Advertisement

Defining Internet Readiness for the Tourism Industry: Concepts and Case Study

  • U. Gretzel
  • D. R. Fesenmaier

Abstract

Integrating emerging technologies into the organizational fabric is a prerequisite for capturing the full benefits of the new tourism e-economy. However, most tourism organizations are still struggling with the adoption of Internet technologies and are far from reaching a stage of highly effective technology use. This paper proposes a measurement model of Internet Readiness that incorporates the concepts of stages of effective technology use and organizational capacity to change. A case study conducted among American convention and visitors bureaus serves as a first empirical test of the model and provides management implications as well as directions for future research.

Keywords

Knowledge Management Change Management Technology Adoption Intellectual Capital Tourism Industry 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams, C., Adams, B. (1995) The birth of transformation. Executive Excellence 12(12): 15Google Scholar
  2. Arthur Andersen Consulting (2000) Survey of small and mid-sized businesses. Trends for 2000. http://www.arthurandersen.com/resource2.nsf/ AssetsByDescription/SSMB 2000EnterpriseGroup/$file/SSMB_2000.pdfGoogle Scholar
  3. Baker, M., Sussmann, S., Welch, S. (1999) Information Technology management. In: Brotherton B. (ed.) The Handbook of Contemporary Hospitality Management Research. John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 397–413Google Scholar
  4. Breuer, J. E. (1989) Orchestrating Culture Shock: What Happens When Companies Must Change. Inform 3(4): 11,46Google Scholar
  5. Bruce, B. C., Rubin, A (1993) Electronic Quills: A Situated Evaluation of Using Computers for Writing in Classrooms. http://www.lis.uiuc.edu/~chip/pubs/Equills/intro.shtmlGoogle Scholar
  6. Brynjolfsson, E. (1993) The Productivity Paradox of Information Technology. Communications of the ACM 36(12): 67–77Google Scholar
  7. Burt, R. S. (1998) The Network Structure of Social Capital. University of Chicago (unpublished)Google Scholar
  8. Contractor, N. S., Wasserman, S., Faust, K. (1999) Testing multi-level, multi-theoretical hypotheses about networks in 21 st century organizational forms: An analytic framework and empirical example. http://www.spcomm.uiuc.edu:1000/contractor/pstarpaper.htmlGoogle Scholar
  9. Contractor, N. S., Stohl, C., Monge, P., Flanagin, A, Fulk, J. (2000) Communication in the Global Workplace: Advanced E-Quad Collaboration Tools to Support Multi-University Cooperative Learning and Teaching. Working paper, University of IllinoisGoogle Scholar
  10. Davis, S., Meyer, C. (1998) It’s all a blur. Executive Excellence 15(9): 11–12Google Scholar
  11. Day, G. S. (1998) Organizing for Interactivity. J Interactive Marketing 12(1): 47–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. DeLisi, P. S. (1990) Lessons from the Steel Axe: Culture, Technology, and Organizational Change. Sloan Management Review 32(1): 83–93Google Scholar
  13. Denison, D. R. (1990) Corporate Culture and Organizational Effectiveness. John Wiley & Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Dun & Bradstreet (2000) D&B study shows seven out of 10 U.S. small businesses now have Internet access. http://www.dnb.com/newsview/0500news8.htmGoogle Scholar
  15. Drucker, P. F., Dyson, E., Handy, C., Saffo, P., Senge, P. M. (1997) Looking Ahead: Implications of the Present. Harvard Business Review 75(5): 18–32Google Scholar
  16. Evans, P., Wurster, T. S. (1999) Blown to Bits. Harvard Business School Press, Boston, MAGoogle Scholar
  17. Fesenmaier, D. R, Leppers, A. W., O’Leary, J. T. (1999) Developing a knowledge-based tourism marketing information system. Information Technology in Tourism 2(1): 31–44Google Scholar
  18. Finerry, T. (1997) Evolutionary thinking about business change. People Management 3(20): 60Google Scholar
  19. Forrester (2000) The eBusiness Voyage. http://www.forrester.comGoogle Scholar
  20. Garvin, D. A. (1998) Building a Learning Organization. Harvard Business Review on Knowledge Management. Harvard Business School Press, Boston, MAGoogle Scholar
  21. Greengard, S. (1998) Will your culture support KM? Workforce 77(10): 93–94Google Scholar
  22. Gretzel, U., Fesenmaier, D. R (2000) Assessing the Capaciry of American Convention and Visitors Bureaus to Effectively Use Internet Technologies — A Pilot Study. National Laboratory for Tourism and eCommerce. Universiry of Illinois, Urbana-ChampaignGoogle Scholar
  23. Gretzel, U., Yuan, Y., Fesenmaier, D. R. (2000) Preparing for the new economy: Advertising and change in destination marketing organizations. J Travel Research 39(2): 146–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hackman, M. Z., Johnson, C. E. (1996) Leadership — A communication perspective, 2nd edn. Waveland Press, Prospect Heights, ILGoogle Scholar
  25. Hanson, W. (2000) Principles of Internet Marketing. South-Western College Publishing, Cincinnati, OhioGoogle Scholar
  26. Hartman, A., Sifonis, J. (2000) Net ready. Strategies for success in the E-conomy. McGrawHill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Hassard, J., Sharifi, S. (1989) Corporate Culture and Strategic Change. J General Management 15(2): 4–19Google Scholar
