A Server-based Interactive Remote Walkthrough

  • Daniel Cohen-Or
  • Yuval Noimark
  • Tali Zvi
Part of the Eurographics book series (EUROGRAPH)


This paper presents a server-based remote walkthrough system. The client is assumed to be a thin client, like a handset or a mobile device, with no strong processor but with some embedded video chip. The server holds the large environment, generates the frames, encodes and transmits them to the client. The encoded frames are transmitted as a video stream to the client, which then decodes the stream and displays it. We show how the computer generated frames can be efficiently encoded using layering techniques to yield a lighter stream, which enables its transmission over narrow bandwidth channels and minimizes the communication latency. To enable the interactivity of the system, the rendering engine generates the frames in real-time according to the client input, and feeds the frames to an accelerated video encoder based on the available optical flow.


Optical Flow Motion Vector Motion Estimation Foreground Object Video Object 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    Information Technology — Coding of Audio-Visual Objects — Part2: Visual. ISO/IEC 14496-2, Dec. 1999.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Overview of the MPEG-4 Standard (ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 N3747). Oct. 2000.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    D. G. Aliaga and A. A. Lastra. Architectural walkthroughs using portal textures. In R. Yagel and H. Hagen, editors, IEEE Visualization ’97, pages 355–362, Nov. 1997.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    M. Budagavi, W. Rabiner, J. Webb, and R. Talluri. Wireless mpeg-4 video on texas instruments dsp chips. In Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 1999. Proceedings., 1999 IEEE International Conference on, volume 4, pages 2223–2226, 1999.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    D. Cohen-Or, Y. Mann, and S. Fleishman. Deep compression for streaming texture intensive animations. In Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, pages 261–268, Aug. 1999.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    T. A. Funkhouser and C. H. Séquin. Adaptive display algorithm for interactive frame rates during visualization of complex virtual environments. In Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, pages 247–254, Aug. 1993.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    G. Hesina and D. Schmalstieg. A network architecture for remote rendering. In A. Boukerche and P. Reynolds, editors, Proceedings of Second International Workshop on Distributed Interactive Simulation and Real-Time Applications, pages 88–91, July 1998.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    H. Huang, W. Lin, Y. Hung, and C. Fuh. New video object segmentation technique based on flow-thread features for mpeg-4 and multimedia systems. In Image and Video Communications and Processing 2000, pages 204–212, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    A. kHI RN, O. Au, and M. Liou. Fast motion estimation using circular zonal search, 1999.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    H.-J. Lee, T. Chiang, and Y.-Q. Zhang. Scalable rate control for very low bit tate (vlbr) video. In Proceedings of the 1997 International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP ’97), volume 3, 1997.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    M. Levoy. Polygon-assisted jpeg and mpeg compression of synthetic images. Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 95, pages 21–28, August 1995. ISBN 0-201-84776-0. Held in Los Angeles, California.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    R. Li, B. Zeng, and M. Liou. A new three-step search algorithm for fast motion estimation. IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol., 4:438–442, 1994.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    M. R. Macedonia, D. P. Brutzmann, M.J. Zyda, D. R. Pratt, P. T. Barham, J. Falby, and J. Locke. NPSNET: A multi-player 3D virtual environment over the internet. In P. Hanrahan and J. Winget, editors, 1995 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics, pages 93–94. ACM SIGGRAPH, Apr. 1995.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    P. W. C. Maciel and P. Shirley. Visual navigation of large environments using textured clusters. In 1995 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics, pages 95–102, Apr. 1995.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Y. Mann and D. Cohen-Or. Selective pixel transmission for navigating in remote virtual environments. Computer Graphics Forum, 16(3): 201–206, August 1997.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    T. Nishikawa, M. Takahashi, M. Hamada, T. Takayanagi, H. Arakida, N. Machida, H. Yamamoto, T. Fujiyoshi, Y. Maisumoto, O. Yamagishi, T. Samata, A. Asano, T. Terazawa, K. Ohmori, J. Shirakura, Y. Watanabe, H. Nakamura, and S. Minami. A 60 mhz 240 mw mpeg-4 video-phone lsi with 16 mb embedded dram. In Solid-State Circuits Conference, 2000. Digest of Technical Papers. ISSCC. 2000 IEEE International, 2000, pages 230–231, 2000.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    G. Schaufler and W. Stürzlinger. A three dimensional image cache for virtual reality. Computer Graphics Forum, 15(3): 227–236, August 1996.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    J. Shade, D. Lischinski, D. H. Salesin, T. DeRose, and J. Snyder. Hierarchical image caching for accelerated walkthroughs of complex environments. In Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, pages 75–82, 1996.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    H. Stolberg, M. Berekovic, P. Pirsch, H. Runge, H. Moller, and J. Kneip. The m-pire mpeg-4 codec dsp and its macroblock engine. In Circuits and Systems, 2000. Proceedings. ISCAS 2000 Geneva. The 2000 IEEE Intemational Symposium on, volume 2, pages 192–195, 2000.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    E. Teler and D. Lischinski. Streaming of complex 3d scenes for remote walkthroughs. to appear in Compider Graphics Forum (Proceedings of Eurographics 2001), 2001.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    K. Vaithianathan and S. Panchanathan. Analysis of object segmentation methods for vop generation in mpeg-4. In Image and Video Communications and Processing 2000, pages 191–203, 2000.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    D. S. Wallach, S. Kunapalli, and M. F. Cohen. Accelerated mpeg compression of dynamic polygonal scenes. Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 94, pages 193–197, July 1994. ISBN 0-89791-667-0. Held in Orlando, Florida.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    I. Yoon and U. Neumann. Web-based remote rendering with ibrac (image-based rendering acceleration and compression). Computer Graphics Forum, 19(3): 321–330, August 2000.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Cohen-Or
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yuval Noimark
    • 3
  • Tali Zvi
    • 1
  1. 1.Enbaya Ltd.Israel
  2. 2.Computer Science DepartmentTel-Aviv UniversityIsrael
  3. 3.IBM Research Lab in HaifaIsrael

Personalised recommendations