.
    Gold, E. R. & Balding, P. (1975): Receptor-Specific Proteins. Plant and Animal Lectins. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  153. 152.
    Gold, E. R. & Bhatia, H. M. (1964): Observations on the H antigen. Vox Sang. 9, 625–628.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 153.
    Goldstein, I. J., Blake, D. A., Ebisu, S., Williams, T. J. & Murphy, L. A. (1981): Carbohydrate binding studies on the Bandeiraea simplicifolia I isolectins. J. Biol. Chem. 256, 3890–3893.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 154.
    Goldstein, J., Lenny, L., Davies, D. & Voak, D. (1989): Further evidence for the presence of A antigen on group B erythrocytes through the use of specific exoglycosidases. Vox Sang. 57, 142–146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 155.
    Goodwin, S. D. & Watkins, W. M. (1974): The peptide moiety of blood group specific glycoproteins. Some amino-acid sequences in the regions carrying the carbohydrate chains. Eur. J. Biochem. 47, 371–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 156.
    Gooi, H. C., Hounsell, E. F., Picard, J. K., Lowe, A. D., Voak, D., Lennox, E. S. & Feizi, T. (1985): Differing reactions of monoclonal anti-A antibodies with oligosaccharides related to blood group A. J. Biol. Chem. 260, 13218–13224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 157.
    Greenbury, C. L., Moore, D. H. & Nunn, L. A. C. (1963): Reaction of 7S and 19S components of immune rabbit antisera with human group A and AB red cells. Immunology 6, 421–433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 158.
    Greenwell, P., Ball, M. G. & Watkins, W. M. (1983): Fucosyltransferase activity in human lymphocytes and granulocytes. Blood group H-gene-specified α-2-L-fucosyltransferase is a discriminatory marker of peripheral blood lymphocytes. FEBS Lett. 164, 314–317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 159.
    Greenwell, P. & Watkins, W. M. (1987): Demonstration of fucosyl α1-2 galactoside α-3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase activity in the serum and tissues of blood group O individuals. Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Glycoconjugates, Lille, Abstract E-34.Google Scholar
  161. 160.
    Greenwell, P., Yates, A. D. & Watkins, W. M. (1986): UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine as a donor substrate for the glycosyltransferase encoded by the B gene at the human blood group ABO locus. Carbohydr. Res. 149, 149–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 161.
    Grollman, A. P. & Marcus, D. M. (1966): Enzymatic incorporation of fucose into blood group H substance. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 25, 542–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 162.
    Grundbacher, F. J. (1964): Changes in the human A antigen of erythrocytes with the individual’s age. Nature 204, 192–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 163.
    Grundbacher, F. J. & Summerlin, D. C. (1971): Inherited differences in blood group A subtypes in Caucasians and Negroes. Hum. Hered. 21, 88–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 164.
    Grunnet, N., Steffensen, R., Bennett, E. P. & Clausen, H. (1994): Evaluation of histo-blood group ABO genotyping in a Danish population: Frequency of a novel O allele defined as O-2. Vox Sang. 67, 210–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 165.
    Hakomori, S. I. (1981): Blood group ABH and li antigens of human erythrocytes: chemistry, polymorphism, and their developmental change. Sem. Hematol. 18, 39–44.Google Scholar
  167. 166.
    Hakomori, S. I. (1984): Tumor associated carbohydrate antigens. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 2,103–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Hakomori, S. I. (1985): Aberrant glycosylation in cancer cell membranes as focused on glycolipids: overview and perspective. Cancer Res. 45, 2405–2414.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Hakomori, S. I. (1989): Aberrant glycosylation in tumors and tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens. Adv. Cancer. Res. 52, 257–331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Hakomori, S. I., Stellner, K. & Watanabe, K. (1972): Four antigenic variants of blood group A glycolipid: examples of highly complex, branched chain glycolipid of animal cell membrane. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 49, 1061–1068.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Hakomori, S. I. & Strycharz, G. D. (1968): Investigations on cellular blood-group substances. I. Isolation and chemical composition of blood-group ABH and Leb isoantigens of sphingoglycolipid nature. Biochemistry 7, 1279–1286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Hamadeh, R. M., Jarvis, G. A., Galili, U., Mandrell, R. E., Zhou, P. & Griffiss, J. M. (1992): Human natural anti-Gal IgG regulates alternative complement pathway activation on bacterial surfaces. J. Clin. Invest. 89, 1223–1235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Hammarström, S. & Kabat, E. A. (1969): Purification and characterization of a blood-group A reactive hemagglutinin from the snail Helix pomatia and a study of its combining site. Biochemistry 8, 2696–2705.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Hammarström, S., Murphy, L A., Goldstein, I. J. & Etzler, M. E. (1977): Carbohydrate binding specificity of four N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-“specific” lectins: Helix pomatia A hemagglutinin, soy bean agglutinin, lima bean lectin, and Dolichos biflorus lectin. Biochemistry 16, 2750–2755.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Hanfland, P. (1975): Characterization of B and H blood group active glycosphingolipids from human B erythrocyte membranes. Chem. Phys. Lipids 15, 105–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Hanfland, P., Egge, H., Dabrowski, U., Kuhn, S., Roelcke, D. & Dabrowski, J. (1981): Isolation and characterization of an l-active ceramide decasaccharide from rabbit erythrocyte membranes. Biochemistry 20, 5310–5319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Hanfland, P. & Egli, H. (1975): Quantitative isolation and purification of blood group-active glycosphingolipids from human B erythrocytes. Vox Sang. 28, 438–452.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Hanfland, P. & Graham, H. A. (1981): Immunochemistry of the Lewis-blood-group system: partial characterization of Lea-, Leb-, and H-type 1 (Ledh)-blood-group active glycosphingolipids from human plasma. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 210, 383–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Hanfland, P., Kordowicz, M., Niermann, H., Egge, H., Dabrowski, U., Peter-Katalinic, J. & Dabrowski, J. (1984): Purification and structures of branched blood-group-B-active glycosphingolipids from human erythrocyte membranes. Eur. J. Biochem. 145, 531–542.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Hanfland, P., Kordowicz, M., Peter-Katalinic, J., Egge, H., Dabrowski, J. & Dabrowski, U. (1988): Structure elucidation of blood group B-like and l-active ceramide eicosa-and pentacosasaccharides from rabbit erythrocyte membranes by combined gas chromatography — mass spectromerty, electron-impact and fast-atom-bombardment mass spectrometry, and two-dimensional correlated, relayed-coherence transfer, and nuclear Overhauser effect 500-MHz 1H-N.M.R. spectroscopy. Carbohydr. Res. 178, 1–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Hansson, G. C. (1983): The structure of two blood group A-active glycosphingolipids with 12 sugars and a branched chain present in the epithelial cells of rat small intestine. J. Biol. Chem. 258, 9612–9615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Hansson, G. C., Bouhours, J. F. & Angström, J. (1987): Characterization of neutral blood group B-active glycosphingolipids of rat gastric mucosa. A novel type of blood group active glycosphingolipid based on isogloboside. J. Biol. Chem. 262, 13135–13141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Hansson, G. C., Karlsson, K. A., Larson, G., Mckibbin, J. M., Blaszczyk, M., Herlyn, M., Steplewski, Z. & Koprowski, H. (1983): Mouse monoclonal antibodies against human cancer cell lines with specificities for blood group and related antigens. J. Biol. Chem. 258, 4091–4097.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Hansson, G. C., Karlsson, K. A. & Thurin, J. (1980): Glycolipids of rat large intestine. Characterization of a novel blood group-B active tetraglycosylceramide absent from small intestine. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 620, 270–280.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Harpaz, N., Flowers, H. M. & Sharon, N. (1975): Studies on B-antigenic sites of human erythrocytes by use of coffee bean α-galactosidase. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 170, 676–683.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Hattori, H., Uemura, K. I., Ishihara, H. & Ogata, H. (1992): Glycolipid of human pancreatic cancer; the appearance of neolacto-series (type 2 chain) glycolipid and the presence of incompatible blood group antigen in tumor tissues. Biochim. Biophys. Ada 1125, 21–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Hearn, V. M., Race, C. & Watkins, W. M. (1972): α-N-acetylgalactosaminyl-and α-galactosyttransferases in human ovarian cyst epithelial linings and fluids. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 46, 948–956.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Hearn, V. M., Smith, Z. G. & Watkins, W. M. (1968): An α-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferase associated with the human blood group A character. Biochem. J. 109, 315–317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Heier, H. E., Kornstad, L., Namork, E., 0Stgard, P. & Sandin, R. (1992): Expression of B and H antigens on red cells from a group Bweak individual studied by sérologie and scanning electron microscopic techniques. Immunohematology 8, 94–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Heier, H. E., Namork, E., Calkovska, Z., Sandin, R. & Kornstad, L. (1994): Expression of A antigens on erythrocytes of weak blood group A subgroups. Vox Sang. 66, 231–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Henion, T. R., Macher, B. A., Anaraki, F. & Galili, U. (1994): Defining the minimal size of catalytically active primate a1,3 galactosyltransferase: structure-function studies on the recombinant truncated enzyme. Glycobiology 4, 193–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Henry, S., Mollicone, R., Fernandez, P., Samuelsson, B., Oriol, R. & Larson, G. (1996): Homozygous expression of a missense mutation at nucleotide 385 in the FUT2 gene associates with the Le(a+b+) partial-secretor phenotype in an Indonesian family. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 219, 675–678.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Henry, S., Mollicone, R., Fernandez, P., Samuelsson, B., Oriol, R. & Larson, G. (1996): Molecular basis for erythrocyte Le(a+b+) and salivary ABH partial-secretor phenotypes: expression of a FUT2 secretor allele with an A→t mutation at nucleotide 385 correlates with reduced α(1,2)fucosyltransferase activity. Glycoconj. J. 13, 985–993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Henry, S., Mollicone, R., Lowe, J. B., Samuelsson, B. & Larson, G. (1996): A second nonsecretor allele of the blood group α(1,2)fucosyltransferase gene (FUT2). Vox Sang. 70, 21–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Henry, S., Oriol, R. & Samuelsson, B. (1995): Lewis histo-blood group system and associated secretory phenotypes. Vox Sang. 69, 166–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Henry, S. M., Benny, A. G. & Woodfiled, D. G. (1990): Investigation of Lewis phenotypes on Polynesians: evidence of a weak secretor phenotype. Vox Sang. 58, 61–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Herron, R., Greenwell, P., Wetswood, M. C., Race, C., Smith, D. S. & Watkins, W. M. (1980): An H-deficient blood with normal H transferase levels. Vox Sang. 39, 186–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Herron, R., Young, D., Clark, M., Smith, D. S., Giles, C. M., Poole, J. & Liew, Y. W. (1982): A specific antibody for cells with acquired B antigen. Transfusion 22, 525–527.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Hindsgaul, O., Khare, D. P., Bach, M. & Lemieux, R. U. (1985): Molecular recognition. III. The binding of the H-type 2 human blood group determinant by the lectin I of Ulex europaeus. Can. J. Chem. 63, 2653–2658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Hindsgaul, O., Norberg, T., Le Pendu, J. & Lemieux, R. U. (1982): Synthesis of type 2 human blood group antigenic determinants. The H, X, and Y haptens and variations of the H type 2 determinants as probes for the combining site of the lextin I of Ulex europaeus. Carbohydr. Res. 109, 109–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Hitoshi, S., Kusunoki, S., Kanazawa, I. & Tsuji, S. (1995): Molecular cloning and expression of two types of rabbit α-galactoside α1,2-fucosyltransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 8844–8850.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Hitoshi, S., Kusunoki, S., Kanazawa, I. & Tsuji, S. (1996): Molecular cloning and expression of a third type of rabbit GDP-L-fucose:β-D-galactoside 2-α-L-fucosyltransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 271, 16975–16981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Holgersson, J., Backer, A. E., Breimer, M. E., Gustavsson, M. L., Jovall, P. A., Karlsson, H., Pimlott, W. & Samuelsson, B. E. (1992): The blood group-B type-4 heptaglycosylceramide is a minor blood group-B structure in human B-kidneys in contrast to the corresponding A-type-4 compound in A-kidneys — structural and in vitro biosynthetic studies. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1180, 33–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Holgersson, J., Jovall, P. A., Samuelsson, B. E. & Breimer, M. E. (1990): Structural characterization of non-acid glycosphingolipids in kidneys of single blood group-O and group-A pigs. J. Biochem. 108, 766–777.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Hrubisko, M. (1976): Deficient H types. Rev. Fr. Transfus. 19, 157–174.Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Hrubisko, M., Calkovska, Z., Mergancová, 0. & Gallovâ, K. (1966): Beobachtungen über Varianten des Blutgruppensystems ABO. I. Studie der Variante Am. Blut 13, 137–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Hrubisko, M., Calkovská, Z., Mergancová, O. & Gallová, K. (1966): Beobachtungen über Varianten des Blutgruppensystems ABO. II. Beitrag zur Erblichkeit der Am-Variante. Blut 13, 232–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Hrubisko, M. & Mergancova, O. (1966): Beobachtungen über Varianten des Blutgruppensystems ABO. III. Die neuen Variationen OHm und AHm. Ein Beitrag zur Frage der Biosynthese der Blutgruppen-Antigene. Blut 13, 278–285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Hrubisko, M., Mergancová, O., Prodanov, P., Hammerová, T. & Racková, M. (1980): Interalleleic competition and complementation in the ABO blood group system. Immunol. Commun. 9, 139–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Hummel, K. & Klement, G. (1970): Untersuchungen über die Heterogenität des Bestandes an A-und H-Rezeptoren individueller A1, und A2 Erythrocyten. Z. Immun.-Forsch. 140, 221–258.Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    Ikemoto, S. & Furuhata, T. (1971): Serology and genetics of a new blood type Bm. Nat. New Bi. 231, 184–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Imberty, A., Mikros, E., Koca, J., Mollicone, R., Oriol, R. & Perez, S. (1995): Computer simulation of histo-blood group oligosaccharides: energy maps of all constituting disaccharides and potential energy surfaces of 14 ABH and Lewis carbohydrate antigens. Glycoconj. J. 12, 331–349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Ishiyama, I. & Uhlenbruck, G. (1972): Some problems concerning the absorption mechanism of anti-A-agglutinin from Helix pomatia onto Sephadex G-200. Z. Immun.-Forsch. 143, 147–155.Google Scholar
  214. 214.
