The Beginning of Robotic Reconstructive Microsurgery
Plastic Surgery is known as one of the most innovative disciphnes in surgery. For example, pioneering organ transplantation (honored with “the Nobel Prize for Transplantation Surgery of 1992 to the plastic surgeon Joseph E. Murray, M.D.”), reconstructive microsurgery, or recently tissue engineering. During the last 10 years several new technologies influenced plastic surgery, such as endoscopy, ultrasound, and lasers. The use of robotics first became popular in manufacturing industries, but the technological development was originally designed for the apphcation of robotics in space for NASA. Recently, heart surgeons reported robotic assisted heart by-passes by using robotic arms with 4 and 6 degree of motion in patients. This technological achievement inspired this study to evaluate the use of robotics in plastic, reconstructive and aesthetic surgery. Looking back to the first introduction of robotics into surgery, the influence of the endoscope is significant. Surgeons were looking for an instrument to hold the scope during laparoscopic surgery, consequently the need for robotic assistance was born. A one-armed robot become popular and prepared the way for a three-armed computer controlled robot. In this three-armed robot, one arm holds the scope and the other two performed the endoscopic microsurgical anastomosis. In addition to this development in medical robotics, improved images from digital 3D endoscopes have united 3D endoscopy with robotic microsurgery.
KeywordsPlastic Surgery Plastic Surgeon Robotic Assistance Aesthetic Surgery Maxillofacial Surgeon
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