Advertisement

Use of varicella vaccines to prevent herpes zoster in older individuals

  • M. J. Levin

Summary

It is likely that the frequency and severity of herpes zoster in older people is the result of an age-related decline in varicella-zoster virus-specific T-cell mediated immunity. Numerous trials of vaccines to boost these responses have demonstrated their safety and immunogenicity. Both live attenuated and inactivated vaccines have been studied. Persistence of booster responses is dose-related, and the half-life of some boosted measures of T-cell mediated immunity exceeds 5 years. Although these trials have been hampered by uncertainty about the critical immune responses to evaluate, the stage is set for a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of sufficient size to determine efficacy. Such a trial is now underway.

Keywords

Herpes Zoster Varicella Vaccine Bone Marrow Transplant Recipient Lymphocyte Proliferation Assay Booster Response 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Arvin AA, Koropchak CM, Wittek AE (1993) Immunologic evidence of reinfection with varicella-zoster virus. J Infect Dis 148: 200–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Asano Y, Suga S, Yoshikawa T, Kobayashi I, Yazaki T, Shibata M, Tsuzuki K, Ito S (1994) Experience and reason: Twenty-year follow-up of protective immunity of the Oka strain live varicella vaccine. Pediatrics 94: 524–526PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Berger R, Amstutz I, Just M, Just V, Luescher D (1985) Booster vaccination of healthy adults with VZV antibody but without a VZV-specific cell-mediated immune response. Antiviral Res [Suppl] 1: 267–271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Berger R, Florent G, Just M (1981) Decrease of the lymphoproliferative response to varicella-zoster virus antigen in the aged. Infect Immun 32: 24–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Berger R, Luescher D, Just M (1984) Enhancement of varicella-zoster-specific immune responses in the elderly by boosting with varicella vaccine. J Infect Dis 149: 647–648PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Berger R, Luescher D, Just M (1985) Restoration of varicella-zoster virus cell-mediated immune response after varicella booster vaccination. Postgrad Med J Postgrad Med J: 61: 143–145Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Berger R, Trannoy E, Hollander G, Bailleux F, Rudin C, Creusvaux H (1998) A dose-response study of live attenuated varicella-zoster virus (Oka strain) vaccine administered to adults 55 years of age and older. J Infect Dis 178 [Suppl 1]: S99—S103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Burke BL, Steele RW, Beard OW (1982) Immune responses to varicella-zoster in the aged. Arch Intern Med: 142: 291–293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Derryck A, LaRussa P, Steinberg S, Capasso M, Pitt J, Gershon AA (1998) Varicella and zoster in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Ped Infect Dis J 17: 931–933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dolin R, Reichman RC, Mazur MH, Whitely RJ (1978) Herpes zoster-varicella infections in immunosuppressed patients. Ann Intern Med 89: 375–388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Donahue JG, Choo PW, Manson JE, Platt R (1995) The incidence of herpes zoster. Arch Intern Med 155: 1605–1609PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gershon AA, Steinberg SP (1981) Antibody responses to varicella-zoster virus and the role of antibody in host defense. Am J Med Sci 282: 12–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gershon AA, Steinberg, NIAID Varicella Vaccine Collaborative Study Group (1990) Live attenuated varicella vaccine: protection in healthy adults compared with leukemic children. J Infect Dis 161: 661–666PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hata S (1980) Skin test with varicella-zoster virus antigen on herpes zoster patients. Arch Dermatol Res 268: 65–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hayakawa Y, Torigoe S, Shiraki K, Yamanishi K, Takahashi M (1984) Biologic and biophysical markers of a live varicella vaccine strain (Oka): identification of clinical isolates from vaccine recipients. J Infect Dis 149: 956–963PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hayward A, Levin MJ, Wolf W, Angelova G, Gildend (1991) Varicella-zoster virus-specific immunity after herpes zoster. J Infect Dis 163: 873–875PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hayward AR, Buda K, Jones M, White CJ, Levin MJ (1996) VZV specific cytotoxicity following secondary immunization with live or killed vaccine. Clin Immunol 9: 241–245Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hayward