    Issitt, P. D. (1985): The ABO blood group system. In: Applied Blood Group Serology. Montgomery Scientific Publications, Miami, Florida, USA, pp. 132–168.Google Scholar
  215. 216.
    Jacquinet, J. C. & Sinay, P. (1977): Synthesis of blood-group substances. 6. Synthesis of 0-α-L-fucopyranosyl-(1-2)-0-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-4)-0-(α-L-fucopyranosyl-(1-3))-2-acet-amido-2-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranoside, the postulated Lewis d antigenic determinant. J. Org. Chem. 42, 720–724.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 217.
    Janvier, D., Veaux, S., Reviron, M., Guignier, F. & Benbunan, M. (1990): Serological characterization of murine monoclonal antibodies directed against acquired B red cells. Vox Sang. 59, 92–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 218.
    Järnefeldt, J., Rush, J., Ll, Y. T. & Laine, R. A. (1978): Erythroglycan, a high molecular weight glycopeptide with the repeating structure [galactosyl(1-4)-2-deoxy-2-acetamidoglucosyl(1-3)] comprising more than one-third of the protein-bound carbohydrate of human erythrocyte stroma. J. Biol. Chem. 253, 8006–8009.Google Scholar
  218. 219.
    Jarosch, K., Schnitzler, S., Prokop, O. & Uhlenbruck, G. (1967): Anti-B (Anti-Bsa) in Forelleneiern. Z. Ärztl. Fortbildung 61, 758–759.Google Scholar
  219. 220.
    Johnson, P. H. & Hopkinson, D. A. (1992): Detection of ABO blood group polymorphism by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Hum. Mol. Genet. 1, 341–344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 221.
    Jovall, P. A., Lindström, K., Pascher, I., Pimlott, W. & Samuelsson, B. E. (1987): Identification of a blood group A active hexaglycosylceramide with a type 1 carbohydrate chain in plasma of an A, Le(a-b-) secretor. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 257, 409–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 222.
    Joziasse, D. H., Shaper, J. H., Jabs, E. W. & Shaper, N. L. (1991): Characterzation of an a1→3-galactosyltransferase homologue on human chromosome 12 that is organized as a processed pseudogene. J. Biol. Chem. 266, 6991–6998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 223.
    Joziasse, D. H., Shaper, J. H., Van Den Eijnden, D. H., VanTunen, A. J. & Shaper, N. L (1989): Bovine a1 →3-galactosyltransferase: isolation and characterizatiohn of a cDNA clone. Identification of homologous sequences in human genomic DNA. J. Biol. Chem. 264, 14290–14297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 224.
    Joziasse, D. H., Shaper, N. L., Kim, D. Y., Van Den Eijnden, D. H. & Shaper, J. H. (1992): Murine α1,3-galactosyltransferase. A single gene locus specifies four isoforms of the enzyme by alternative splicing. J. Biol. Chem. 267, 5534–5541.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 225.
    Judd, W. J., Mcguire-Mallory, N., Anderson, K. M., Heath, E. J., Swanson, J., Gray, J. M. & Oberman, H. A. (1979): Concomitant T-and Tk activation associated with acquired B antigens. Transfusion 19, 293–298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 226.
    Kabat, E. A. (1956): Blood Group Substances. Their Chemistry and Immunochemistry. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  226. 227.
    Kabat, E. A. (1962): Immunochemical studies on blood groups XXIX. Action of various oligosaccharides from human milk in inhibiting the cross reactions of type-XIV antipneumococcal sera with partially hydrolyzed blood-group substances (P1 fractions). Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1, 181–186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 228.
    Kabat, E. A. (1971): Einführung in die Immunchemie und Immunologie. Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 229.
    Kaneko, M., Nishihara, S., Shinya, N., Kudo, T., Iwasaki, H., Seno, T., Okubo, Y. & Narimatsu, H. (1997): Wide variety of point mutations in the H gene of Bombay and para-Bombay individuals that inactivate H enzyme. Blood 90, 839–849.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 230.
    Kannagi, R., Levery, S. B. & Hakomori, S. I. (1984): Blood group H antigen with globo-series structure. Isolation and characterization from human blood group O erythrocytes. FEBS Lett. 175, 397–401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 231.
    Kannagi, R., Levery, S. B., Ishigami, F., Hakomori, S. I., Shevinsky, L. H., Knowles, B. B. & Solter, D. (1983): New globoseries glycosphingolipids in human teratocarcinoma reactive with the monoclonal antibody directed to a developmentally regulated antigen, stage-specific embryonic antigen 3. J. Biol. Chem. 258, 8934–8942.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 232.
    Karhi, K. K. & Gahmberg, C. G. (1980): Identification of blood group A-active glycoproteins in the human erythrocyte membrane. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 622, 344–354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 233.
    Karhi, K. K. & Gahmberg, C. G. (1980): Isolation and characterization of the blood group A-specific lectin from Vicia cracca. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 622, 337–343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 234.
    Karlsson, K. A. & Larson, G. (1981): Molecular characterization of cell surface antigens of fetal tissue. Detailed analysis of glycosphingolipids of meconium of a human O Le(a-b+) secretor. J. Biol. Chem. 256, 3512–3524.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 235.
    Kelly, R. J., Ernst, L. K., Larsen, R. D., Bryant, J. G., Robinson, J. S. & Lowe, J. B. (1994): Molecular basis for H blood group deficiency in Bombay (Oh) and para-Bombay individuals. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 5843–5847.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 236.
    Kelly, R. J., Rouquier, S., Giorgi, D., Lennon, G. G. & Lowe, J. B. (1995): Sequence and expression of a candidate for the human Secretor blood group α(1,2)fucosyltransferase gene (FUT2). Homozygosity for an enzyme-inactivating nonsense mutation commonly correlates with the non-secretor phenotype. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 4640–4649.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 237.
    Kelton, J. G., Hamid, C., Aker, S. & Blajchman, A. (1982): The amount of blood group A substance on platelets is proportional to the amount in the plasma. Blood 59, 980–985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 238.
    Kermarrec, N., Roubinet, F., Apoil, P. A. & Blancher, A. (1999): Comparison of allele O sequences of the human and non-human primate ABO system. Immunogenetics 49, 517–526.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 239.
    Kim, Y. S., Perdomo, J., Bella, A. & Nordberg, J. (1971): N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferase in human serum and erythrocyte membranes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 68, 1753–1756.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 240.
    King, J. S., Fileden, M. L., Goodman, H. O. & Boyce, W. H. (1961): Total nondialyzable solids in human urine. X. Isolation and characterization of non ultrafiltrable material with blood-group substance activity. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 95, 310–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 241.
    Kisailus, E. C. & Kabat, E. A. (1978): Immunochemical studies on blood-groups. LXVI. Competitive binding assays of A1, and A2 blood-group substances with insolubilized anti-A serum and insolubilized A agglutinin from Dolichos biflorus. J. Exp. Med. 147, 830–843.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 242.
    Kishi, K., Takizawa, H. & Iseki, S. (1977): Isoelectric analysis of B gene-associated a-galactosyltransferases in human serum and saliva. Proc. J p. Acad. 53, 172–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 243.
    Knowles, R. W., Bai, Y., Daniels, G. L. & Watkins, W. M. (1982): Monoclonal anti-type 2 H: an antibody detecting a precursor of the A and B blood group antigens. J. Immunogenet. 9, 69–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 244.
    Kobata, A. (1977): Milk glycoproteins and oligosaccharides. In: The Glycoconjugates. (M. I. Horowitz, and W. Pigman, eds.). Academic Press, New York, Vol. 1, pp. 423–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 245.
    Kobata, A. & Ginsburg, V. (1970): Undine diphosphate-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine:D-galactose α-S-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferase, a product of the gene that determines blood type A in man. J. Biol. Chem. 245, 1484–1490.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 246.
    Kobata, A., Grollman, E. F. & Ginsburg, V. (1968): An enzymic basis for blood type A in humans. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 124, 609–612.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 247.
    Kobata, A., Grollman, E. F. & Ginsburg, V. (1968): An enzymatic basis for blood type B in humans. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 32, 272–277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 248.
    Koda, Y., Soejima, M., Johnson, P. H., Smart, E. & Kimura, H. (1997): Missense mutation of FUT1 and deletion of FUT2 are responsible for Indian Bombay phenotype of ABO blood group system. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 238, 21–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. 249.
    Koda, Y., Soejima, M. & Kimura, H. (1997): Structure and expression of H-type GDP-L-fucose:β-D-galactoside 2-α-L-fucosyltransferase gene (FUT1) — Two transcription start sites and alternative splicing generate several forms of FUT1 mRNA. J. Biol. Chem. 272, 7501–7505.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. 250.
    Koda, Y., Soejima, M., Liu, Y. H. & Kimura, H. (1996): Molecular basis for secretor type α(1,2)-fucosyltransferase gene deficiency in a Japanese population: a fusion gene generated by unequal crossover responsible for the enzyme deficiency. Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 59, 343–350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 251.
    Koda, Y., Soejima, M., Wang, B. J. & Kimura, H. (1997): Structure and expression of the gene encoding secretor-type galactoside 2-α-L-fucosyltransferase (FUT2). Eur. J. Biochem. 246, 750–755.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. 252.
    Kogure, T. (1975): The action of group Bm or cisAB sera on group O red cells in the presence of UDP-D-galactose. Vox Sang. 29, 51–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. 253.
    Kogure, T. & Furukawa, K. (1976): Enzymatic conversion of human group O red cells into group B active cells by α-D-galactosyltransferase of sera and salivas from group B and its variant types. J. Immunogenet. 3, 147–154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 254.
    Kogure, T. & Furukawa, K. (1980): Detection and activity of blood group B gene-associated α-galactosyltransferase in human urine. J. Immunogenet. 7, 375–380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. 255.
    Kominato, Y., Fujikura, T., Takizawa, T., Hayashi, K., Mori, T., Matsue, K., Yasue, S. & Matsuda, T. (1990): Antibody to blood group glycosyltransferases in a patient transplanted with an ABO incompatible bone marrow. Exp. Clin. Immunogenet. 7, 85–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. 256.
    Kominato, Y., Mcneill, P. D., Yamamoto, M., Russell, M., Hakomori, S. & Yamamoto, F. (1992): Animal histo blood group ABO genes. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 189, 154–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. 257.
    Konami, Y., Yamamoto, K. & Osawa, T. (1991): Purification and characterization of two types of Cytisus sessilifolius anti-H(O) lectins by affinity chromatography. Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler 372, 103–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. 258.
