Deep Brain Stimulation of the Globus Pallidus Internus (GPI) for Torsion Dystonia — A Report of two Cases
Generalized dystonia is known as a type of movement disorder in which pharmacotherapeutic options are very limited. Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is well established for Parkinson’s disease (PD) and tremor dominant movement disorders. We report on two cases of generalized dystonia which were successfully treated by chronic high frequency stimulation in the Globus pallidus internus (GPI).Two 26 and 27 years old males suffered from severe torsion dystonia and multisegmental dystonia of the lower limbs. Case 1 is a familiar type of dystonia (DYT1 positive). The onset of symptoms in both cases was at age 7. The complaints were initially treated with orally administered benzodiazepines, anticholinergic drugs, later by baclofen and L-DOPA. However there was no response. Case 2 was a patient with a history of left side dominated dystonia since the age of 8. It was first diagnozed as a psychogenic movement disorder. Prior to surgery he was treated with L-DOPA, anticholinergics, Baclofen without any effect. There was only a limited effect on high doses of diazepam. The patient is DYT1 negative.
KeywordsDeep Brain Stimulation Movement Disorder Cervical Dystonia Generalize Dystonia Secondary Dystonia
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