Chido / Rodgers System

  • Helmut Schenkel-Brunner


The character groups Chido (Ch) [28] and Rodgers (Rg) [33] are confined to humans. The antigens are found on erythrocytes [28,33] and in plasma [33,37,39,40], but are absent from tissue cells or secretions [17].


Fourth Component Human Complement Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis Human Major Histocompatibility Complex Human Complement Component 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Atkinson, J. P., Chan, A. C., Karp, D. R., Killion, C. C., Brown, R., Spinella, D., Shreffler, D. C. & Levine, R. P. (1988): Origin of the fourth component of complement related to Chido and Rodgers blood group antigens. Complement 5, 65–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Awdeh, Z. L. & Alper, C. A. (1980): Inherited structural polymorphism of the fourth component of human complement. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 3576–3580.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Barba, G., Rittner, C. & Schneider, P. M. (1993): Genetic basis of human complement C4A deficiency. Detection of a point mutation leading to nonexpression. J. Clin. Invest. 91, 1681–1686.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barba, G. M. R., Braun-Heimer, L., Rittner, C. & Schneider, P. M. (1994): A new PCR-based typing of the Rodgers and Chido antigenic determinants of the fourth component of human complement. Eur. J. Immunogenet. 21, 325–339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Belt, K. T., Carroll, M. C. & Porter, R. R. (1984): The structural basis of the multiple forms of human complement component C4. Cell 36, 907–914.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Belt, K. T., Yu, C. Y., Carroll, M. C. & Porter, R. R. (1985): Polymorphism of human complement component C4. Immunogenetics 21, 173–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bertrams, J., Hintzen, U., Schlicht, V., Schoeps, S., Gries, F. A., Louton, T. K. & Baur, M. P. (1984): Gene and haplotype frequencies of the fourth component of complement (C4) in type 1 diabetics and normal controls. Immunobiology 166, 335–344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Braun, L., Schneider, P. M., Giles, C. M., Bertrams, J. & Rittner, C. (1990): Null alieles of human complement C4. Evidence for pseudogenes at the C4A locus and for gene conversion at the C4B locus. J. Exp. Med. 171, 129–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bruun-Petersen, G., Lamm, L U., Jacobsen, B. K. & Kristensen, T. (1982): Genetics of complement C4. Two homoduplication haplotypes C4S C4S and C4F C4F in a family. Hum. Genet. 61, 36–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Campbell, R. D., Dunham, I., Kendall, E. & Sargent, C. A. (1990): Polymorphism of the human complement component C4. Exp. Clin. Immunogenet. 7, 69–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Carroll, M. C., Campbell, R. D., Bentley, D. R. & Porter, R. R. (1984): A molecular map of the human major histocompatibility complex class III region linking complement genes C4, C2, and factor B. Nature 307, 237–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Carroll, M. C., Palsdottir, A., Belt, K. T. & Porter, R. R. (1985): Deletion of complement C4 and 21-hydroxylase genes in the HLA class III region. EMBO J. 4, 2547–2552.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chakravarti, D. N., Campbell, R. D. & Gagnon, J. (1983): Amino acid sequence of a polymorphic segment from fragment C4d of human complement component C4. FEBS Lett. 154, 387–390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chan, A. C. & Atkinson, J. P. (1985): Oligosaccharide structure of human C4. J. Immunol. 134, 1790–1798.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dunham, I., Sargent, C. A., Trowsdale, J. & Campbell, R. D. (1987): Molecular mapping of the human major histocompatibility complex by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84, 7237–7241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fielder, A. H., Walport, M. J., Batchelor, J. R., Rynes, R. I., Black, C. M., Dodi, I. A. & Hughes, G. R. (1983): Family study of the major histocompatibility complex in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: importance of null alieles of C4A and C4B in determining disease. Brit. Med. J. 286, 425–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Giles, C. M. (1977): Serologically difficult red cell antibodies with special reference to Chido and Rodgers blood groups. In: Human Blood Groups (J. F. Mohn, R. W. Plunkett, R. K. Cunningham, and R. M. Lambert, eds.). S. Karger, Basel, pp. 268–276.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Giles, C. M. (1985): ’partial inhibition’ of anti-Rg and anti-Ch reagents. II. Demonstration of separable antibodies for different determinants. Vox Sang. 48, 167–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Giles, C. M. (1987): Three Chido determinants detected on the B5Rg allotype of human C4; their expression in Ch-typed donors and families. Hum. Immunol. 8, 111–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Giles, C. M. (1988): Antigenic determinants of human C4, Rodgers and Chido. Exp. Clin. Immunogenet. 