The History of Endoscopy in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery up to Video Assisted Microsurgery

  • P. Giovanoli
  • M. Frey
Part of the Update in Plastic Surgery book series (UPDATEPLASTIC)


The beginnings of endoscopy go back to the 4th century BC in Greece. Even at that early date, Hippocrates (460–375 BC) examined the rectum using a speculum to inspect the affected area.


Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Carpal Tunnel Breast Augmentation Orbital Decompression Wrist Arthroscopy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer-Verlag Wien 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Giovanoli
  • M. Frey

There are no affiliations available

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