Advertisement

Kell System

  • Helmut Schenkel-Brunner

Abstract

Kell (’Kelleher’) is a complex blood group system of human erythrocytes, 23 antigens of which have been defined to date (see Table 17.1). The Kell phenotype of human erythrocytes is controlled by two proteins encoded by two independent genes: the Kell antigens perse are produced by alleles of an autosomal gene, KEL, which has been located on chromosome 7 at position q33-35 distal to the cystic fibrosis locus [56,71,78,109]. The expression of the Kell antigens on the red cell is controlled by another protein, Kx. This protein is encoded by the XK gene found on the short arm of the X chromosome at Xp21, between the Duchenne muscular dystrophy and chronic granulomatous disease loci [9,34].

Keywords

Blood Group Retinitis Pigmentosa Chronic Granulomatous Disease Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Blood Group Antigen 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Advani, H., Zamor, J., Judd, W. J., Johnson, C. L. & Marsh, W. L. (1982): Inactivation of Kell blood group antigens by 2-aminoethylisothiouronium bromide. Brit. J. Haematol. 51, 107–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Allen, F. H., Krabbe, S. M. R. & Corcoran, P. A. (1961): A new phenotype (McLeod) in the Kell blood group system. Vox Sang. 6, 555–560.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Allen, F. H. & Lewis, S. J. (1957): Kpa (Penney), a new antigen in the Kell blood group system. Vox Sang. 2, 81–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Allen, F. H., Lewis, S. J. & Fudenburg, H. (1958): Studies of anti-Kpb, a new antibody in the Kell blood group system. Vox Sang. 3, 1–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Avent, N. D. & Martin, P. G. (1996): Kell typing by allele-specific PCR (ASP). Brit. J. Haematol. 93, 728–730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ballas, S. K., Bator, S. M., Aubuchon, J. P., Marsh, W. L., Sharp, D. E. & Toy, E. M. (1990): Abnormal membrane physical properties of red cells in McLeod syndrome. Transfusion 30, 722–727.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bar Shany, S., Ben Porath, D., Levene, C., Sela, R. & Daniels, G. L. (1982): K22, a’ new’ para-Kell antigen of high frequency. Vox Sang. 42, 87–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Barrasso, C., Eska, P., Grindon, A. J., Øyen, R. & Marsh, W. L. (1975): Anti-K18: an antibody defining another high-frequency antigen related to the Kell blood group system. Vox Sang. 29, 124–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bertelson, C. J., Pogo, A. O., Chaudhuri, A., Marsh, W. L., Redman, C. M., Banerjee, D., Symmans, W. A., Simon, T., Frey, D. & Kunkel, L. M. (1988): Localization of the McLeod locus (XK) within Xp21 by deletion analysis. Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 42, 703–711.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bowman, J. M., Pollock, J. M., Manning, F. A., Harman, C. R. & Menticoglou, S. (1992): Maternal Kell blood group alloimmunization. Obstet. Gynecol. 79, 239–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Branch, D. R., Muensch, H. A., Sy Siok Han, A. L. & Petz, L. D. (1983): Disulfide bonds are a requirement for Kell and Cartwright (Yf) blood group antigen integrity. Brit. J. Haematol. 54, 573–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Branch, D. R. & Petz, L. D. (1982): A new reagent (ZZAP) having multiple appplications in immunohematology. Amer. J. Clin. Pathol. 7, 161–167.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Branch, D. R., Sy Siok Hian, A. L & Petz, L. D. (1985): Unmasking of Kx antigen by reduction of disulphide bonds on normal and McLeod red cells. Brit. J. Haematol. 59, 505–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brendel, W. L., Issitt, P. D., Moore, R. E., Lenes, B. A., Zeller, D. J., Tse, T. P. & Atkin, N. (1985): Temporary reduction of red cell Kell system antigen expression and transient production of anti-Kpb in a surgical patient. Biotest Bull. 2, 201–206.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Carbonnet, F., Hattab, C., Callebaut, I., Cochet, S., Blancher, A., Cartron, J. P. & Bertrand, O. (1998): Kx, a quantitatively minor protein from human erythrocytes, is palmitoylated in vivo. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 250, 569–574.