  28. Huffington, C., Cole, C. F., Brunning, H. (1997) A manual of organizational development: The psychology of change. Psychological Press/International Universities Press, Madison, CTGoogle Scholar
  29. Kanter, R. M. (1998) Change-adept organizations. Executive Excellence 15(8): 4Google Scholar
  30. Lewis, B. (1998) Managing change is not enough: You must create a culture that embraces it. InfoWorld 20(45): 105Google Scholar
  31. Linder, J. C. (1985) Computers, Corporate Culture and Change. Personnel J 64(9): 49–55Google Scholar
  32. Mackiewicz, A. (1994) The successful corporation of the year 2000. The Economist Intelligence Unit, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  33. Madnick, S. E. (1987) Perspectives on the Effective Use, Planning, and Impact ofInformation Technology. In: Madnick, S. E. (ed.) The Strategic Use of Information Technology. Oxford Universiry Press, New York, pp. 3–14Google Scholar
  34. Mariotti, J. L. (1997) Continuous change. Executive Excellence 14(10): 8Google Scholar
  35. Markus, M. L., Benjamin, R.I. (1997) Are you gambling on a magic bullet? Computerworld 32(42): C1–C11Google Scholar
  36. Modahl, M. (2000) Now or Never — How companies must change today to win the battle for Internet consumers. Harper Business, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  37. Orlikowski W. J., Yates, J., Okamura, K., Fujimoto, M. (1999) Shaping Electronic Communication: The Metastructuring of Technology in the Context of Use. In: DeSanctis, G., Fulk, J. (eds.) Shaping Organization Form: Communication, Connection, and Communiry. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 133–171Google Scholar
  38. Poon, A. ( 1993) Tourism, Technology and Competitive Strategies. CAB International, Oxon, UKGoogle Scholar
  39. Prokesch, S. E. (1997) Unleashing the Power of Learning. Harvard Business Review 75(5): 147–168Google Scholar
  40. Rossetti, D. K., DeZoort, F. A. (1989) Organizational Adaptation to Technology Innovation. Advanced Management J 54(4): 29–33Google Scholar
  41. Senge, P., Kleiner A., Roberts, C., Ross, R., Roth, G., Smith, B. (1999) The Dance of Change. Doubleday, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. Scott Morton, M. S. (1991) The corporation of the 1990s: information technology and organizational transformation. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  43. Sheldon, P. J. (1997) Tourism Information Technology. CAB International, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  44. Shukla, M. (1997) Competing through knowledge: Building a learning organization. Response Books, New Delhi, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  45. Steck, R. N. (1993) Don’t Automate - Informate. D&B Reports 42(4): 42–43 (19)Google Scholar
  46. Thorp, J. (1998) The Information Paradox. McGraw-Hill, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  47. Timmers, P. (2000) Electronic Commerce and the e-conomy. Lecture Series “E-commerce”. Vienna University for Economics and Business Administration. http://wwwi.wuwien.ac.at/Studium/ Abschnitc2/LVA_ss00/LectureSeries.htmlGoogle Scholar
  48. Van de Ven, A. H. (1991) Managing the process of organizational innovation. Changing and Redesigning Organizations. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  49. Vandenbosch, B., Ginzberg, M. J. (1997) Lotus Notes and collaboration: Plus ça Change. J Management Information Systems 13(3): 65–81Google Scholar
  50. Venkatesh, V., Davis, F. D. (2000) A Theoretical Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model: Four Longitudinal Field Studies. Management Science 46: 186–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Waterman, R. H. (1990) Adhocracy: The Power to Change. Whittle Direct Books, Knoxville, TennGoogle Scholar
  52. Watkins, W. M. (1998) Technology and Business Strategy: Getting the Most Out of Technological Assets. Greenwood Publishing Group, Westport, ConnecticutGoogle Scholar
  53. Werthner, H., Klein, S. (1999) Information Technology and Tourism — A Challenging Relationship. Springer, Wien New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wober, K., Gretzel, U. (2000) Tourism Managers’ Adoption of Marketing Decision Support Systems. J Travel Research 39(2): 172–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Yuan, Y. Y., Fesenmaier, D. R., Xia, L., Gratzer, M. (1999) The Use ofInternet and Intranet In American Convention and Visitors Bureaus. In: Buhalis, D., Schertler, W. (eds.) Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 1999. Springer, Wien New York, pp. 365–375Google Scholar
  56. Yuan, Y. Y., Gretzel, U., Fesenmaier, D. R. (2000) Managing Innovation: The Use of Internet Technology by American Convention and Visitors Bureaus and Factors Affecting Its Implementation. University of Illinois, Working PaperGoogle Scholar
  57. Zeira, Y., Avedisian, J. (1989) Organizational Planned Change: Assessing the Chances for Success. Organizational Dynamics 17(4): 31–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • U. Gretzel
    • 1
  • D. R. Fesenmaier
    • 1
  1. 1.National Laboratory for Tourism and E-CommerceUniversity of IllinoisUrbana ChampaignUSA

Personalised recommendations