Optic-spinal form of multiple sclerosis and immune-mediated myelopathy in Japan
Optic-spinal form of multiple sclerosis (OS-MS) and HTLV-I associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) are two immune-mediated myelopathy relatively common in Japan. (1) Transverse myelitis, once seen in 60% of MS, mostly OS-MS, 30 years ago, drastically decreased (5%) recently in Japan. In contrast, frequency of conventional form of MS (C-MS) increased during this period of time. But unlike C-MS in white patients, cerebellar hemispheric lesions are uncommon in Japanese C-MS. These findings emphasize infiuence of changes in exogenous factors on manifestations of MS and distinct genetic factors related to MS in Japanese and white patients. (2) To clarify the reason of high HTLV-I proviral load in HAM/TSP, we studied cellular immune surveillance against HTLV-I and found that significant cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity, and suppressed natural killer activity and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in the patients. These altered immune surveillance may be associated with the spread of HTLV-I infection and the pathogenesis of HAM/TSP.
KeywordsMultiple Sclerosis Spastic Paraparesis Transverse Myelitis Tropical Spastic Paraparesis Acute Transverse Myelopathy
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