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Coombs, R. R. A., Mourant, A. E. & Race, R. R. (1946): In-vivo isosensitization of red cells in babies with haemolytic disease. Lancet i, 264–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Corcoran, P. A., Allen, F. H., Lewis, M. & Chown, B. (1961): A new antibody, anti-Ku (anti-Peltz), in the Kell blood group system. Transfusion 1, 181–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Daniels, G. L., Petty, A. C., Reid, M., Moulds, M., Devenish, A. & Haul, O. (1994): Demonstration by the monoclonal antibody-specific immobilization of erythrocyte antigens assay that a new red cell antigen belongs to the Kell blood group system. Transfusion 34, 818–820.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    De Saint Basile, G., Bohler, M. C., Fischer, A., Cartron, J., Dufier, J. L., Griscelli, C. & Orkin, S. H. (1988): Xp21 DNA microdeletion in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease, retinitis pigmentosa, and McLeod phenotype. Hum. Genet. 80, 85–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Doelman, C. J. A., Westermann, W. F., VanVoorst Tot Voorst, E. & Miedema, K. (1992): An anti-K apparently induced by Enterococcus faecalis in a 30-year-old man. Transfusion 32, 790.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dunstan, R. A. (1986): Status of major red cell blood group antigens on neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes. Brit. J. Haematol. 62, 301–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Elcher, C., Kirkley, K., Porter, M. & Kao, Y. (1985): A new low frequency antigen in the Kell system: K24. Transfusion 27, 36–40.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Francke, U., Ochs, H. D., De Martinville, B., Giacalone, J., Lindgren, V, Disteche, C., Pagan, R. A., Hofker, M. H., VanOmmen, G. J., Pearson, P. L & Wedgewood, R. J. (1985): Minor Xp21 chromosome deletion in a male associated with expression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, chronic granulomatous disease, retinitis pigmentosa, and McLeod syndrome. Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 37, 250–267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Frey, D., Machler, M., Seger, R., Schmid, W. & Orkin, S. H. (1988): Gene deletion in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease and McLeod syndrome: fine mapping of the Xk gene locus. Blood 71, 252–255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Furuhjelm, U., Nevanlinna, H. R., Nurkka, R., Gavin, J., Tlppett, P., Gooch, A. & Sanger, R. (1968): The blood group antigen Ula] (Karhula). Vox Sang. 15}, 118–1PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gavin, J., Daniels, G. L., Yamaguchi, H., Okubo, Y. & Seno, T. (1979): The red cell antigen once called Levay is the antigen Kpc of the Kell system. Vox Sang. 36, 31–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Giblett, E. R. & Chase, J. (1959): Jsa, a’ new’ red cell antigen found in Negroes; evidence for an eleventh blood goup system. Brit. J. Haematol. 5, 319–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Giblett, E. R., Klebanoff, S. J. & Pincus, S. H. (1971): Kell phenotypes in chronic granulomatous disease: a potential transfusion hazard. Lancet i, 1235–1236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Guévin, R. M., Taliano, V. & Waldmann, O. (1976): The Côté serum (anti-K11), an antibody defining a new variant in the Kell system. Vox Sang. 31(Suppl. 1), 96–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hanaoka, N-, Yoshida, K., Nakamura, A., Furihata, K., Seo, T., Tani, Y., Takahashi, J., Ikeda, S. & Hanyu, N. (1999): A novel frameshift mutation in the McLeod syndrome gene in a Japanese family. J. Neurol. Sci. 165, 6–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hessner, M. J., Mcfarland, J. G. & Endean, D. J. (1996): Genotyping of KEL1 and KEL2 of the human Kell blood group system by the polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers. Transfusion 36, 495–499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ho, M. F., Chalmer, R. M., Davis, M. B., Harding, A. E. & Monaco, A. P. (1996): A novel point mutation in the McLeod syndrome gene in neuroacanthocytosis. Ann. Neurol. 39, 672–675.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ho, M. F., Chelly, J., Carter, N., Danek, A., Crocker, P. & Monaco, A. P. (1994): Isolation of the gene for McLeod syndrome that encodes a novel membrane transport protein. Cell 77, 869–880.