    Konami, Y., Yamamoto, K., Tsuji, T., Matsumoto, I. & Osawa, T. (1983): Purification and characterization of two types of Laburnum alpinum anti-H(O) hemagglutinin by affinity chromatography. Hoppe-Seyler’s Z. Physiol. Chem. 364, 397–405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. 259.
    Koscielak, J., Lenkiewicz, B., Zielenski, J. & Seyfried, H. (1986): Weak A phenotypes possibly caused by mutation. Vox Sang. 50, 187–190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. 260.
    Koscielak, J., Miller-Podraza, H., Krauze, R. & Piasek, A. (1976): Isolation and characterization of poly(glycosyl)ceramides (megaloglycolipids) with A, H, and I blood group activities. Eur. J. Biochem. 71, 9–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. 261.
    Koscielak, J., Pacuska, T. & Dzierzkowa-Borodej, W. (1976): Activity of B-gene-specified galactosyltransferase in individuals with Bm phenotypes. Vox Sang. 30, 58–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. 262.
    Koscielak, J., Piasek, A., Gorniak, H., Gardas, A. & Gregor, A. (1973): Structures of fucose-containing glycolipids with H and B blood-group activity and of sialic acid and glucosamine-containing glycolipid of human erythrocyte membrane. Eur. J. Biochem. 37, 214–225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. 263.
    Koscielak, J., Zdebska, E., Wilczynska, Z., Miller-Podraza, H. & Dzierzkowa-Borodej, W. (1979): Immunochemistry of li-active glycosphingolipids of erythrocytes. Eur. J. Biochem. 96, 331–337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. 264.
    Kothbauer, H. & Schenkel-Brunner, H. (1975): Hemagglutinins in fish eggs: comparative studies on different Salmonidae species. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 50A, 27–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. 265.
    Kothbauer, H. & Schenkel-Brunner, H. (1978): Immunchemische Untersuchungen an Braunfrosch-Laich: Vergleichende Untersuchungen an Rana temporaria, Rana arvalis, Rana dalmatina und Rana latastei. Z. Zool. Syst. Evolut.-Forsch. 16, 144–148.Google Scholar
  265. 266.
    Krüpe, M. & Braun, C. (1952): Über ein pflanzliches Hämagglutinin gegen menschliche B-Blutzellen. Naturwiss. 39, 284–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. 267.
    Krusius, T., Finne, J. & Rauvala, H. (1978): The poly(glycosyl) chains of glycoproteins. Characterization of a novel type of glycoprotein saccharides from human erythrocyte membrane. Eur. J. Biochem. 92, 298–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. 268.
    Kudo, T., Iwasaki, H., Nishihara, S., Shinya, N., Ando, T., Narimatsu, I. & Narimatsu, H. (1996): Molecular genetic analysis of the human Lewis histo-blood group system. 2. Secretor gene inactivation by a novel single missense mutation A385T in Japanese nonsecretor individuals. J. Biol. Chem. 271, 9830–9837.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. 269.
    Kuhns, W. J., Oliver, R. T., Watkins, W. M. & Greenwell, P. (1980): Leukemia-induced alterations of serum glycosyltransferase enzymes. Cancer Res. 40, 268–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 270.
    Kumazaki, T. & Yoshida, A. (1984): Biochemical evidence that secretor gene, Se, is a structural gene encoding a specific fucosyltransferase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81, 4193–4197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. 271.
    Kyprianou, P., Betteridge, A., Donald, A. S. R. & Watkins, W. M. (1990): Purification of the blood group H gene associated α-2-L-fucosyltransferase from human plasma. Glycoconj. J. 7, 573–588.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. 272.
    Landsteiner, K. (1900): Zur Kenntnis der antifermativen, lytischen und agglutinierenden Wirkungen des Blutserums und der Lymphe. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. 27, 357–362.Google Scholar
  272. 273.
    Landsteiner, K. (1901): Über Agglutinationserscheinungen normalen menschlichen Blutes. Wien. Klin. Wochenschr. 14, 1132–1134.Google Scholar
  273. 274.
    Landsteiner, K. & Levine, P. (1930): Differentiation of a type of human blood by means of normal animal serum. J. Immunol., 87–94.Google Scholar
  274. 275.
    Lanset, S. & Ropartz, C. (1971): A second example of acquired B-like antigen in a healthy person. Vox Sang. 20, 82–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. 276.
    Lanset, S., Ropartz, C., Rousseau, P. Y., Guerbet, Y. & Salmon, C. (1966): Une famille comportant les phénotypes Bombay: OAB h et OB h. Transfusion (Paris) 9, 255–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. 277.
    Larsen, R. D., Ernst, L. K., Nair, R. P. & Lowe, J. B. (1990): Molecular cloning, sequence, and expression of a human GDP-L-fucose: α-D-galactoside 2-α-L-fucosyltransferase cDNA that can form the H blood group antigen. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87, 6674–6678.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. 278.
    Larsen, R. D., Rajan, V. P., Ruff, M. M., Kukowska-Latallo, J., Cummings, R. D. & Lowe, J. B. (1989): Isolation of a cDNA encoding a murine UDP-galactose: α-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminide α-1,3-galactosyltransferase: expression cloning by gene transfer. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 8227–8231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. 279.
    Larsen, R. D., Rivera-Marrero, C. A., Ernst, L. K., Cummings, R. D. & Lowe, J. B. (1990): Frameshift and nonsense mutations in a human genomic sequence homologous to a murine UDP-Gal:β-D-Gal(1,4)-D-GlcNAc α(1,3)-galactosyltransferase cDNA. J. Biol. Chem. 265, 7055–7061.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. 280.
    Larson, G. & Samuelsson, B. E. (1980): Blood-group type glycosphingolipids of human cord blood erythrocytes. J. Biochem. 88, 647–657.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. 281.
    Lau, P., Sererat, S., Beatty, J., Oilschlager, R. & Kini, J. (1990): Group A variants defined with a monoclonal anti-A reagent. Transfusion 30, 142–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. 282.
    Le Pendu, J. (1989): A hypothesis on the dual significance of ABH, Lewis and related antigens. J. Immunogenet. 16, 53–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. 283.
    Le Pendu, J., Cartron, J. P., Lemieux, R. U. & Oriol, R. (1985): The presence of at least two different H-blood-group-related α-D-Gal α-2-L-fucosyltransferases in human serum and the genetics of blood group H substances. Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 37, 749–760.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. 284.
    Le Pendu, J., Clamagirand-Mulet, C., Cartron, J. P., Gerard, G., Vitrac, D. & Oriol, R. (1983): H-deficient blood groups of Reunion island. III. α-L-Fucosyltransferase activity in sera of homozygous and heterozygous individuals. Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 35, 497–507.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. 285.
    Le Pendu, J., Gerard, G., Vitrac, D., Juszczak, G., Liberge, G., Rouger, P., Salmon, C., Lambert, F., Dalix, A. M. & Oriol, R. (1983): H-deficient blood groups of Reunion island. II. Differences between Indians (Bombay phenotype) and whites (Reunion phenotype). Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 35, 484–496.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. 286.
    Le Pendu, J., Lambert, F., Gerard, G., Vitrac, D., Mollicone, R. & Oriol, R. (1986): On the specificity of human anti-H antibodies. Vox Sang. 50, 223–226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. 287.
    Le Pendu, J., Lambert, F., Samuelsson, B., Breimer, M. E., Seitz, R. C., Urdaniz, M. P., Suesa, N., Ratcliffe, M., Francois, A., Poschmann, A., Vinas, J. & Oriol, R. (1986): Monoclonal antibodies specific for type 3 and type 4 chain-based blood group determinants: relationship to the A1 and A2 subgroups. Glycoconj. J. 3, 255–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. 288.
    Le Pendu, J., Lemieux, R. U., Lambert, F., Dalix, A. M. & Oriol, R. (1982): Distribution of H type 1 and H type 2 antigenic determinants in human sera and saliva. Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 34, 402–415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. 289.
    Le Pendu, J., Oriol, R., Juszczak, G., Liberge, G., Rouger, P., Salmon, C. & Cartron, J. P. (1983): a-2-L-fucosyltransferase activity in sera of individuals with H-deficient red cells and normal H antigen in secretions. Vox Sang. 44, 360–365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. 290.
    Lemieux, R. U. (1978): Human blood groups and carbohydrate chemistry. Chem. Soc. Rev. 7, 423–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. 291.
    Lemieux, R. U., Baker, D. A., Weinstein, W. M. & Switzer, C. M. (1981): Artificial antigens. Antibody preparations for the localization of Lewis determinants in tissues. Biochemistry 20, 199–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. 292.
    Lemieux, R.U., Bock, K., Delbaere, L. T. J., Koto, S. & Rao, V. S. (1980): The conformations of oligosaccharides related to the ABH and Lewis human blood group determinants. Can. J. Chem. 58, 631–653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. 293.
    Lemieux, R. U. & Driguez, H. (1975): The chemical synthesis of 2-0-(α-L-fucopyranosyl)-3-0-(α-D-galactopyranosyl)-D-galactose. The terminal structure of the blood-group B antigenic determinant. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 97, 4069–4075.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. 294.
    Lindberg, B., Lonngren, J. & Powell, D. A. (1977): Structural studies on the specific type-14 pneumococcal polysaccharide. Carbohydr. Res. 58, 177–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. 295.
    Lis, H., Latter, H., Adar, R. & Sharon, N. (1988): Isolation of two blood type A and N specific isolectins from Moluccella laevis seeds. FEBS Lett. 233, 191–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. 296.
    Liu, Y., Koda, Y., Soejima, M., Pang, H., Schlaphoff, T., Du Toit, E. & Kimura, H. (1998): Extensive polymorphism of the FUT2 gene in an African (Xhosa) population of South Africa. Hum. Genet. 103, 204–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. 297.
    Lloyd, K. O. & Kabat, E. A. (1968): Immunochemical studies on blood groups. XLI. Proposed structures for the carbohydrate portions of blood group A, B, H, Lewisa, and Lewisb substances. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 61, 1470–1477.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. 298.
    Lopez, M., Benali, J., Cartron, J. P. & Salmon, C. (1980): Some notes on the specificity of anti-A, reagents. Vox Sang. 39, 271–276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. 299.
    Lopez, M., Gerbal, A. & Salmon, C. (1972): Excès d’antigène I dans les érythrocytes de phénotypes Oh, Ah et Bh. Rev. Fr. Transfus. 15, 187–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. 300.
    Lopez, M., Liberge, G., Gerbal, A., Brocteur, J. & Salmon, C. (1976): Cis AB blood groups. Immunologie, thermodynamic, and quantitative studies of ABH antigen. Biomedicine 24, 265–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. 301.
    Lowe, A. D., Lennox, E. S. & Voak, D. (1984): A new monoclonal anti-A. Culture supernatants with a performance of hyperimmune human reagents. Vox Sang. 46, 29–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. 302.
    Lubenko, A. & Ivanyl, J. (1986): Epitope specificity of blood-group-A-reactive murine monoclonal antibodies. Vox Sang. 51, 136–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. 303.
    Lundblad, A. (1977): Urinary glycoproteins, glycopeptides, and oligosaccharides. In: The Glycoconjugates (M. I. Horowitz, and W. Pigman, eds.). Academic Press, New York, Vol. 1, pp. 441–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. 304.
    Madsen, G. & Heistö, H. (1968): A Korean family showing inheritance of A and B on the same chromosome. Vox Sang. 14, 211–217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. 305.
    Mak, K. H., Lubenko, A., Greenwell, P., Voak, D., Yan, K. F. & Poole, J. (1996): Serologie characteristics of H-deficient phenotypes among Chinese in Hong Kong. Transfusion 36, 994–999.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. 306.
    Mäkelä, O. (1957): Studies in hemagglutinins of Leguminosae seeds. Ann. Med. Exp. Biol. Fenn. 35, 1–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. 307.
    Mäkelä, O. & Mäkelä, P. (1956): Some new blood group specific phytagglutinins. Ann. Med. Exp. Biol. Fenn. 34, 402–404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. 308.
    Mäkelä, O., Mäkelä, P. & KrÜpe, M. (1959): Zur Spezifität der Anti-B Phythämagglutinine. Z. Immun.-Forsch. 117, 220–229.Google Scholar
  308. 309.
    Mäkelä, O., Ruoslathi, E. & Ehnholm, C. (1969): Subtypes of human ABO blood-groups and subtype-specific antibodies. J. Immunol. 102, 763–771.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. 310.
