“Non-classical” activities of estrogen
It has been repeatedly mentioned that steroid hormones modulate gene transcription through cognate intracellular receptors, which is defined as the “classical” mechanism. The induction or repression of gene expression cause a long-term genetic and, ultimately, physiological response. The response is not immediate but delayed. Experimentally, this complex process of steroid-induced gene transcription can be blocked at different stages. To do so, mostly steroid receptor antagonists are applied that prevent the binding of the natural ligand. Frequently, also compounds are used that inhibit processes more downstream such as transcription of the ER-specific mRNA or translation of the mRNA into protein. Actinomycin D and cycloheximide are frequently used in cell culture experiments to inhibit the latter processes. These series of events are called “classical”, genomic, or delayed since the response takes some time due to the protein syntheis occurring in the cell (transcription and translation).
KeywordsReactive Oxygen Species Nitric Oxide Carbohydrate Side Chain Main Reactive Oxygen Species Lipophilic Tail
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