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ho, M. F., Monaco, A. P., Blonden, L. A. J., VanOmmen, G. J. B., Affara, N. A., Ferguson-Smith, M. A. & Lehrach, H. (1992): Fine mapping of the McLeod locus (XK) to a 150-380-kb region in Xp21. Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 50, 317–330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hughes-Jones, N. C. & Gardner, B. (1971): The Kell system studied with radioactively-labelled antj-K. Vox Sang. 21, 154–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Issitt, P. (1985): The Kell blood group system. In: Applied Blood Group Serology. Montgomery Scientific Publications, Miami, Florida, pp. 289–307.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Jaber, A., Blanchard, D., Goossens, D., Bloy, C., Lambin, P., Rouger, P., Salmon, C. & Cartron, J. P. (1989): Characterization of the blood group Kell (K1) antigen with a human monoclonal antibody. Blood 73, 1597–1602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Jaber, A., Loirat, M. J., Willem, C., Bloy, C., Cartron, J. P. & Blanchard, D. (1991): Characterization of murine monoclonal antibodies directed against the Kell blood group glycoprotein. Brit. J. Haematol. 79, 311–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Jones, J., Reid, M. E., Oyen, R., Harris, T., Moscarelli, S., Co, S., Leger, R., Beal, C. & Cardillo, K. (1995): A novel common Kell antigen, TOU, and its spatial relationship to other Kell antigens. Vox Sang. 69, 53–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Jongeneel, C. V., Bouvier, J. & Bairoch, A. (1989): A unique signature identifies a family of zinc-dependent metallopeptidases. FEBS Lett. 242, 211–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Jongerius, J. M., Daniels, G. L., Overbeeke, M. A. M., Petty, A. C., Reid, M., Oyen, R., Rijksen, H. & Vanleeuwen, E. F. (1996): A new low-incidence antigen in the Kell blood group system: VLAN (KEL25). Vox Sang. 71, 43–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Judson, P. A. & Anstee, D. J. (1977): Comparative effect of trypsin and chymotrypsin on blood group antigens. Med. Lab. Sci. 34, 1–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kanai, Y. & Hediger, M. A. (1992): Primary structure and functional characterization of a high-affinity glutamate transporter. Nature 360, 467–471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kanel, G. C., Davis, I. & Bowman, J. E. (1978): ‘naturally-occurring’ anti-K1: possible association with Mycobacterium infection. Transfusion 18, 472–473.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Khamlichi, S., Bailly, P., Blanchard, D., Goossens, D., Cartron, J. P. & Bertrand, O. (1995): Purification and partial characterization of the erythrocyte Kx protein deficient in McLeod patients. Eur. J. Biochem. 228, 931–934.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kuypers, F. A., VanLlnde-Slbenius, T. M., Roelofsen, B., Op Den Kamp, J. A., Tanner, M. J. A. & Anstee, D. J. (1985): The phospholipid organisation in the membranes of McLeod and Leach phenotype erythrocytes. FEBS Lett. 184, 20–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Lee, S. (1997): Molecular basis of Kell blood group phenotypes. Vox Sang. 73, 1–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Lee, S., Bennett, P. R., Overton, T., Warwick, R., Wu, X. & Redman, C. M. (1996): Prenatal diagnosis of Kell blood group genotypes: KEL1 and KEL2. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 175, 455–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Lee, S., Lin, M., Mele, A., Cao, Y., Farmar, J., Russo, D. & Redman, C. (1999): Proteolytic processing of big endothelin-3 by the Kell blood group protein. Blood 94, 1440–1450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lee, S., Naime, D., Reid, M. & Redman, C. (1997): The KEL24 and KEL14 alleles of the Kell blood group system. Transfusion 37, 1035–1038.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lee, S., Naime, D. S., Reid, M. E. & Redman, C. M. (1997): Molecular basis for the high-incidence antigens of the Kell blood group system. Transfusion 37, 1117–1122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lee, S., Wu, X., Reid, M. & Redman, C. (1995): Molecular basis of the K:6,-7 [Js(a+b-)] phenotype in the Kell blood group system. Transfusion 35, 822–825.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lee, S., Wu, X., Son, S., Naime, D., Reid, M., Okubo, Y., Sistonen, P. & Redman, C. (1996): Point mutations characterize KEL10, the KEL3, KEL4, and KEL21 alleles, and the KEL17 and KEL11 alleles. Transfusion 36, 490–494.