5, 99–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Giles, C. M., Batchelor, J. R., Dodi, I. A., Fielder, A. H. L., Rittner, C., Mauff, G., Bender, K., Levene, C., Schreuder, G. M. T. & Well, L. J. (1984): C4 and HLA haplotypes associated with partial inhibition of anti-Rg and anti-Ch. J. Immunogenet. 11, 305–317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Giles, C. M., Fielder, A. H. L., Lord, D. K., Robson, T. & O’neill, G. J. (1987): Two monoclonal anti-C4d reagents react with epitopes closely related to Rg:1 and Ch:1. Immunogenetics 26, 309–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Giles, C. M. & Ford, D. S. (1986): A monoclonal anti-C4d that demonstrates a specificity related to anti-Ch. Transfusion 26, 370–374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Giles, C. M., Gedde-Dahl, T., Robson, E. B., Thorsby, E., Olaisen, B., Aenason, A., Kissmeyer-Nielsen, F. & Schreuder, I. (1976): Rga (Rodgers) and the HLA region: linkage and associations. Tissue Antigens 8, 143–149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Giles, C. M. & Jones, J. W. (1987): A new antigenic determinant for C4 of relatively low frequency. Immunogenetics 26, 392–394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Giles, C. M., Uring-Lambert, B., Boksch, W., Braun, M., Goetz, J., Neumann, R., Mauff, G. & Hauptmann, G. (1987): The study of a French family with two duplicated C4A haplotypes. Hum. Genet. 77, 359–365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Giles, C. M., Uring-Lambert, B., Goetz, J., Hauptmann, G., Fielder, A. H. L., Ollier, W., Rittner, C. & Robson, T. (1988): Antigenic determinants expressed by human C4 allotypes; a study of 325 families provides evidence for the structural antigenic model. Immunogenetics 27, 442–448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Harris, J. P., Tegoli, J., Swanson, J., Fisher, N., Gavin, J. & Noades, J. (1967): A nebulous antibody responsible for cross-matching difficulties (Chido). Vox Sang. 12, 140–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hauptmann, G., Tappeiner, G. & Schifferli, J. A. (1988): Inherited deficiency of the fourth component of human complement. Immunodeficiency Rev. 1, 3–22.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hellman, U., Eggertsen, G., Lundwall, A., Engström, A. & Sjöquist, J. (1984): Primary sequence differences between Chido and Rodgers variants of tryptic C4d of the human complement system. FEBS Lett. 170, 254–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Isenman, D. E. & Young, J. R. (1984): The molecular basis for the difference in immune hemolysis activity of the Chido and Rodgers isotypes of human complement component C4. J. Immunol. 132, 3019–3027.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Law, S. K. A., Dodds, A. W. & Porter, R. R. (1984): A comparison of the properties of two classes, C4A and C4B, of the human complement component C4. EMBO J. 3, 1819–1823.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Longster, G. & Giles, C. M. (1976): A new antibody specificity, anti-Rga, reacting with a red cell and serum antigen. Vox Sang. 30, 175–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lundwall, A., Hellmann, U., Eggertsen, G. & Sjöquist, J. (1982): Isolation of tryptic fragments of human C4 expressing Chido and Rodgers antigens. Mol. Immunol. 19, 1655–1665.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Marcelli-Barge, A., Poirier, J. C., Schmid, M., Deschamps, I., Lestradet, H., Prévost, P. & Hors, J. (1984): Genetic polymorphism of the fourth component of complement and type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes. Diabetologia, 116–117.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mccluskey, J., Mccann, V. J., Kay, P. H., Zilko, P. J., Christiansen, F. T., O’neill, G. J. & Dawkins, R. L. (1983): HLA and complement allotypes in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes. Diabetologia 24, 162–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Middleton, J. & Crookston, M. C (1972): Chido substance in plasma. Vox Sang. 23, 256–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Middleton, J., Crookston, M. C., Falk, J. A., Robson, E. B., Cook, P. J. L., Batchelor, J. R., Bodmer, J., Ferrara, G. B., Festenstein, H., Harris, R., Kissmeyer-Nielsen, F., Lawler, S. D., Sachs, J. A. & Wolf, E. (1974): Linkage of Chido and HL-A. Tissue Antigens 4, 366–373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Nordhagen, R., Olaisen, B., Teisberg, P. & Gedde-Dahl, T. (1980): Association between the electrophoretically-determined C4M haplotype product and partial inhibition of anti-Cha. J. Immunogenet. 7, 301–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Nordhagen, R., Olaisen, B., Teisberg, P., Gedde-Dahl, T. & Thorsby, E. (1981): C4 haplotype products and partial inhibition of anti-Rodgers sera. J. Immunogenet. 8, 485–491.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    O’neill, G. J., Yang, S. Y. & Dupont, B. (1978): Two HLA-linked loci controlling the fourth component of human complement. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 5165–5169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    O’neill, G. J., Yang, S. Y., Tegoli, J., Berger, R. & Dupont, B. (1978): Chido and Rodgers blood groups are distinct antigenic components of human complement C4. Nature 273, 668–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Palsdottir, A., Arnasson, A., Fossdal, R. & Jensson, O. (1987): Gene organization of haplotypes expressing two different C4A allotypes. Hum. Genet. 