A Conceptual Framework for Evaluating Effects of a Virtual Tour

  • Yong-Hyun Cho
  • Daniel R. Fesenmaier
Conference paper


Tourism marketing has become increasingly segmented and specialized with the development of new styles of travel. An important focus of of this effort is “experience-oriented tourism” which emphasizes activity, events, and fantastic or exotic experiences. However, it is hard for tourists to form a clear destination image without direct experiences. With the development of Internet, tourists have become able to access interactive multimedia easily. Interactivity and multimedia are key factors to create virtual environment and provide virtual experiences. With experiential information, a virtual tourist creates his/her own unique memory and personal story which in turn enables him/her to form a more vivid and clear destination image and to reduce the uncertainty about destination.


Virtual Reality Virtual Environment Experiential Information Virtual Experience Personal Story 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Cheong, R., ‘The Virtual Threat to Travel and Tourism‘, Tourism Management, 6,1995,417–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Csikszentmihalyi, M., Beyond Boredom and Anxiety, San Francisco, CA:Jossey-Bass, 1975Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Csikszentmihalyi, M. & LeFevre, J., ‘Optimal Experience in Work and Leisure’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1989, 815–822Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Draper, J. V., Kaber, D. B. & Usher, J. M., ‘Teleprescnce’, Human Factors, 1998, 354–375Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Echtner, C. M. afg; Ritchie, J. R. B., ‘The Meaning and Measurement of Destination Image’, The Journal of Tourism Studies, 2,1991,2–12Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fakeye, P. C. afg; Crompton, J. L., ‘Image Difference between Perspective, First-time and Repeat visitors to the Lower Rio Grande Valley’, Journal of Travel Research, 2, 1991, 10–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gartner, W. C., ‘Image formation Process’, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 2/3, 1993, 191–215Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gunn, C. A, Vacation scape: Designing Tourist Regions, Austin:Bureau of Business Research, University of Texas, 1972Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hoffman, D. L. & Novak, T. P., ‘Marketing in Hypermedia Computer’Mediated Environments: Conceptual Foundations’, Journal of Marketing, July, 1996, 50–68Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Leigh, J. H., ‘Information Processing Differences among Broadcast Media: Review and Suggestions for Research‘, Journal of Advertising, June, 1991, 71–75Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nelson, P. J., ‘Information and Consumer Behavior’, Journal of Political Economy, 2, 1970, 311–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pearce, P. L., The Ulysses Factor: Evaluating visitors in tourist settings, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1988Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Russell, J. A & Pratt, G., ‘A Description of Affective Quality Attributed to Environment’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2, 1980, 311–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sheridan, T. B., ‘Musings on Telepresence and Virtual Presence’, Presence, 1992, 120–126Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Slater, M. & Usoh, M., ‘Representation Systems, Perceptual Position, and Presence in Immersive Virtual Environments’, Presence, 1993, 221–233Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stebbins, R. A, Serious Leisure: A Conceptual Statement, Pacific Sociology Review, 1982, 251–272Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Smith, R. E. & Buchholz, L. M., ‘Multiple Resource Theory and Consumer Processing of Broadcast Advertisements: An Involvement Perspective’, Journal of Advertising, September, 1991, 1–7Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Steuer, J., ‘Defining Virtual Reality: Dimensions Determining Telepresence’, Journal of Communications, 1992, 73–93Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stigler, G. J., ‘The Economics of Information’, Journal of Political Economics, June, 1961, 213–225Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ramarapu, N. K., Frolick, M. N., Wilkes, R. B., & Wetherbe. J. C., ‘The Emergence of Hypertext and Problem Solving: an Experimental Investigation of Accessing and Using Information from Linear versus Nonlinear Systems’, Decision Sciences, Fall, 1997, 825–849Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Um, S. & Crompton, J., ‘Attitudes Determinants in Tourism Destination Choice’, Annals of Tourism Research, 1990, 432–448Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Vogt, C. A & Fesenmaier, D. R., ‘Expanding the Functional Information Search Model’, Annals of Tourism Research, 3, 1998, 551–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Woodside, A.G. & Lysonski, S. ‘A General Model of Traveller Destination Choice’, Journal of Travel Research, 4,1989,8–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zeithaml, V. A, ‘Consumer Perception of Price’, Journal of Marketing, July, 1988, 2–22Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yong-Hyun Cho
    • 1
  • Daniel R. Fesenmaier
    • 1
  1. 1.National Laboratory for Tourism and ℯCommerceUniversity of IllinoisUrbana-ChampaignUSA

Personalised recommendations