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lee, S., Zambas, E., Green, E. D. & Redman, C. (1995): Organization of the gene encoding the human Kell blood group protein. Blood 85, 1364–1370.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lee, S., Zambas, E. D., Marsh, W. L. & Redman, C. M. (1991): Molecular cloning and primary structure of Kell blood group protein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 6353–6357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lee, S., Zambas, E. D., Marsh, W. L. & Redman, C. M. (1993): The human Kell blood group gene maps to chromosome 7q33 and its expression is restricted to erythroid cells. Blood 81, 2804–2809.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Lee, S., Wu, X., Reid, M., Zelinski, T. & Redman, C. (1995): Molecular basis of the Kell (K1) phenotype. Blood 85, 912–916.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Levine, P., Backer, M., Wigod, M. & Ponder, R. (1949): A new human hereditary blood property (Cellano) present in 99.8 per cent of all bloods. Science 109, 464–467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Marsh, W. L., Jensen, L., Oyen, R., Stroup, M., Gellerman, M., Mcmahon, F. J. & Tsitsera, H. (1974): Anti-K13 and the K:-13 phenotype: a blood-grouo variant related to the Kell system. Vox Sang. 26, 34–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Marsh, W. L., Nichols, M. E., Oyen, R., Thayer, R. S., Deere, W. L., Freed, P. J. & Schmelter, S. E. (1978): Naturally occurring anti-Kell stimulated by E. coli enterocolitis in a 20-day old child. Transfusion 18, 149–154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Marsh, W. L., Oyen, R., Nichols, M. E. & Allen, F. H. (1975): Chronic granulomatous disease and the Kell blood groups. Brit. J. Haematol. 29, 247–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Marsh, W. L. & Redman, C. M. (1990): The Kell blood group system: a review. Transfusion 30, 158–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Marsh, W. L., Redman, C. M., Kessler, L. A., Dinapoli, J., Scarborough, A. L. & Philipps, A. G. (1987): K23: a low-incidence antigen in the Kell blood group system identified by biochemical characterisation. Transfusion 27, 36–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Marsh, W. L., Stroup, M., Macilroy, M., Oyen, R., Reid, M. E. & Heisto, H. (1973): A new antibody, anti-K12, associated with the Kell blood group system. Vox Sang. 24, 200–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Mayne, K. M., Bowell, P. J. & Pratt, G. A. (1990): The significance of anti-Kell sensitization in pregnancy. Clin. Lab. Haematol. 12, 379–385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Mcginniss, M. H., Maclowry, J. D. & Holland, P. V. (1984): Acquisition of K:1-like antigen during terminal sepsis. Transfusion 24, 28–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Merry, A. H., Thomson, E. E., Anstee, D. J. & Stratton, F. (1984): The quantification of erythrocyte antigen sites with monoclonal antibodies. Immunology 51, 793–800.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Mourant, A. E. (1983): Blood Relations — Blood Groups and Anthropology. University Press, London.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Murphy, M. T. & Fraser, R. H. (1997): Detection of Kell blood groups: molecular methods in the diagnostic laboratory. Blood Rev. 11, 8–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Murphy, M. T., Fraser, R. H. & Goddard, J. P. (1996): Development of a PCR-based diagnostic assay for the determination of KEL genotype in donor blood samples. Transfus. Med. 6, 133–137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Murphy, M. T., Morrison, N., Miles, J. S., Fraser, R. H., Spurr, N. K. & Boyd, E. (1993): Regional chromosomal assignment of the Kell blood group locus (KEL) to chromosome 7q33-q35 by fluorescence in situ hybridization:evidence for the polypeptide nature of antigenic variation. Hum. Genet. 91, 585–588.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Nichols, M. E., Rosenfield, R. E. & Rubinstein, P. (1987): Monoclonal anti-K14 and anti-K2. Vox Sang. 52, 231–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Pacholczyk, T., Blakely, R. D. & Amara, S. G. (1991): Expression cloning of a cocaine-and antidepressant-sensitive human noradrenaline transporter. Nature 350, 350–354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Parsons, S. F., Gardner, B. & Anstee, D. J. (1993): Monoclonal antibodies against Kell glycoprotein: serology, immunochemistry and quantification of antigen sites. Transfus. Med. 3, 137–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Pereira, A., Monteagudo, J. & Rovira, M. (1989): Anti-K1 of the IgA class associated with Morganella morganii infection. Transfusion 29, 549–551.