Extended Endoscopic Approaches to the Skull Base

  • P. Castelnuovo
  • D. Locatelli
  • S. Mauri
  • F. De Bernardi


In order for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks to occur it is necessary that there be a communication between the subarachnoid space and the nose. This may result from a bone defect, a tear of the dura and arachnoid, plus apressure gradient. The first comprehensive description of a CSF leak appears to be referred to by a surgeon, Charles Miller, who described a child with hydrocephalus in 1826 [11]. Subsequently in 1884 Chiari demonstrated a connection between a pneumatocele in the frontal lobes and the ethmoid sinus, introducing a dear etiopathogenetic correlation [4].


Sphenoid Sinus Frontal Sinus Middle Turbinate Cribriform Plate Nasal Fossa 
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© Springer-Verlag Wien 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Castelnuovo
  • D. Locatelli
  • S. Mauri
  • F. De Bernardi

There are no affiliations available

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