AR, Buda K, Levin MJ (1994) Immune response to secondary immunization with live or inactivated VZV vaccine in elderly adults. Viral Immunol 7: 31–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hayward AR, Giller R, Levin MJ (1989) Phenotype, cytotoxic and helper functions of T cells from varicella zoster stimulated cultures of human lymphocytes. Viral Immunol 2: 175–184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hayward AR, Pontesilli O, Herberger, Laszlo M, Levin M (1986) Specific lysis of VZV infected B lymphoblasts by human T cells. J Virol 65: 179–184Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hope-Simpson RE (1965) The nature of herpes zoster: a long-term study and a new hypothesis. Proc R Soc Med 58: 9–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kawasaki H, Takayama J, Ohira M (1996) Herpes zoster infection after bone marrow transplantation in children. J Pediatr 128: 353–356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Krause PR, Klinman DM (1995) Efficacy, immunogenicity, safety, and use of live attenuated chickenpox vaccine. J Pediatr 127: 518–525PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Levin MJ, Hayward AR (1996) Prevention of herpes zoster. Infect Dis Clin North Am 10: 657–675PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Levin MJ, Barber D, Goldblatt E, Jones M, La Fleur B, Chan C, Stinson D, Zerbe GO, Hayward AR (1998) Use of live attenuated varicella vaccine to boost varicella-specific immune responses in seropositive people 55 years of age and older: Duration of booster effect. J Infect Dis 178 [Suppl 1]: S109—S112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 25a.
    Levine MJ, Ellison MC, Zerbe GO, Barber D, Chan C, Stinson D, Jones M, Hayward AR (2000) Comparison of a live attenuated and an inactivated varicella vaccine to boost the varicella-specific immune response in seropositive people 55 years of age and older. Vaccine 18: 2915–2920PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 26.
    Lieu TA, Black SB, Rieser N, Ray P, Lewis EM, Shinefield HR (1994) The cost of childhood chickenpox: parents’ perspective. Pediatr Infect Dis J 13: 173–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 27.
    Ljungman R, Lonnqvist B, Gahrton G, Ringden O, Sundqvist V-A, Wahren B (1986) Clinical and subclinical reactivations of varicella-zoster virus in immunocompromised patients. J Infect Dis 153: 840–847PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 28.
    Miller AE (1980) Selective decline in cellular immune response to varicella-zoster in the elderly. Neurology 30: 582–587PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 29.
    Ragozzino MW, Melton LJ III, Kurland LT, Chu CP, Perry HO (1982) Population-based study of herpes zoster and its sequelae. Medicine 61: 310–316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 30.
    Redman RL, Nader S, Zerboni L, Liu C, Wong RM, Brown BW, Arvin AM (1997) Early reconstitution of immunity and decreased severity of herpes zoster in bone marrow transplant recipients immunized with inactivated varicella vaccine. J Infect Dis 176: 578–585PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 31.
    Rogers RS III, Tindall JP (1971) Geriatric herpes zoster. J Am Geriar Soc 19: 495–504Google Scholar
  33. 32.
    Somekh E, Levin, MJ (1993) Identification of human dorsal root neurons with wild type varicella virus and the Oka strain varicella vaccine. J Med Virol 40: 241–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 33.
    Sperber SJ, Smith BV, Hayden FG (1992) Serologic response and reactogenicity to booster immunization of healthy seropositive adults with live or inactivated varicella vaccine. Antiviral Res 17: 214–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 34.
    Starr SE, Tinklepaugh C, Bocks E, Miller D, Rudenstein M, Plotkin SA (1987) Immunization of healthy seropositive middle aged and elderly adults with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) vaccine. (abstract no. 1237). In Programs and Abstracts of the Twenty-Seventh Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, New York, p 313Google Scholar
  36. 35.
    Yawn BP, Yawn RA, Lydick E (1997) Community impact of childhood varicella infections. J Pediatr 130: 759–765PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 36.
    Zhang Y, Cosyns M, Levin MJ, Hayward AR (1994) Cytokine production in varicella zoster virus stimulated limiting dilution lymphocyte cultures. Clin Exp Immunol 98: 128–133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. J. Levin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Infectious DiseasesUniversity of Colorado School of MedicineDenverUSA

Personalised recommendations