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Petty, A. C. (1993): Monoclonal antibody-specific immobilisation of erythrocyte antigens (MAIEA). A new technique to selectively determine antigenic sites on red cell membranes. J. Immunol. Methods 161, 91–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Petty, A. C., Daniels, G. L. & Tippett, P. (1994): Application of the MAIEA assay to the Kell blood group system. Vox Sang. 66, 216–224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Purohit, K. R., Weber, J. L., Ward, L J. & Keats, B. J. B. (1992): The Kell blood group locus is close to the cystic fibrosis locus on chromosome 7. Hum. Genet. 89, 457–458.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Race, R. R. & Sänger, R. (1975): The Kell blood groups. In: Blood Groups in Man. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp. 283–310.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Redman, C. M., Avellino, G., Pfeffer, S. R., Mukherjee, T. K., Nichols, M., Rubinstein, P. & Marsh, W. L. (1986): Kell blood group antigens are part of a 93,000-dalton red cell membrane protein. J. Biol. Chem. 261, 9521–9525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Redman, C. M. & Lee, S. (1995): Kell blood group system and the McLeod syndrome. In: Blood Cell Biochemistry. Molecular Basis of Human Blood Group (J.P. Cartron and P. Rouger, eds.). Plenum Press, New York and London, pp. 227–242.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Redman, C. M., Lee, S., Huinink, T. B., Rabin, B. I., Johnson, C. L., Øyen, R. & Marsh, W. L. (1989): Comparison of human and chimpanzee Kell blood group systems. Transfusion 29, 486–490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Redman, C. M. & Marsh, W. L. (1993): The Kell blood group system and the Mcleod phenotype. Sem. Hematol. 30, 209–218.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Redman, C. M., Marsh, W. L., Mueller, K. A., Avellino, G. P. & Johnson, C. L. (1984): Isolation of Kell-active protein from the red cell membrane. Transfusion 24, 176–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Redman, C. M., Marsh, W. L., Scarborough, A., Johnson, C. L., Rabin, B. I. & Overbeeke, M. (1988): Biochemical studies on McLeod phenotype red cells and isolation of Kx antigen. Brit. J. Haematol. 68, 131–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Reid, M. E., Øyen, R., Redman, C. M., Gillespie, G., Jones, J. & Eckrich, R. (1995): K12 is located on the Kell blood group protein in proximity to K/k and Jsa/Jsb. Vox Sang. 68, 40–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Rouger, P. (1990): Defects of McLeod red blood cells and association with disease. In: Blood Group Systems: Kell (J. Laird-Fryer, J. Levitt, and G. Daniels, eds.). American Association of Blood Banks, Arlington, Virginia, pp. 77–88.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Russo, D., Redman, C. & Lee, S. (1998): Association of XK and Kell blood group proteins. J. Biol. Chem. 273, 13950–13956.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Sabo, B., Mccreary, J., Stroup, M., Smith, D. E. & Weidner, J. G. (1979): Another Kell-related antibody, anti-KI9. Vox Sang. 36, 97–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Savalonis, J. M., Kalish, R. I., Cummings, E. A., Ryan, R. W. & Aloisi, R. (1988): Kell blood group activity of gram-negative bacteria. Transfusion 28, 229–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Schultz, M. H. (1990): Serology and clinical significance of Kell blood group system antibodies. In: Blood Group Systems: Ke//(J. Laird-Fryer, J. Levitt, and G. Daniels, eds.). American Association of Blood Banks, Arlington, Virginia, pp. 37–64.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Seyfried, G. B., Górska, S., Maj, S., Sylwestrowicz, M. T., Giles, C. M. & Goldsmith, K. L. G. (1972): Apparent depression of antigens of the Kell blood group system associated with autoimmune acquired haemolytic anaemia. Vox Sang. 23, 528–536.