76, 220–224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Partanen, J. & Campbell, R. D. (1989): Restriction fragment analysis of non-deleted complement C4 null genes suggests point mutations in C4 null alleles, but gene conversions in C4B null alleles. Immunogenetics 30, 520–523.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Partanen, J. & Koskimies, S. (1986): Human MHC class III genes, Bf, and C4. Polymorphism complotypes, and association with MHC class I genes in the Finnish population. Hum. Hered. 36, 269–275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Raum, D., Awdeh, Z., Anderson, J., Strong, L., Garandos, J., Teran, L., Giblett, E., Yunis, E. J. & Alper, C. A. (1984): Human C4 haplotypes with duplicated C4A or C4B. Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 36, 72–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Reid, K. B. M. & Porter, R. R. (1981): The proteolytic activation systems of complement. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 50, 433–464.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Reveille, J. D., Arnett, F. C., Wilson, R. W., Bias, W. B. & Mclean, R. H. (1985): Null alleles of the fourth component of complement and HLA haplotypes in familial systemic lupus erythematosus. Immunogenetics 21, 299–311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Rittner, C., Meier, E. M., Stradmann, B., Giles, C. M., Kochling, R., Mollenhauer, E. & Kreth, H. W. (1984): Partial C4 deficiency in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Immunogenetics 20, 407–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Roos, M. H., Giles, C. M., Demant, P., Mollenhauer, E. & Rittner, C. (1984): Rodgers (Rg) and Chido (Ch) determinants on human C4: characterization of two C4 B5 subtypes, one of which contains Rg and Ch determinants. J. Immunol. 133, 2634–2640.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Schneider, P. M., Caroll, M. C., Alper, C. A., Rittner, C., Whitehead, A. S., Yunis, E. J. & Colten, H. R. (1986): Polymorphism of the human complement C4 and steroid 21-hydroxylase genes. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms revealing structural deletions, homoduplications, and size variants. J. Clin. Invest. 78, 650–657.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Schneider, P. M., Stradmann-Bellinghausen, B. & Rittner, C. (1996): Genetic polymorphism of the fourth component of human complement: population study and proposal for a revised nomenclature based on genomic PCR typing of Rodgers and Chido determinants. Eur. J. Immunogenet. 23, 335–344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Who-Iuis Nomenclature Sub-Committee (1993): Revised nomenclature for human complement component C4. J. Immunol. Methods 163, 3–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Tilley, C. A., Romans, D. G. & Crookston, M. C. (1978): Localisation of Chido and Rodgers determinants to the C4d fragment of human C4. Nature 276, 713–715.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Tokunaga, K., Omoto, K., Akaza, T., Akiyama, N., Amemiya, H., Naito, S., Sasazuki, T., Satoh, H. & Juji, T. (1985): Haplotype study on C4 polymorphism in Japanese. Association with MHC alleles, complotypes, and HLA-complement haplotypes. Immunogenetics 22, 359–365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Uring-Lambert, B., Goetz, J., Tongio, M. M., Mayer, S. & Hauptmann, G. (1984): C4 haplotypes with duplications at the C4A or C4B loci: frequency and associations with BF, C2, and HLA-A, B, C., DR alleles. Tissue Antigens 24, 70–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Vergani, D., Wells, L., Larcher, V. F., Nasaruddin, B. A., Davies, E. T., Mieli-Vergani, G. & Mowat, A. P. (1985): Genetically determined low C4: a predisposing factor to autoimmune chronic active hepatitis. Lancet 2, 294–298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Yu, C. Y. & Campbell, R. D. (1987): Definitive RFLPs to distinguish between the human complement C4A/C4B isotypes and the major Rodgers/Chido determinants: application to the study of C4 null alleles. Immunogenetics 25, 383–390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Yu, C. Y. (1991): The complete exon-intron structure of a human complement component C4A gene. DNA sequences, polymorphism, and linkage to the 21-hydroxylase gene. J. Immunol. 146, 1057–1066.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Yu, C. Y., Belt, K. T., Giles, C. M., Campbell, R. D. & Porter, R. R. (1986): Structural basis of the polymorphism of human complement components C4A and C4B: gene size, reactivity, and antigenicity. EMBO J. 5, 2873–2881.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Yu, C. Y., Campbell, R. D. & Porter, R. R. (1988): A structural model for the location of the Rodgers and the Chido antigenic determinants and their correlation with the human complement component C4A/C4B isotypes. Immunogenetics 27, 399–405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helmut Schenkel-Brunner
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Medizinische BiochemieUniversität WienViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations