Cytokines in Parkinson’s disease

  • T. Nagatsu
  • M. Mogi
  • H. Ichinose
  • A. Togari
Conference paper


We found that in Parkinson’s disease (PD) the levels of various cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor (TGF)-α, TGF-β1] were significantly increased in the striatum (caudate and putamen) of the postmortem brain and in ventricular or spinal cerebrospinal fluid (VCSF, LCSF). Furthermore, the levels of the apoptosis-related proteins such as bcl-2 and soluble Fas (sFas) in the striatum were also elevated in PD. In 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated parkinsonism mice, the levels of IL-1β in the striatum were significantly increased, but those of nerve growth factor (NGF) were significantly decreased, compared with control mice. In hemiparkinsonism rats produced by injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into one side of the median forebrain bundle, the levels of TNF-α in the 6-OHDA-treated side were increased in the striatum and substantia nigra, but not in the cerebral cortex, compared with those in the control side. Repeated administration of L-DOPA in the 6-OHDA-treated rats did not change the TNF-α levels in the control side and in the 6-OHDA-treated side in the substantia nigra, striatum, and cerebral cortex.

Our results suggest that the changes in the levels of cytokines, neurotrophins, and apoptosis-related proteins in the nigrostriatal regions of PD may be involved in apoptosis and degeneration of the nigrostriatal DA neurons.


Nerve Growth Factor Substantia Nigra Median Forebrain Bundle Control Side Nerve Growth Factor Level 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Nagatsu
    • 1
  • M. Mogi
    • 2
  • H. Ichinose
    • 1
  • A. Togari
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for Comprehensive Medical ScienceFujita Health UniversityToyoake, AichiJapan
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacology School of DensityAichi-Gakuin UniversityNagoyaJapan

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