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Shipp, M. A., Vijayaraghavan, J., Schmidt, E. V., Masteller, E. L., D’adamio, L., Hersh, L. B. & Reinherz, E. L. (1989): Common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA) is active neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (‘enkephalinase’): direct evidence by cDNA transfection analysis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 297–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Shizuka, M., Watanabe, M., Aoki, M., Ikeda, Y., Mizushima, K., Okamoto, K., Itoyama, Y., Abe, K. & Shoji, M. (1997): Analysis of the McLeod syndrome gene in three patients with neuroacanthocytosis. J. Neurol. Sci. 150, 133–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Strange, J. J., Kenworthy, R. J., Webb, A. J. & Giles, C. M. (1974): Wka (Weeks), a new antigen in the Kell blood group system. Vox Sang. 27, 81–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Sullivan, C. M., Kline, W. E., Rabin, B. I., Johnson, C. L. & Marsh, W. L. (1987): The first example of autoantj-Kx. Transfusion 27, 322–324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Tang, L. L., Redman, C. M., Williams, D. & Marsh, W. L. (1981): Biochemical studies on McLeod phenotype erythrocytes. Vox Sang. 40, 17–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Tippett, P. (1976): Some recent developments in the Kell and Lutheran systems. In: Human Blood Groups (5th International Convocation on Immunology, Buffalo 1976, (J.F. Mohn, R.W. Plunkett, R.K. Cunningham, and R.M. Lambert, eds.). S. Karger, Basel, pp. 401–409.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Toivanen, P. & Hirvonen, T. (1973): Antigens Duffy, Kell, Kidd, Lutheran, and Xga on fetal red cells. Vox Sang. 24, 372–376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 99A.
    Uchikawa, M., Onodera, T., Tsuneyama, H., Enomoto, T., Ishijima, A., Yuasa, S., Murata, S., Tadokoro, K., Nakajima, K. & Juji, T. (2000): Molecular basis of unusual Kmod phenotype with K+ “k-(Abstract). Vox Sang. (in press).Google Scholar
  101. 100.
    Van Der Hart, M., Szaloky, A. & VanLoghem, J. J. (1968): A ‘new’ antibody associated with the Kell blood group system. Vox Sang. 15, 456–458.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 101.
    Vengelen-Tyler, V., Gonzalez, B., Garratty, G., Kruppe, C., Johnson, C. L., Mueller, K. A. & Marsh, W. L. (1987): Acquired loss of red cell Kell antigens. Brit. J. Haematol. 65, 231–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 102.
    Walker, R. H., Argall, C. I., Steane, E. A., Sasaki, E. A. & Greenwalt, T. J. (1963): Anti-Jsb, the expected antithetical antibody of the Sutter blood group system. Nature, 295–296.Google Scholar
  104. 103.
    Walker, R. K, Argall, C. I., Steane, E. A., Sasaki, T. T. & Greenwalt, T. J. (1963): Jsb of the Sutter blood group system. Transfusion 3, 94–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 104.
    Wallace, M. E., Bouysou, C., De Jongh, D. S., Mann, J. M., Teesdale, P., Øyen, R. & Marsh, W. L. (1976): Anti-K14: an antibody specificity associated with the Kell blood group system. Vox Sang. 30, 300–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 105.
    Wallas, C., Simon, R., Sharpe, M. A. & Byler, C. (1986): Isolation of a Kell-reactive protein from red cell membranes. Transfusion 26, 173–176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 106.
    Williamson, L. M., Poole, J., Redman, C., Clark, N., Liew, Y. M., Russo, D. C., Lee, S., Reid, M. E. & Black, A. J. (1994): Transient loss of proteins carrying Kell and Lutheran red cell antigens during consecutive relapses of autoimmune thrombocytopenia. Brit. J. Haematol. 87, 805–812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 107.
    Yamaguchi, H., Okubo, Y., Seno, T, Matsushita, K. & Daniels, G. L. (1979): A’ new’ allele, Kpc, at the Kell complex locus. Vox Sang. 36, 29–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 108.
    Yazdanbakhsh, K., Lee, S., Yu, Q. & Reid, M. E. (1999): Identification of a defect in the intracellular trafficking of a Kell blood group variant. Blood 94, 310–318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 109.
    Zelinski, T., Coghlan, G., Myal, Y., White, L. J. & Philipps, S. E. (1991): Assignment of the Kell blood group locus to chromosome 7q. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 58, 1927.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helmut Schenkel-Brunner
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Medizinische BiochemieUniversität WienViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations