Video-Assisted Application of “Epineurial” Electrodes for Functional Electrical Stimulation
During the last decades great progress has been made in Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES). Basic research on stimulated nerves and muscles led to several clinical applications. Treatment of ventilatory insufficiency using a phrenic pace-maker is more than thirty years old and meanwhile the state of the art for distinct indications (Glenn 1986, Fodstad 1992, Creasy 1996, Girsch 1996). Long-term cardiac assistance is derived from stimulated muscles using different techniques. Cardiomyoplasty has been performed in several hundred clinical cases (Chiu 1991, Carpentier 1993). Aortomyoplasty was intro-duced in clinical practice recently (Chachques 1996). Graciloplasty for treatment of anal incontinence is on its way to routine clinical use (Seccia 1994, Baeten 1995).
KeywordsPhrenic Nerve Anal Incontinence Functional Electrical Stimulation Microsurgical Technique Latissimus Dorsi Muscle
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