    Mandel, U., Langkilde, N. C., Orntoft, T. F., Therkildsen, M. H., Karkov, J., Reibel, J., White, T., Clausen, H. & Dabelsteen, E. (1992): Expression of histo-blood-group-A/B-gene-defined glycosyltransferases in normal and malignant epithelia: correlation with A/B-carbohydrate expression. Int. J. Cancer 52, 7–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. 311.
    Marsh, W. C. (1960): The pseudo-B antigen. A study of its development. Vox Sang. 5, 387–397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. 312.
    Marsh, W. L., Ferrari, M., Nichols, M. E., Fernandez, G. & Cooper, K. (1973): Bm H: a weak B antigen variant. Vox Sang. 25, 341–346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. 313.
    Marsh, W. L., Jenkins, W. J. & Walther, W. W. (1959): Pseudo B: an acquired group antigen. Brit. Med. J. ii, 63–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. 314.
    Martin, A., Biol, M. C., Arrambide, E., Richard, M. & Louisot, P. (1981): Paramètres cinétiques d’une fucosyl-transférase intestinale soluble purifiée. Biochimie 63, 241–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. 315.
    Martinko, J. m., Vincek, V., Klein, D. & Klein, J. (1993): Primate ABO glycosyltransferases-evidence for trans-species evolution. Immunogenetics 37, 274–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. 316.
    Masutani, H. & Kimura, H. (1995): Purification and characterization of secretory-type GDP-L-fucose:β-D-galactoside 2-α-L-fucosyltransferase from human gastric mucosa. J. Biochem. 118, 541–545.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. 317.
    Matsue, K., Yasue, S., Matsuda, T., Iwabuchi, K., Ohtsuka, M., Ueda, M., Kondo, K., Shiobara, S., Mori, T., Koizumi, S. I., Yamagami, M. & Harada, M. (1989): Plasma glycosyltransferase activity after ABO-incompatible bone marrow transplantation and development of an inhibitor for glycosyltransferase activity. Exp. Hematol. 17, 827–831.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  317. 318.
    Matsukura, Y. (1976): α-Galactosyltransferase activity in the serum of frogs (Rana catesbeiana). Z. Immun.-Forsch. 152, 260–265.Google Scholar
  318. 319.
    Matsukura, Y. (1976): On the blood group B gene-specified α-galactosyltransferase in the serum of the Japanese tortoise (Clemmys japonica). Immunology 31, 571–575.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  319. 320.
    Matsumoto, I. & Osawa, T. (1969): Purification and characterization of and anti-H(O) phytohaemagglutinin of Ulex europaeus. Biochim. Biophys. Ada 194, 180–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. 321.
    Matsumoto, I. & Osawa, T. (1974): Specific purification of eel serum and Cytisus sessilifolius anti-H hemagglutinins by affinity chromatography and their binding to human erythrocytes. Biochemistry 13, 582–588.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. 322.
    Mcalpine, P. J., Shows, T. B., Boucheix, C., Stranc, L. C., Berent, T. G., Pakstis, A. J. & Doute, R. C. (1989): Report of the nomenclature committee and the catalog of mapped genes. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 51, 13–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. 323.
    Mcgowan, A., Tod, A., Chirnside, A., Green, C., Mccoll, K., Moore, S., Yap, P. L., Mcclelland, D. B. L., Mccann, M. C., Micklem, L. R. & James, K. (1989): Stability of murine monoclonal anti-A, anti-B, and anti-A,B ABO grouping reagents and a multi-centre evaluation of their performance in routine use. Vox Sang. 56, 122–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. 324.
    Meijerink, E., Fries, R., Vögeli, P., Masabanda, J., Wigger, G., Stricker, C., Neuenschwander, S., Bertschinger, H. U. & Stranzinger, G. (1997): Two α(1,2) fucosyltransferase genes on porcine Chromosome 6q11 are closely linked to the blood group inhibitor (S) and Escherichia coli F18 receptor (ECF18R) loci. Mamm. Genome 8, 736–741.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. 325.
    Messeter, L., Brodin, T., Chester, M. A., Low, B. & Lundblad, A. (1984): Mouse monoclonal antibodies with anti-A, anti-B, and anti-A,B specificities; some superior to human polyclonal ABO reagents. Vox Sang. 46, 185–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. 326.
    Metoki, R., Kakudo, K., Tsuji, Y., Teng, N., Clausen, H. & Hakomori, S. I. (1989): Deletion of histo-blood group A and B antigens and expression of incompatible A antigen in ovarian cancer. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 81, 1151–1157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. 327.
    Milner, L. V. & Calitz, F. (1968): Quantitative studies of the erythrocytic B antigen in South African Caucasian, Bantu, and Asiatic blood donors. Transfusion 8, 277–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. 328.
    Mohn, J. F., Cunningham, R. K. & Bates, J. E. (1977): Qualitative distinctions between subgroups A1,and A2. In: Human Blood Groups — Proceedings of the 5th International Convocation on Immunologty, Buffalo 1976. (J.F. Mohn, R.W. Plunkett, R.K. Cunningham, and R. R. Lambert, eds.). S. Karger, Basel, pp. 361–325.Google Scholar
  328. 329.
    Mohn, J. F., Cunningham, R. K., Pirkola, A., Furuhjelm, U. & Nevanlinna, H. R. (1973): An inherited blood group A variant in the Finnish population. I. Basic characteristics. Vox Sang. 25, 193–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  329. 330.
    Mojena, M. & Bosca, L. (1989): Identification of an anti-A and anti-B blood group glycosyltransferase antibody after incompatible bone marrow transplant. Blood 74, 1134–1138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  330. 331.
    Mollicone, R., Bara, J., Le Pendu, J. & Oriol, R. (1985): Immunohistologic pattern of type 1 (Lea, Leb) and type 2 (X, Y, H) blood-group related antigens in the human pyloric and duodenal mucosae. Lab. Invest. 53, 219–227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  331. 332.
    Mollicone, R., Caillard, T., Le Pendu, J., Francois, A., Sansonetti, N., Villarroya, H. & Oriol, R. (1988): Expression of ABH and X (Lex) antigens on platelets and lymphocytes. Blood 71, 1113–1119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  332. 333.
    Mollicone, R., Le Pendu, J., Bara, J. & Oriol, R. (1986): Heterogeneity of the ABH antigenic determinants expressed in human pyloric and duodenal mucosae. Glycoconj. J. 3, 187–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. 334.
    Moore, B. P. L., Newstead, P. H. & Marson, A. (1961): A weak inherited group A phenotype. Vox Sang. 6, 624–626.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. 335.
    Moore, S., Chirnside, A., Micklem, L. R., Mcclelland, D. B. L. & James, K. (1984): A mouse monoclonal antibody with anti-A,(B) specificity which agglutinates Ax cells. Vox Sang. 47, 427–434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. 336.
    Moores, P. P., Issitt, P. D., Pavone, B. G. & Mckeever, B. G. (1975): Some observations on “Bombay” bloods, with comments on evidence for the existence of two different Oh phenotypes. Transfusion 15, 237–243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. 337.
    Moreno, C., Lundblad, A. & Kabat, E. A. (1971): Immunochemical studies on blood-groups. LI. A comparative study of the reaction of A1, and A2 blood-group glycoproteins with human anti-A. J. Exp. Med. 134, 439–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. 338.
    Morgan, W. T. J. & Watkins, W. M. (1948): The detection of a product of the blood group O gene and the relationship of the so-called O substance to the agglutinogens A and AB. Brit. J. Exp. Pathol. 29, 159–173.Google Scholar
  338. 339.
    Mulet, C., Cartron, J. P., Badet, J. & Salmon, C. (1977): Activity of 2-α-L-fucosyltransferase in human sera and red cell membranes. A study of common ABH blood donors, rare ‘bombay’ and ‘parabombay’ individuals. FEBS Lett. 84, 74–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  339. 340.
    Mulet, C., Cartron, J. P., Lopez, M. & Salmon, C. (1978): ABH glycosyltransferase levels in sera and red cell membranes from H2 and Hm varaint bloods. FEBS Lett. 90, 233–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. 341.
    Mulet, C., Cartron, J. P., Schenkel-Brunner, H., Duchet, H., Sinay, P. & Salmon, C. (1979): Probable biosynthetic pathway for the synthesis of the B antigen from Bh variants. Vox Sang. 37, 272–280.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. 342.
    Munro, J. R. & Schachter, H. (1973): The presence of two GDP-L-fucose:glycoprotein fucosyltransferases in human serum. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 156, 534–542.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. 343.
    Murphy, L. A. & Goldstein, I. J. (1977): Five α-D-galactopyranosyl-binding isolectins from Bandeiraea simplicifolia seeds. J. Biol. Chem. 252, 4739–4742.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  343. 344.
    Muschel, L. H. & Osawa, E. (1959): Human blood group substance B in Escherichia coli O 86. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. 101, 614–617.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. 345.
    Nagai, M., Davé, V., Kaplan, B. E. & Yoshida, A. (1978): Human blood group glycosyltransferases. I. Purification of N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 253, 377–379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  345. 346.
    Nagai, M., Davé, V., Muensch, H. & Yoshida, A. (1978): Human blood group glycosyltransferase. II. Purification of galactosyltransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 253, 380–381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  346. 347.
    Nagai, M. & Yoshida, A. (1978): Possible existence of hybrid glycosyltransferase in heterozygous blood group AB subjects. Vox Sang. 35, 378–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  347. 348.
    Nakajima, T., Yazawa, S., Miyazaki, S. & Furukawa, K. (1993): Immunochemical characterization of anti-H monoclonal antibodies obtained from a mouse immunized with human saliva. J. Immunol. Methods 159, 261–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  348. 349.
    Nakamura, I., Takizawa, H. & Nishino, K. (1989): A3 phenotype with A’ gene-specified enzyme character in serum. Exp. Clin. Immunogenet. 6, 143–149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  349. 350.
    Navaratnam, N., Findlay, J. B. C., Keen, J. N. & Watkins, W. M. (1990): Purification, properties and partial amino acid sequence of the blood-group-A-gene-associated α-3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase from human gut mucosal tissue. Biochem. J. 271, 93–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  350. 351.
    Nemec, M., Drimalova, D., Horejsi, V., Vanak, J., Bartek, J. & Viklicky, V. (1987): Murine monoclonal antibodies to human A erythrocytes: differential reactivity with N-acetyl-D-galactosamine. Vox Sang. 52, 125–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  351. 352.
    Nevanlinna, H. R. & Pirkola, A. (1973): An inherited blood group A variant in the Finnish population. II. Population studies. Vox Sang. 24, 404–416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  352. 353.
    Nilsson, O., Mansson, J. E., Brezicka, T., Holmgren, J., Lindholm, L., Sorenson, S., Yngvason, F. & Svennerholm, L. (1984): Fucosyl GM1, a ganglioside associated with small cell lung carcinomas. Glycoconj. J. 1, 43–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. 354.
    Nyholm, P. G., Samuelsson, B. E., Breimer, M. & Pascher, I. (1989): Conformational analysis of blood group A-active glycosphingolipids using HSEA-calculations. The possible significance of the core oligosaccharide chain for the presentation and recognition of the A-determinant. J. Mol. Recognit. 2, 103–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  354. 355.
    Ogasawara, K., Bannai, M., Saitou, N., Yabe, R., Nakata, K., Takenaka, M., Fujisawa, K., Uchikawa, M., Ishikawa, Y., Juji, T. & Tokunaga, K. (1996): Extensive polymorphism of ABO blood group gene: three major lineages of the alleles for the common ABO phenotypes. Hum. Genet. 97, 777–783.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. 356.
    Ogasawara, K., Yabe, R., Uchikawa, M., Saitou, N., Bannai, M., Nakata, K., Takenaka, M., Fujisawa, K., Ishikawa, Y., Juji, T. & Tokunaga, K. (1996): Molecular genetic analysis of variant phenotypes of the ABO blood group system. Blood 88, 2732–2737.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  356. 357.
    Olsson, M. L. & Chester, M. A. (1995): A rapid and simple ABO genotype screening method using a novel B/O2 versus A/O2 discriminating nucleotide substitution at the ABO hocus. Vox Sang. 69, 242–247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  357. 358.
    Olsson, M. L. & Chester, M. A. (1996): Evidence for a new type of O allele at the ABO locus, due to a combination of the A2 nucleotide deletion and the Ael nucleotide insertion. Vox Sang. 71, 113–117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  358. 359.
