Bipolar Disorder and Family Psychoeducational Treatment: A Comparison of One-Year Effects Using Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance and Random Regression Models

  • Jeffrey A. Richards
  • David J. Miklowitz


Bipolar disorder manifests over time in a recurrent or episodic manner. Symptoms progress and recede in fluctuating patterns of frequency, severity and duration, as well as shifts in mood valence (Goldberg et al., 1995). Investigators interested in describing bipolar disorder longitudinally, particularly those assessing outcome in treatment efficacy research, must determine how best to capture these fluctuations (Coryell and Winokur, 1992). One may conceptualize the course of the disorder in various ways, each of which carries strengths and weaknesses. One common approach is to address symptom severity, which is assessed at select time points, and measure change from baseline to a specific time (e.g., percentage decrease at 12 months) or across select time points. Others have focused on understanding the bipolar symptom course in terms of events. For example, Frank et al. (1991) proposed operational criteria for the course event descriptors remission, recovery, relapse, and recurrence based on symptomatic variation in severity and duration. Thus, treatment efficacy may be shown by establishing a longer time to relapse or shorter time to remission, by comparing duration of time spent in a symptomatic state, or simply by counting the number of episodes occurring during a follow-up period.


Bipolar Disorder Crisis Management Bipolar Patient Bipolar Affective Disorder Random Regression 
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© Springer-Verlag Wien 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffrey A. Richards
  • David J. Miklowitz

There are no affiliations available

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