Tunnelling plays an important role in the construction industry. Great challenges await us in the new millennium. For example the construction of tunnels through the Alps in order to allow the environmentally friendly transport of goods from the northern to the southern part of Europe involve high overburdens and difficult ground conditions. The planned City of Tomorrow will involve underground space for the transport of people and goods as well as for housing. Some very large projects which are in the concept stage are a tunnel through the Andes in South America with extremely challenging ground conditions and undersea tunnel projects to connect Korea and Japan and Russia and America. In addition there will be increased use of underground space for the disposal of hazardous and nuclear waste.
KeywordsTunnel Face Underground Space Jointed Rock Mass Tunnel Construction Exploration Drilling
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