    Olsson, M. L. & Chester, M. A. (1996): Frequent occurrence of a variant O’ gene at the blood group ABO locus. Vox Sang. 70, 26–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  359. 360.
    Olsson, M. L. & Chester, M. A. (1996): Polymorphisms at the ABO locus in subgroup A individuals. Transfusion 36, 309–313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  360. 361.
    Olsson, M. L., Guerreiro, J. F., Zago, M. A. & Chester, M. A. (1997): Molecular analysis of the O alleles at the blood group ABO locus in populations of different ethnic origin reveals novel crossing-over events and point mutations. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 234, 779–782.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  361. 362.
    Olsson, M. L., Thuresson, B. & Chester, M. A. (1995): An Ael allele-specific nucleotide insertion at the blood group ABO locus and its detection using a sequence-specific polymerase chain reaction. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 216, 642–647.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  362. 363.
    Oriol, R. (1987): ABH and related tissue antigens. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 15, 596–599.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  363. 364.
    Oriol, R. (1987): Tissular expression of ABH and Lewis antigens in humans and animals: expected value of different animal models in the study of ABO-incompatible organ transplants. Transpl. Proc. 19, 4416–4420.Google Scholar
  364. 365.
    Oriol, R. (1990): Genetic control of the fucosylation of ABH precursor chains. Evidence for new epistatic interactions in different cells and tissues. J. Immunogenet. 17, 235–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  365. 366.
    Oriol, R., Danilovs, J. & Hawkins, B. R. (1981): A new genetic model proposing that the Se gene is a structural gene closely linked to the H gene. Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 33, 421–431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  366. 367.
    Oriol, R., Danilovs, J., Lemieux, R. U., Terasaki, P. I. & Bernoco, D. (1980): Lymphocytotoxic definition of combined ABH and Lewis antigens and their transfer from sera to lymphocytes. Hum. Immunol. 1, 195–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  367. 368.
    Oriol, R., Le Pendu, J. & Mollicone, R. (1986): Genetics of ABO, H, Lewis, X, and related antigens. Vox Sang. 51, 161–171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  368. 369.
    Oriol, R., Le Pendu, J. & Sparkes, R. (1981): Insights into the expression of ABH and Lewis antigens through human bone marrow transplantation. Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 33, 551–560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  369. 370.
    Oriol, R., Samuelsson, B. E. & Messeter, L. (1990): ABO antibodies. Serological behaviour and immuno-chemical characterization. J. Immunogenet. 17, 279–299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  370. 371.
    Oriol, R., Ye, Y., Koren, E. & Cooper, D. K. (1993): Carbohydrate antigens of pig tissues reacting with human natural antibodies as potential targets for hyperacute vascular rejection in pig-to-man organ xenotransplantation. Transplantation 56, 1433–1442.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  371. 372.
    ØRntoft, T. F., Greenwell, P., Clausen, H. & Watkins, W. M. (1991): Regulation of the oncodevelopmental expression of type 1 chain ABH and Lewis(b) blood group antigens in human colon by α-2-L-fucosylation. Gut 32, 287–293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  372. 373.
    Ottensooser, F., Sato, M., Sato, R. & Kurata, H. (1972): Lectin specificity induced by a fungus. Vox Sang. 22, 354–358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  373. 374.
    Ottensooser, F., Sato, R. & Sato, M. (1968): A new anti-B lectin. Transfusion 8, 44–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  374. 375.
    Pacuska, T. & Koscielak, J. (1972): The biosynthesis of blood-group-B character on human O-erythrocytes by a soluble α-galactosyltransferase from milk. Eur. J. Biochem. 31, 574–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  375. 376.
    Pacuska, T. & Koscielak, J. (1974): ±1→2 Fucosyltransferase of human bone marrow. FEBS Lett. 41, 348–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  376. 377.
    Pacuska, T., Koscielak, J., Seyfried, H. & Walewska, I. (1975): Biochemical, serological, and family studies in individuals with cis AB phenotypes. Vox Sang. 29, 292–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  377. 378.
    Pemberton, R. T. (1974): Anti-A and anti-B of gastropod origin. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 234, 95–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  378. 379.
    Pereira, M. E. A. & Kabat, E. A. (1974): Specificity of purified hemagglutinin (lectin) from Lotus tetragonolobus. Biochemistry 13, 3184–3192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  379. 380.
    Pereira, M. E. A., Kisailus, E. C., Gruezo, F. & Kabat, E. A. (1978): Immunochemical studies on the combining site of the blood group H-specific lectin 1 from Ulex europaeus seeds. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 185, 108–115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  380. 381.
    Petryniak, J. & Goldstein, I. J. (1986): Immunochemical studies on the interaction between synthetic glycoconjugates and α-L-fucosyl binding lectins. Biochemistry 25, 2829–2838.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  381. 382.
    Piau, J. P., Labarriere, N., Dabouis, G. & Denis, M. G. (1994): Evidence for two distinct α(1,2)-fucosyltransferase genes differentially expressed throughout the rat colon. Biochem. J. 300, 623–626.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  382. 383.
    Piller, V., Piller, F. & Cartron, J. P. (1990): Comparison of the carbohydrate-binding specificities of seven N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-recognizing lectins. Eur. J. Biochem. 191, 461–466.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  383. 384.
    Plato, C. C. & Gershowitz, H. (1961 ): Specific differences in the inhibition titers of the anti-H lectins from Cytisus sessilifolius and Ulex europaeus. Vox Sang. 6, 336–347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  384. 385.
    Poretz, R. D. & Watkins, W. M. (1972): Galactosyltransferases in human submaxillary glands and stomach mucosa associated with the biosynthesis of blood group B specific glycoproteins. Eur. J. Biochem. 25, 455–462.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  385. 386.
    Prieels, J. P., Beyers, T. & Hill, R. L. (1977): Human milk fucosyltransferases. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 5, 838–839.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  386. 387.
    Prokop, O., Schlesinger, D. & Geserick, G. (1967): Thermostabiles B-Agglutinin aus Konserven von Lachskaviar. Z. Immun.-Forsch. 132, 491–494.Google Scholar
  387. 388.
    Prokop, O., Schlesinger, D. & Rackwitz, A. (1965): Über eine thermostabile ‘antibody-like substance’ (Anti-Ahel) bei Helix pomatia und deren Herkunft. Z. Immun.-Forsch. 129, 402–412.Google Scholar
  388. 389.
    Prokop, O., Schnitzler, S. & Uhlenbruck, G. (1967): Über einen kräftigen H-Antikörper bei zwei Vertretern der Percidae, aufgefunden im Rogen der Tiere. Acta Biol. Med. Germ. 18, K7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  389. 390.
    Pusztai, A. & Morgan, W. T. J. (1963): Studies in immunochemistry. 22. The amino acid composition of the human blood group A, B, H, and Lea specific substances. Biochem. J. 88, 546–555.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  390. 391.
    Race, C. & Watkins, W. m. (1972): The enzymic products of the human A and B blood group genes in the serum of ‘bombay’ O0h donors. FEBS Lett. 27, 125–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  391. 392.
    Race, C. & Watkins, W. M. (1974): Inhibition of the blood group A1, and A2 gene-specified N-acetyl-α-D-galactosaminyltransferases by uridine diphosphate D-galactose. Carbohydr. Res. 37, 239–244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  392. 393.
    Race, C., Ziderman, D. & Watkins, W. M. (1968): An α-D-galactosyltransferase associated with the blood-group B character. Biochem. J. 107, 733–735.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  393. 394.
    Race, Ft. R. & Sänger, R. (1975): The ABO blood groups. In: Blood Groups in Man. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp. 8–91.Google Scholar
  394. 395.
    Race, R. R. & Sänger, R. (1975): Secretors and Non-secretors. In: Blood Groups in Man. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp. 311–322.Google Scholar
  395. 396.
    Rachkewich, R. A., Crookston, M. C., Tilley, C. A. & Wherrett, J. R. (1978): Evidence that blood group A antigen on lymphocytes is derived from the plasma. J. Immunogenet. 5, 25–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  396. 397.
    Rahuel, C., Lubineau, A., David, S., Salmon, C. & Cartron, J. P. (1983): Acquired B antigen: further studies using synthetic oligosaccharides. Blood Transfus. Immunohaematol. 26, 347–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  397. 398.
    Rajan, V. P., Ursen, R. D., Ajmera, S., Ernst, L K. & Lowe, J. B. (1989): A cloned human DNA restriction fragment determines expression of a GDP-L-fucose:β-D-galactoside 2-α-L-fucosyltransferase in transfected cells. Evidence for isolation and transfer of the human H blood group locus. J. Biol. Chem. 264, 11158–11167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  398. 399.
    Ramasamy, R. & Rajakaruna, R. (1997): Association of malaria with inactivation of α1,3-galactosyl transferase in catarrhines. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1360, 241–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  399. 400.
    Rao, B. N. N., Dua, V. K. & Bush, C. A. (1985): Conformations of blood group H-active oligosaccharides of ovarian cyst mucins. Biopolymers 24, 2207–2229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  400. 401.
    Ravindran, B., Satapathy, A. K. & Das, M. K. (1988): Naturally-occurring anti-α-galactosyl antibodies in human Plasmodium falciparum infections — a possible role for autoantibodies in malaria. Immunol. Lett. 137–141.Google Scholar
  401. 402.
    Reed, T. E, (1964): The frequency and nature of blood group A3. Transfusion 4, 457–460.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  402. 403.
    Reed, T. E. & Moore, B. P. L. (1964): A new variant of blood group A. Vox Sang. 9, 363–366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  403. 404.
    Reguigne-Arnould, I., Couillin, P., Mollicone, R., Fauré, S., Fletcher, A., Kelly, R. J., Lowe, J. B. & Oriol, R. (1995): Relative positions of two clusters of human α-L-fucosyltransferases in 19q (FUT1-FUT2) and 19p (FUT6-FUT3-FUT5) within the microsatellite genetic map of chromosome 19p. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 71, 158–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  404. 405.
    Renkonen, K. O. (1948): Studies on hemagglutinins present in seeds of some representatives of the family of Leguminosae. Ann. Med. Exp. Biol. Fenn. 26, 66–72.Google Scholar
  405. 406.
    Renton, P. H. & Hancock, J. A. (1962): Uptake of A and B antigens by transfused group O erythrocytes. Vox Sang. 7, 33–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  406. 407.
    Reyes, F., Gourdin, M. F., Lejonc, J. L., Cartron, J. P., Breton-Gorius, J. & Dreyfus, B. (1976): The heterogeneity of erythrocyte antigen distribution in human normal phenotypes: an immuno-electron microscopy study. Brit. J. Haematol. 34, 613–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  407. 408.
    Riess, H., Eckstein, R., Binsack, T., Ruckdeschel, G. & Mempel, W. (1988): Acquired B antigen associated with infection by Bacillus cereus: in vivo and in vitro transformation of A, red cells. Blut 56, 237–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  408. 409.
    Rochant, H., Tonthat, H., Henri, A., Titeux, M. & Dreyfus, B. (1976): Abnormal distribution of erythrocytes A, antigen in preleukemia as demonstrated by an immunofluorescence technique. Blood Cells 2, 237–255.Google Scholar
  409. 410.
    Romano, E. L., Mollison, P. L. & Linares, J. (1978): Number of B sites generated on group O red cells from adults and newborn infants. Vox Sang. 34, 14–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  410. 411.
    Rosevear, P. R., Nunez, H. A. & Barker, R. (1982): Synthesis and solution conformation of the type 2 blood group oligosaccharide αlFuc(1→2)βdGal(1→4)βdGIcNAc. Biochemistry 21, 1421–1431.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  411. 412.
    Rouquier, S., Lowe, J. B., Kelly, R. J., Fertitta, A. L., Lennon, G. C. & Giorgi, D. (1995): Molecular cloning of a human genomic region containing the H blood group α(1,2)fucosyltransferase gene and two H locus-related DNA restriction fragments — Isolation of a candidate for the human Secretor blood group locus. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 4632–4639.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  412. 413.
    Rubinstein, P., Allen, F. H. & Rosenreld, R. E. (1973): A dominant suppressor of A and B. Vox Sang. 25, 377–381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  413. 414.
    Rydberg, L. & Samuelsson, B. E. (1991): Presence of glycosyltransferase inhibitors in the sera of patients with long-term surviving ABO incompatible (A2 to O) kidney grafts. Transfus. Med. 1, 177–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  414. 415.
    Sabo, B. H., Bush, M., German, J., Carne, L. R., Yates, A. D. & Watkins, W. M. (1978): The cis AB phenotype in three generations of one family: serological, enzymatic, and cytogenetic studies. J. Immunogenet. 5, 87–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  415. 416.
    Sakamoto, J., Yin, B. W. T. & Lloyd, K. O. (1984): Analysis of the expression of H, Lewis, X, Y, and precursor blood group determinants in saliva and red cells using a panel of mouse monoclonal antibodies. Mol. Immunol. 21, 1093–1098.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  416. 417.
    Salmon, C. (1976): Les phénotypes B faibles B3, Bx, Bel: classification pratique proposée. Rev. Fr. Transfus. Immuno-Hématol. 19, 89–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  417. 418.
    Salmon, C., Borin, P. & André, R. (1958): Le groupe sanguin Am dans deux générations d’une même famille. Rev. Hématol. 13, 529–532.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  418. 419.
    Salmon, C. & Cartron, J. P. (1977): Interactions in AB hétérozygotes. In: CRC Handbook Series in Clinical Laboratory Science. Section D, Blood Banking. (D. Seligson, T. J. Greenwalt, and E. A. Steane, eds.). CRC Press Inc., Cleveland, Ohio, Vol. 1, pp. 131–138.Google Scholar
  419. 420.
    Salmon, C., Cartron, J. P., Rouger, P., Liberge, G., Juszczak, G., Mulet, C. & Lopez, M. (1980): H deficient phénotypes: a proposed practical classification Bombay Ah, Hz, Hm. Blood Transfus. Immunohaematol. 23, 233–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  420. 421.
    Salmon, C., Juszczak, G., Liberge, G., Lopez, M., Cartron, J. P. & Kling, C. (1978): Une famille où un phénotype ‘hm’ est transmis a travers trois générations. Rev. Fr. Transfus. Immuno-Hématol. 21, 21–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  421. 422.
    Salmon, C., Salmon, D. & Reviron, J. (1965): Etude immunologique et génétique de la variabilité du phénotype Ax. Nouv. Rev. Fr. Hématol. 5, 275–280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  422. 423.
    Sandrin, M. S. H. A., Dabkowski, P. L. & Mckenzie, I. F. (1993): Anti-pig IgM antibodies in human serum react predominantly with Gal(a1-3)Gal epitopes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90, 11391–11395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  423. 424.
    Sarnesto, A., Köhlin, T., Hindsgaul, O., Thurin, J. & Blaszczyk-Thurin, M. (1992): Purification of the secretor-type α-galactoside α1→2-fucosyltransferase from human serum. J. Biol. Chem. 267, 2737–2744.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  424. 425.
    Sarnesto, A., Köhlin, T., Thurin, J. & Blaszczyk-Thurin, M. (1990): Purification of H gene-encoded β-galactoside α1→2 fucosyltransferase from human serum. J. Biol. Chem. 265, 15067–15075.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  425. 426.
    Sawicka, T. (1973): Isolation and characterization of N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase from human serum of blood group A,. Bull. Acad. Sci. Sér. Sci. Biol. Cl. Il 21, 491–498.Google Scholar
  426. 427.
    Schachter, H., Michaels, M. A., Crookston, M. C., Tilley, C. A. & Crookston, J. (1971): A quantitative difference in the activity of blood group A-specific N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase in serum from A1, and A2 human subjects. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 45, 1011–1018.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  427. 428.
    Schachter, H., Michaels, M. A., Tilley, C. A., Crookston, M. C. & Crookston, J. H. (1973): Qualitative differences in the N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferases produced by human A1, and A2 genes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 70, 220–224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  428. 429.
    Schenkel-Brunner, H. (1973): Incorporation of galactose into blood-group (ABH) precursor substance by lactose synthetase from human milk. Eur. J. Biochem. 33, 30–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  429. 430.
    Schenkel-Brunner, H. (1980): Blood group ABH antigens on human cord red cells. Number of H antigenic sites and their distribution among different classes of membrane constituents. Vox Sang. 38, 310–314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  430. 431.
    Schenkel-Brunner, H. (1980): Blood-group-ABH antigens of human erythrocytes. Quantitative studies on the distribution of H antigenic sites among different classes of membrane components. Eur. J. Biochem. 104, 529–534.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  431. 432.
    Schenkel-Brunner, H. (1982): Studies on blood-groups A1, and A2. Further evidence for the predominant influence of quantitative differences in the number of A antigenic sites present on A1, and A2 erythrocytes. Eur. J. Biochem. 122, 511–514.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  432. 433.
    Schenkel-Brunner, H., Chester, M. A. & Watkins, W. M. (1972): α-L-Fucosyltransferases in human serum from donors of different ABO, secretor, and Lewis blood group phenotypes. Eur. J. Biochem. 30, 269–277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  433. 434.
    Schenkel-Brunner, H. & Kothbauer, H. (1976): Immunochemical investigations on toad (Bufo) eggs: comparative studies on three species (B. bufo, B. viridis, B. calamita). J. Immunogenet. 3, 395–399.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  434. 435.
    Schenkel-Brunner, H. & Kothbauer, H. (1978): Immunchemische Untersuchungen an Laubfrosch-Laich: Zur Unterscheidung von Hyla arborea und Hyla meridionalis. Zool. Anz. 201, 289–292.Google Scholar
  435. 436.
    Schenkel-Brunner, H., Prohaska, R. & Tuppy, H. (1975): Action of glycosyl transferases upon “bombay” (Oh) erythrocytes. Conversion to cells showing blood-group H and A specificities. Eur. J. Biochem. 56, 591–594.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  436. 437.
    Schenkel-Brunner, H. & Tuppy, H. (1969): Enzymatic conversion of human O into A erythrocytes and of A into AB erythrocytes. Nature 223, 1272–1273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  437. 438.
    Schenkel-Brunner, H. & Tuppy, H. (1970): Enzymes from human gastric mucosa conferring blood-group A and B upon erythrocytes. Eur. J. Biochem. 17, 218–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  438. 439.
    Schenkel-Brunner, H. & Tuppy, H. (1973): Enzymatic conversion of human blood-group-O erythrocytes into A2 and A, cells by α-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl transferases of blood-group-A individuals. Eur. J. Biochem. 34, 125–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  439. 440.
    Schiff, F. & Sasaki, H. (1932): Der Ausscheidungstypus, ein auf serologischem Wege nachweisbares mendelndes Merkmal. Klin. Wochenschr. 11, 1426–1429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  440. 441.
    Schiff, F. & Sasaki, H. (1932): Über die Vererbung des serologischen Ausscheidungstypus. Z. Immun.-Forsch. 77, 129–139.Google Scholar
  441. 442.
    Schiffman, G. & Howe, C. (1965): The specificity of blood group A-B cross-reacting antibody. J. Immunol. 94, 197–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  442. 443.
    Schmidt, G. (1954): Die Hämagglutination, im besonderen menschlicher B-Blutzellen, durch Extrakte aus Samen von Evonymus vulgaris (Pfaffenhütchen). Z. Immun.-Forsch. 111, 432–439.Google Scholar
  443. 444.
    Schnitzler, S., Müller, G. & Prokop, O. (1967): Ein “neuer” Antikörper, Anti-Prut aufgefunden im Rogen von Rutilus rutilus. Z. Immun.-Forsch. 134, 45–53.Google Scholar
  444. 445.
    Schuh, V., Vyas, G. N. & Fudenberg, H. H. (1972): Study of a French family with a new variant of blood group A: Aiea. Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 24, 11–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  445. 446.
    Schwyzer, M. & Hill, R. L. (1977): Porcine A blood group specific N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase. II. Enzymatic properties. J. Biol. Chem. 252, 2346–2355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  446. 447.
    Schwyzer, M. & Hill, R. L. (1977): Porcine A blood group-specific N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase. I. Purification from porcine submaxillary glands. J. Biol. Chem. 252, 2238–2345.Google Scholar
  447. 448.
    Senior, D., Baker, N., Cedergren, B., Falk, P., Larson, G., Lindstedt, R. & Eden, S. C. (1988): Globo-A — a new receptor specificity for attaching Eschericha coli. FEBS Lett. 237, 123–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  448. 449.
    Seto, N. O. L., Compston, C. A., Evans, S. V., Bundle, D. R., Narang, S. A. & Palcic, M. M. (1999): Donor substrate specificity of recombinant human blood group A, B and hybrid A/B glycosyttransferases expressed in Escherichia coli. Eur. J. Biochem. 259, 770–775.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  449. 450.
    Seto, N. O. L., Palcic, M. M., Compston, C. A., Li, H., Bundle, D. R. & Narang, S. A. (1997): Sequential interchange offour amino acids from blood group B to blood group A glycosyltransferase boosts catalytic activity and progressively modifies substrate recognition in human recombinant enzymes. J. Biol. Chem. 272, 14133–14138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  450. 451.
    Seyfried, H., Walewska, I. & Werblinska, B. (1964): Unusual inheritance of ABO group in a family with weak B antigens. Vox Sang. 9, 268–277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  451. 452.
    Shaper, N. L., Lin, S. P., Joziasse, D. H., Kim, D. Y. & Yang-Feng, T. L. (1992): Assignment of two human α-1,3-galactosyltransferase gene sequences (GGTA1 and GGTA1P) to chromosomes 9q33-q34 and 12q14-q15. Genomics 12, 613–615.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  452. 453.
    Shechter, Y., Etzioni, A., Levene, C. & Greenwell, P. (1995): A Bombay individual lacking H and Le antigens but expressing normal levels of α-2-and α-4-fucosyltransferases. Transfusion 35, 773–776.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  453. 454.
    Shen, L., Grollman, E. F. & Ginsburg, V. (1968): An enzymatic basis for secretor status and blood group substance specificity in humans. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 59, 224–230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  454. 455.
    Sikder, S. K., Kabat, E. A., Roberts, D. D. & Goldstein, I. J. (1986): Immunochemical studies on the combining site of the blood group A-specific lima bean lectin. Carbohydr. Res. 151, 247–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  455. 456.
    Skacel, P. O. & Watkins, W. M. (1987): Fucosyltransferase expression in human platelets and leucocytes. Glycoconj. J. 4, 267–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  456. 457.
    Skacel, P. O. & Watkins, W. M. (1988): Significance of altered α-2-L-fucosyltransferase levels in serum of leukemic patients. Cancer Res. 48, 3998–4001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  457. 458.
    Slayter, H. S., Cooper, A. G. & Brown, M. C. (1974): Electron microscopy and physical parameters of human blood group i, A, B, and H antigens. Biochemistry 13, 3365–3371.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  458. 459.
    Slomiany, A., Slomiany, B. L. & Horowitz, M. I. (1974): Structural study of the blood group A active glycolipids of hog gastric mucosa. J. Biol. Chem. 249, 1225–1230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  459. 460.
    Slomiany, A., Zdebska, E. & Slomiany, B. L. (1984): Structures of the neutral oligosaccharides isolated from A-active human gastric mucin. J. Biol. Chem. 259, 14743–14749.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  460. 461.
    Slomiany, B. L. & Slomiany, A. (1977): Branched blood-group A fucolipids of hog gastric mucosa. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 486, 531–540.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  461. 462.
    Slomiany, B. L. & Slomiany, A. (1978): Blood-group-(A+H) complex fucolipids of hog gastric mucosa. Eur. J. Biochem. 90, 39–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  462. 463.
    Slomiany, B. L., Slomiany, A. & Murty, V. L N. (1979): Partial characterization of the highly complex fucolipids from gastric mucosa. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 88, 1092–1097.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  463. 464.
    Smalley, C. E. & Tucker, E. M. (1983): Blood group A antigen site distribution and immurioglobulin binding in relation to red cell age. Brit. J. Haematol. 54, 209–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  464. 465.
    Smith, E. L., Mckibbin, J. M., Karlsson, K. A., Pascher, I. & Samuelsson, B. E. (1975): Characterization by mass spectrometry of blood group A active glycolipids from human and dog small intestine. Biochemistry 14, 2120–2124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  465. 466.
    Smith, E. L., Mckibbin, J. M., Karlsson, K. A., Pascher, I., Samuelsson, B. E. & Li, S. C. (1975): Characterization of dog small intestinal fucolipids with human blood group H activity. Biochemistry 14, 3370–3376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  466. 467.
    Solomon, J. M. & Sturgeon, P. (1964): Quantitative studies of the phenotype Ael. Vox Sang. 9, 476–486.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  467. 468.
    Solomon, J. M., Waggoner, R. & Leyshon, W. C. (1965): A quantitative immunogenetic study of gene suppression involving A, and H antigens of the erythrocyte without affecting secreted blood group substances. The ABH phenotypes Am h and Am h Blood 25, 470–485.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  468. 469.
    Speiser, P. (1959): Über die bisher jüngste menschliche Frucht (27mm/22g) an der bereits die Erbmerkmale A, M, N, s, Fy(a+), C., c, D, E, e, Jk(a+?.) im Blut festgestellt werden konnten. Wien. Klin. Wochenschr. 71, 549–551.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  469. 470.
    Springer, G. F. (1956): Inhibition of blood-group agglutinins by substances occurring in plants. J. Immunol. 76, 399–407.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  470. 471.
    Springer, G. F. (1966): Relation of microbes to blood-group active substances. Angew. Chem. (Int. Edn.) 5, 909–920.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  471. 472.
    Springer, G. F. & Desai, P. R. (1971): Monosaccharides as specific precipitinogens of eel anti-human blood-group H(O) antibody. Biochemistry 10, 3749–3761.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  472. 473.
    Springer, G. F., Williamson, P. & Brandes, W. C (1961): Blood group activity of gram-negative bacteria. J. Exp. Med. 113, 1077–1093.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  473. 474.
    Stayboldt, C., Rearden, A. & Lane, T. A. (1987): B antigen acquired by normal A, red cells exposed to a patients serum. Transfusion 27, 41–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  474. 475.
    Stellner, K., Watanabe, K. & Hakomori, S. I. (1973): Isolation and characterization of glycosphingolipids with blood group H specificity from membranes of human erythrocytes. Biochemistry 12, 656–661.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  475. 476.
    Strahan, K. M., Gu, F., Preece, A. F., Gustavsson, I., Andersson, L & Gustafsson, K. (1995): cDna sequence and chromosome localization of pig α1,3 galactosyltransferase. Immunogenetics 41, 101–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  476. 477.
    Stroncek, D. F., Konz, Ft., Clay, M. E., Houchins, J. P. & Mccullough, J. (1995): Determination of ABO glycosyltransferase genotypes by use of polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzymes. Transfusion 35, 231–240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  477. 478.
    Sturgeon, P., Moore, B. P. L. & Weiner, W. (1964): Notations for two weak A variants: Aend and Ael. Vox Sang. 9, 214–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  478. 479.
    Sun, J., Thurin, J., Cooper, H. S., Wang, P., Mackiewicz, M., Steplewiski, Z. & Blaszczyk-Thurin, M. (1995): Elevated expression of H type GDP-L-fucoseβ-D-galactoside α-2-L-fucosyltransferase is associated with human colon adenocarcinoma progression. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92, 5724–5728.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  479. 480.
    Suzuki, K., Iwata, M., Tsuji, H., Takagi, T., Tamura, A., Ishimoto, G., Ito, S., Matsui, K. & Miyazaki, T. (1997): A de novo recombination in the ABO blood group gene and evidence for the occurrence of recombination products. Hum. Genet. 99, 454–461.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  480. 481.
    Szulman, A. E. (1964): The histological distribution of the blood group substances in man as disclosed by immunofluorescence. III. The A, B, and H antigens in embryos and fetuses from 18 mm length. J. Exp. Med. 119, 503–515.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  481. 482.
    Szulman, A. E}. (1965): The ABH antigens in human tissues and secretions during embryonal development J. Histochem. Cytochem. 13, 752–754.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  482. 483.
    Szulman, A. E. (1966): Chemistry, distribution, and function of blood group substances. Annu. Rev. Med. 17, 307–322.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  483. 484.
    Takasaki, S. & Kobata, A. (1976): Chemical characterization and distribution of ABO blood-group active glycoproteins in human erythrocyte membranes. J. Biol. Chem. 251, 3610–3615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  484. 485.
    Takasaki, S., Yamashita, K. & Kobata, A. (1978): The sugar chain structures of ABO blood group active glycoproteins obtained from human erythrocyte membrane. J. Biol. Chem. 253, 6086–6091.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  485. 486.
    Takeuchi, Y., Porter, C. D., Strahan, K. M., Preece, A. F., Gustafsson, K., Cosset, F. L., Weiss, R. A. & Collins, M. K. (1996): Sensitization of cells and retroviruses to human serum by α1,3-galactosyltransferase. Nature 379, 85–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  486. 487.
    Takeya, A., Hosomi, O. & Ishiura, M. (1990): Complete purification and characterization of a-3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase encoded by the human blood group A gene. J. Biochem. 107, 360–368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  487. 488.
    Takizawa, H. & Iseki, S. (1974): Biosynthesis of A and B biood-group substances of human erythrocytes and saliva. Jp. J. Hum. Genet. 19, 147–156.Google Scholar
  488. 489.
    Takizawa, H. & Iseki, S. (1982): Cross-reacting antibodies to human blood group A and B glycosyltransferases. Proc. Jp. Acad. 58, 65–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  489. 490.
    Takizawa, H. & Iseki, S. (1983): Immunological specificity of blood group A glycosyltransferase demonstrated on the oligosaccharide-acceptor. Proc. Jp. Acad. 59B, 247–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  490. 491.
    Takizawa, H., Kishi, K. & Iseki, S. (1978): Biochemical and serological studies on alpha-galactosyltransferases in the sera and salivas from blood group Bm and A1Bm individuals. Proc. Jp. Acad. Sci. 54, 402–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  491. 492.
    Takizawa, H., Kishi, K. & Iseki, S. (1979): On the B gene-associated α-galactosyltransferase in human urine. Proc. Jp. Acad. 55, 362–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  492. 493.
    Tanegashima, A., Nishi, K., Fukunaga, T., Rand, S. & Brinkmann, B. (1996): Ethnic differences in the expression of blood group antigens in the salivary gland secretory cells from German and Japanese non-secretor individuals. Glycoconj. J. 13, 537–545.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  493. 494.
    Thomsen, O., Friedenreich, V. & Worsaae, E. (1930): Über die Möglichkeit der Existenz zweier neuer Blutgruppen; auch ein Beitrag zur Beleuchtung sogenannter Untergruppen. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 7, 157–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  494. 495.
    Thurin, J. & Blaszczyk-Thurin, M. (1995): Porcine submaxillary gland GDP-L-fucose:β-D-galactoside α-2-L-fucosyltransferase is likely a counterpart of the human Secretor gene-encoded blood group transferase. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 26577–26580.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  495. 496.
    Tilley, C. A., Crookston, M. C., Brown, B. L. & Wherrett, J. R. (1975): A and B and A1,Leb substances in glycosphingolipid fractions of human serum. Vox Sang. 28, 25–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  496. 497.
    Todd, G. M. (1971): Blood group antibodies in Salmonidae roe. Vox Sang. 21, 451–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  497. 498.
    Topping, M. D. & Watkins, W. M. (1975): Isoelectric points of the human blood group A1, A2, and B gene-associated glycosyltransferases in ovarian cyst fluids and serum. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 64, 89–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  498. 499.
    Trinchera, M. & Bozzaro, S. (1996): Dictyostelium cytosolic fucosyltransferase synthesizes H type 1 trisaccharide in vitro. FEBS Lett. 395, 68–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  499. 500.
    Tuppy, H. & Schenkel-Brunner, H. (1969): Formation of blood-group A substance from H substance by an α-N-acetylgalactosaminyl transferase. Eur. J. Biochem. 10, 152–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  500. 501.
    Tuppy, H. & Schenkel-Brunner, H. (1969): Occurrence and assay of alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminyl transferase in the gastric mucosa of humans belonging to blood-group A. Vox Sang. 17, 139–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  501. 502.
    Tuppy, H. & Staudenbauer, W. L. (1966): Microsomal incorporation of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine into blood group substance. Nature 210, 316–317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  502. 503.
    Ugozzoli, L. & Wallace, R. B. (1992): Application of an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction to the direct determination of ABO blood group genotypes. Genomics 12, 670–674.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  503. 504.
    Van Arsdel, P. P. (1958): The usefulness of the plant-lectin, Ulex europaeus, in a large-scale blood group study. Vox Sang. 3, 448–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  504. 505.
    Van Halbeek, H., Dorland, L., Vliegenthart, J. F. G., Kochetkov, N. K., Arbatsky, N. P. & Derevitskaya, V. A. (1982): Characterization of the primary structure and the microheterogeneity of the carbohydrate chains of porcine blood-group H substance by 500 mHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Eur. J. Biochem. 127, 21–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  505. 506.
    Vetter, O. (1969): Beobachtungen an einem’ a-like’ Blutgruppenprinzip in Clupeaharengus L. Acta Biol. Med. Germ. 22, 427–429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  506. 507.
    Viitala, J., Finne, J. & Krusius, T. (1982): Blood group A and H determinants in polyglycosyl peptides of A1, and A2 erythrocytes. Eur. J. Biochem. 126, 401–406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  507. 508.
    Viitala, J., Karhi, K. K., Gahmberg, C. G., Finne, J., Järnefeldt, J., Myllyla, G. & Krusius, T. (1981): Blood-group A and B determinants are located in different polyglycosyl peptides isolated from human erythrocytes of blood group AB. Eur. J. Biochem. 113, 259–265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  508. 509.
    Voak, D., Lodge, T. W., Hopkins, J. & Bowley, C. C. (1968): A study of the antibodies of the H’o’l-B complex with special reference to their occurrence in notation. Vox Sang. 15, 353–366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  509. 510.
    Voak, D., Lodge, T. W., Stapleton, R. R., Fogg, H. & Roberts, H. E. (1970): The incidence of H deficient A2, and A2B bloods and family studies on the AH/ABH status of an Aint and some new variant blood types (Aint H A1,A2HwA1,A2BHwA1B,A2BHwA28). Vox Sang. 19, 73–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  510. 511.
    Voak, D., Sacks, S., Alderson, T., Takey, F., Lennox, E., Jarvis, J., Milstein, C. & Darnborough, J. (1980): Monoclonal anti-A from a hybrid-myeloma: evaluation as a blood grouping reagent. Vox Sang. 39, 134–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  511. 512.
    Voak, D., Sonneborn, H. & Yates, A. (1992): The A, (B)-phenomenon:a monoclonal anti-B (BS-85) demonstrates low levels of B-determinants on A, red cells. Transfus. Med. 2, 119–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  512. 513.
    Vos, G. H. (1964): Five examples of red cells with the A,, subgroup of blood group A. Vox Sang. 9, 160–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  513. 514.
    Wagner, F. F. & Flegel, W. A. (1997): Polymorphism of the h allele and the population frequency of sporadic nonfunctional alleles. Transfusion 37, 284–290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  514. 515.
    Wang, B. J., Koda, Y., Soejima, M. & Kimura, H. (1997): Two missense mutations of H type α(1,2)fucosyltransferase gene (FUT1) responsible for para-bombay phenotype. Vox Sang. 72, 31–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  515. 516.
    Watanabe, G., Umetsu, K., Yuasa, I. & Suzuki, T. (1997): Amplified product length polymorphism (APLP): a novel strategy for genotyping the ABO blood group. Hum. Genet. 99, 34–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  516. 517.
    Watanabe, K. & Hakomori, S. I. (1976): Status of blood group carbohydrate chains in ontogenesis and in oncogenesis. J. Exp. Med. 144, 644–653.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  517. 518.
    Watanabe, K., Laine, R. A. & Hakomori, S. I. (1975): On neutral fucoglycolipids having long, branched carbohydrate chains: H-active and l-active glycosphingolipids of human erythrocyte membranes. Biochemistry 14, 2725–2733.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  518. 519.
    Watanabe, K., Powell, M. & Hakomori, S. I. (1978): Isolation and characterization of a novel fucoganglioside of human erythrocyte membranes. J. Biol. Chem. 253, 8962–8967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  519. 520.
    Watkins, W. M. (1966): Blood group substances. Science 152, 172–181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  520. 521.
    Watkins, W. M. (1972): Blood group specific substances. In: Glycoproteins: Their Composition, Structure and Function (A. Gottschalk, ed.) Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 830–891.Google Scholar
  521. 522.
    Watkins, W. M. (1978): Blood group gene specified glycosyltransferases in rare ABO groups and in leukemia. Rev. Fr. Transfus. 21, 201–228.Google Scholar
  522. 523.
    Watkins, W. M. (1980): Biochemistry and genetics of the ABO, Lewis and P blood group systems. In: Advances in Human Genetics. Vol. 10, pp. 1–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  523. 524.
    Watkins, W. m. & Morgan, W. T. J. (1957): The A and H character of the blood group substances secreted by persons belonging to group A2. Acta Genet. Statist. Med. 6, 521–526.Google Scholar
  524. 525.
    Watkins, W. M. & Morgan, W. T. J. (1959): Possible genetical pathways for the biosynthesis of blood group mucopolysaccharides. Vox Sang. 4, 97–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  525. 526.
    Weiner, W., Lewis, H. B. M., Moores, P., Sänger, R. & Race, R. R. (1957): A gene, y, modifying the ABO group antigen A. Vox Sang. 2, 25–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  526. 527.
    West, C. M., Scott-Ward, T., Teng-Umnuay, P., Van Der Wel, H., Kozarov, E. & Huynh, A. (1996): Purification and characterization of an α 1,2-L-fucosyltransferase, which modifies the cytosolic protein FP21, from the cytosol of Dictyostelium. J. Biol. Chem. 271, 12024–12035.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  527. 528.
    Wherrett, J. R. & Hakomori, S. I. (1973): Characterization of a blood group B glycolipid, accumulating in the pancreas of a patient with Fabry’s disease. J. Biol. Chem. 248, 3046–3051.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  528. 529.
    White, T., Mandel, U., Ørntoft, T. F., Dabelsteen, E., Karkov, J., Kubeja, M., Hakomori, S. & Clausen, H. (1990): Murine monoclonal antibodies directed to the human histo-blood group A transferase (UDP-GalNAc:Fucα1→2Gal a1→s-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase) and the presence therein on N-linked histo-blood group A determinant. Biochemistry 29, 2740–2747.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  529. 530.
    Whitehead, J. S., Bella, A. & Kim, Y. S. (1974): An N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase from human blood group A plasma. I. Purification and agarose binding properties. J. Biol. Chem. 249, 3442–3447.Google Scholar
  530. 531.
    Whitehead, J. S., Bella, A. & Kim, Y. S. (1974): An N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase from human blood group A plasma. II. Kinetic and physicochemical properties. J. Biol. Chem. 249, 3448–3452.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  531. 532.
    Whittemore, N. B., Trabold, N. C., Reed, C. F. & Weed, R. I. (1969): Solubilized glycoprotein from human erythrocyte membranes possessing blood group A, B, and H activity. Vox Sang. 17, 289–299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  532. 533.
    Wiener, A. S. & Cioffi, A. F. (1972): A group B analogue of subgroup A3. Amer. J. Clin. Pathol. 58, 693–697.Google Scholar
  533. 534.
    Wiener, A. S. & Gordon, E. B. (1956): A hitherto undescribed human blood group. Brit. J. Haematol. 2, 305–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  534. 535.
    Wilczynska, Z., Miller-Podraza, H. & Koscielak, J. (1980): The contribution of different glycoconjugates to the total ABH blood-group activity of human erythrocytes. FEBS Lett. 112, 277–279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  535. 536.
    Wiley, E. L., Murphy, P., Mendelsohn, G. & Eggleston, J. C. (1981): Distribution of blood group substances in normal human colon. Amer. J. Clin. Pathol. 76, 806–809.Google Scholar
  536. 537.
    Wood, C., Kabat, E. A., Murphy, L. A. & Goldstein, I. J. (1979): Immunochemical studies of the combining sites of the two isolectins, A4 and B4, isolated from Bandeiraea simplicifolia. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 198, 1–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  537. 538.
    Wrann, M., Schenkel-Brunner, H. & Kothbauer, H. (1978): Blood-group A and H specific structures in toad (Bufo) spawn. Comparative studies on three species (Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Bufo calamita). Z. Immun.-Forsch. 154, 471–474Google Scholar
  538. 539.
    Wrobel, D. M., Me, D. I., Race, C. & Watkins, W. M. (1974): “true” genotype of chimeric twins revealed by blood-group gene products in plasma. Vox Sang. 27, 395–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  539. 540.
    Yamamoto, F. (1995): Molecular genetics of the ABO histo-blood group system. Vox Sang. 69, 1–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  540. 541.
    Yamamoto, F. & Hakomori, S. I. (1990): Sugar-nucleotide donor specificity of histo-blood-group-A and group-B transferases is based on amino acid substitutions. J. Biol. Chem. 265,19257–19262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  541. 542.
    Yamamoto, F. & Mcneill, P. D. (1996): Amino acid residue at codon 268 determines both activity and nucleotide-sugar donor substrate specificity of human histo-blood group A and B transferases.ln vitro mutagenesis study. J. Biol. Chem. 271, 10515–10520.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  542. 543.
    Yamamoto, F., Mcneill, P. D. & Hakomori, S. (1991): Identification in human genomic DNA of the sequence homologous but not identical to either the histo-blood group ABH genes or α1→3 galactosyltransferase pseudogene. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 175, 986–994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  543. 544.
    Yamamoto, F., Mcneill, P. D. & Hakomori, S. (1995): Genomic organization of human histo-blood group ABO genes. Glycobiology 5, 51–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  544. 545.
    Yamamoto, F., Mcneill, P. D., Yamamoto, M., Hakomori, S., Bromilow, I. M. & Duguid, J. K. M. (1993): Molecular genetic analysis of the ABO blood group system.4. Another type of O allele. Vox Sang. 64, 175–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  545. 546.
    Yamamoto, F., Mcneill, P. D., Yamamoto, M., Hakomori, S. & Harris, T. (1993): Molecular genetic analysis of the ABO blood group system. 3. Ax and B(A) Alleles. Vox Sang. 64, 171–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  546. 547.
    Yamamoto, F. I., Clausen, H., White, T., Marken, J. & Hakomori, S. I. (1990): Molecular genetic basis of the histo-blood group ABO system. Nature 345, 229–233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  547. 548.
    Yamamoto, F. I., Marken, J., Tsuji, T., White, T., Clausen, H. & Hakomori, S. I. (1990): Cloning and characterization of DNA complementary to human UDP-GalNAc: Fucαl →2Gal α1 →3GalNAc transferase (histo-blood group A transferase) mRNA. J. Biol. Chem. 265, 1146–1151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  548. 549.
    Yamamoto, F. I., Mcneill, P. D. & Hakomori, S. I. (1992): Human histo-blood group A2 transferase coded by A2 allele, one of the A subtypes, is characterized by a single base deletion in the coding sequence, which results in an additional domain at the carboxyl terminal. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 187, 366–374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  549. 550.
    Yamamoto, F. I., Mcneill, P. D., Kominato, Y., Yamamoto, M., Hakomori, S. I., Ishimoto, S., Nishida, S., Shima, M. & Fujimura, Y. (1993): Molecular genetic analysis of the ABO blood group system. 2. cis-AB alleles. Vox Sang. 64, 120–123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  550. 551.
    Yamamoto, F. I., Mcneill, P. D., Yamamoto, M., Hakomori, S. I., Harris, T., Judd, W. J. & Davenport, R. D. (1993): Molecular genetic analysis of the ABO blood group system. 1. Weak subgroups: A3 and B3 alleles. Vox Sang. 64, 116–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  551. 552.
    Yamamoto, S. (1977): The occurrence of materials cross-reacting with anti-A and anti-B agglutinins in fruit or seed extracts of higher plants. J. Immunogenet. 4, 325–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  552. 553.
    Yamamoto, S. & Sakai, I. (1981): Composition and immunochemical properties of glycoproteins with anti-B agglutinin activity isolated from Euonymus sieboldiana seeds. J. Immunogenet. 8, 271–279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  553. 554.
    Yamamoto, S., Sakai, I. & Iseki, S. (1981): Purification, composition, and immunochemical properties of arabinogalactan-protein H active glycopeptides from Euonymus sieboldiana seeds. Immunol. Commun. 10, 215–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  554. 555.
    Yamashita, K., Tachibana, Y., Takasaki, S. & Kobata, A. (1976): ABO blood group determinants with branched cores. Nature 262, 702–703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  555. 556.
    Yates, A. D., Feeney, J., Donald, A. S. R. & Watkins, W. M. (1984): Characterisation of a blood-group A-active tetrasaccharide synthesised by a blood-group B gene-specified glycosyltransferase. Carbohydr. Res. 130, 251–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  556. 557.
    Yates, A. D. & Watkins, W. M. (1982): The biosynthesis of blood group B determinants by the blood group A gene-specified α-3-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferase. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 109, 958–965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  557. 558.
    Yazawa, S. & Furukawa, K. (1980): α-L-Fucosyltransferases related to biosynthesis of blood group substances in human saliva. J. Immunogenet. 7, 137–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  558. 559.
    Yazawa, S. & Furukawa, K. (1983): Immunochemical properties of human plasma α1 → 2fucosyltransferase specified by blood group H-gene. J. Immunogenet. 10, 349–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  559. 560.
    Yokoyama, M. & Plocinik, B. (1965): Serologie and immunochemical characterization of Ax blood. Vox Sang. 10, 149–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  560. 561.
    Yoshida, A. (1980): Identification of genotypes of blood group A and B. Blood 55, 119–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  561. 562.
    Yoshida, A. (1981): Genetic mechanism of blood group (ABO) expression. Ada Biol. Med. Germ. 40, 927–941.Google Scholar
  562. 563.
    Yoshida, A. (1983): The existence of atypical blood group galactosyltransferase which causes an expression of A2 character in A1B red blood cells. Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 35, 1117–1125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  563. 564.
    Yoshida, A., Dave, V., Branch, D. R., Yamaguchi, H. & Okubo, Y. (1982): An enzyme basis for blood type A intermediate status. Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 34, 919–924.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  564. 565.
    Yoshida, A., Dave, V. & Hamilton, H. B. (1988): Imbalance of blood group A subtypes and the existence of superactive B* gene in Japanese in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 43, 422–428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  565. 566.
    Yoshida, A., Dave, V. & Prchal, J. (1985): Uncertainty in identification of blood group A subtypes by agglutination test. Hum. Hered. 35, 1–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  566. 567.
    Yoshida, A., Yamaguchi, H. & Okubo, N. (1980): Genetic mechanism of cis-AB inheritance. I. A case associated with unequal chromosomal crossing over. Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 32, 332–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  567. 568.
    Yoshida, A., Yamaguchi, H. & Okubo, Y. (1980): Genetic mechanism of cis-AB inheritance. II. Cases associated with structural mutation of blood group glycosyltransferase. Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 32, 645–650.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  568. 569.
    Yoshida, A., Yamaguchi, Y. F. & Dave, V. (1979): Immunologic homology of human blood group glycosyltransferases and genetic background of blood group (ABO) determination. Blood 54, 344–350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  569. 570.
    Yu, L. C., Broadberry, R. E., Yang, Y. H., Chen, Y. H. & Lin, M. (1996): Heterogeneity of the human Secretor α(1,2)fucosyltransferase gene among Lewis(a+b-) non-secretors. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 222, 390–394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  570. 571.
    Yu, L. C., Lee, H. L., Chu, C. C., Broadberry, R. E. & Lin, M. (1999): A newly identified nonsecretor allele of the human histo-blood group α(1,2)fucosyltransferase gene (FUT2). Vox Sang. 76, 115–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  571. 572.
    Yu, L. C., Yang, Y. H., Broadberry, R. E., Chen, Y. H., Chan, Y. S. & Lin, M. (1995): Correlation of a missense mutation in the human Secretor α1,2-fucosyltransferase gene with the Lewis(a+b+) phenotype: a potential molecular basis for the weak Secretor allele (Sew). Biochem. J. 312, 329–332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  572. 573.
    Yu, L. C., Yang, Y. H., Broadberry, R. E., Chen, Y. H. & Lin, M. (1997): Heterogeneity of the human H blood group α(1,2)fucosyltransferase gene among para-Bombay individuals. Vox Sang. 72, 36–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  573. 574.
    Zhu, A., Leng, L., Monahan, C., Zhang, Z. F., Hurst, R., Lenny, L. & Goldstein, J. (1996): Characterization of recombinant α-galactosidase for use in seroconversion from blood group B to O of human erythrocytes. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 327, 324–329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  574. 575.
    Ziderman, D., Gompertz, S., Smith, Z. G. & Watkins, W. M. (1967): Glycosyl transferases in mammalian gastric mucosal linings. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 29, 56–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helmut Schenkel-Brunner
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Medizinische BiochemieUniversität WienViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations